• Title, Summary, Keyword: compassion

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Ethnography of Caring Experience for the Senile Dementia (노인성 치매 환자의 돌봄경험에 대한 문화기술지)

  • 김귀분;이경희
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.1047-1059
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    • 1998
  • Senile Dementia is one of the dispositional mental disorder which has been known to the world since Hippocratic age. It has become a wide-spread social problem all over the world because of chronic disease processes and the demands of dependent care for several years as well as improbability of treatment of it at the causal level. Essentially, life styles of the older generation differ from those of the younger generation. While the fomer is used to the patriarchal system and the spirit of filial piet and respect, the latter is pragmatized and individualized under the effects of the Western material civilization. These differences between the two generations cause conflict between family members. In particular, the pain and conflict of care-givers who take care of a totally dependent dementia patient not only is inciting to the collapse of the family union, but is expanding into a serious social problem. According to this practical difficulty, this study has tried to compare dementia care-givers' experiences inter-culturally and to help set up more proper nursing interventions, describing and explaining them through ethnographies by participant observation and in-depth interviews that enable seeing them in a more close, honest and certain way. It also tries to provide a theoetical model of nusing care for dementia patients which is proper to Korean culture. This study is composed of 12 participants (4 males, 8 females) whose ages range from 37-71 years. The relations of patients are 5 spouses(3 husbands, 2 wives), 4 daughters-in-law, 2 daughters, and 1 son-in-law. The following are the care-givers' meaning of experiences that results of the study shows. The first is "psychological conflict". It contains the minds of getting angry, reproaching, being driven to dispair, blaming oneself, giving up lives, and being afraid, hopeless, and resigned. The second is "physical, social and psychological pressure" . At this stage, care-givers are shown to be under stress of both body and soul for the lack of freedom and tiredness. They also feel constraint because they hardly cope with the care and live through others' eyes. The third is "isolation". It makes the relationship of patient care-giver to be estranged, without understanding each other. They, also, experience indifference such as being upset and left alone. The forth is "acceptance" They gradually have compassion, bear up and then adapt themselves to the circumstances they are in. The fifth is "love". Now they learn to reward the other with love. It is also shown that this stage contains the process of winning others' recognition. The final is "hope". In this stage they really want situations to go smoothly and hope everything will be O.K. These consequences enable us to summarize the principles of cue experience such as, in the early stage, negative response such as physical·psychological confusion, pain and conflict are primary. Then the stage of acceptance emerges. It is an initial positive response phase when care-givers may admit their situations. As time passes by a positive response stage emerges. At last they have love and hope. Three stages we noted above : however, there are never consistent situations. Rather it gradually comes into the stage of acceptance, repeating continuous conflict, pressure and isolation. If any interest and understanding of families or the support of surrounding society lack, it will again be converted to negative responses sooner or later. Otherwise, positive responses like hope and love can be encouraged if the family and the surroundings give active aids and understanding. After all, the principles of dementia care experiences neither stay at any stage, nor develop from negative stages to positive stages steadily. They are cycling systems in which negative responses and positive responses are constantly being converted. I would like to suggest the following based on the above conclusions : First, the systematic and planned education of dementia should be performed in order to enhance public relations. Second, a special medical treatment center which deals with dementia, under government's charge, should be managed. Third, the various studies approaching dementia care experiences result in the development of more reasonable and useful nursing guidelines.

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Love and Justice are Compatible ? - In Theory of Paul Ricœur (사랑과 정의, 양립 가능한가 - 폴 리쾨르 이론을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Kyung-lae
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.52
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    • pp.53-78
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    • 2018
  • In the moral culture of the West, love and justice are two commands with roots in ancient times. One is the heritage of Hebraism, and the other belongs to the tradition of Hebraism and Hellenism. The two concepts are the most important virtues required for preserving stability in society. These two commands are compatible, in an exclusive relationship to each other. To ultimately seek their reconciliation, the precise concept analysis and understanding of each of them should be premised on, due to the multi-layered meaning of implications of the two concepts. To this end, we first have started with a lexical meaning and have done a conceptual analysis of what these two concepts are expressing. We have looked at Paul $Ric{\oe}ur$ in his interpretation of the discourse of love and justice. Finally, we looked at how these two concepts are narrated in literature. Through the literary works of Stendal, Albert Camus, and Dostoevsky, we have seen examples of literary configurations that have been embodied in life. In this way, through conceptual analysis, discourse analysis, and narrative analysis of the two concepts, the following conclusions were drawn. Love and justice were not a matter of choice. We could see coldness and unrealism of a society lacking love or with a problem of unclean love, through Stendhal's and Albert Camus' novels and their actual debate. In addition, in unclean paternalism, risk of the power of love blocking certain a certain touch of justice was also confirmed. So, it was necessary for a healthy future society to explore the possibility of the coexistence of love and justice. We confirmed the possibility of compatibility in a 'considerate balance' wherein the 'moral judgment in situation' is required, as Paul $Ric{\oe}ur$ expressed. This ideal situation may be realized when forms of love involving solidarity, mutual care, and compassion with pain like Dostoevsky are combined with the principle of distributional justice. When Albert Camus pursued justice and eventually faced reality and mentioned the need for mercy, he could have made a moral judgment based on this situation. In the end, love protects justice, and justice contributes to the realization of love. Justice reduces super-ethical love to moral categories, and love plays a role in enabling justice to exert its full force.

Tasan's Viewpoint of Human Being and Practice of Xiao (孝)·Ti(弟)·Ci(慈) (다산의 인간관과 효(孝)·제(弟)·자(慈)의 실천)

  • Jeong, Sang-bong
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
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    • no.43
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    • pp.107-139
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    • 2014
  • Tasan Chong Yak-yong has criticized Zhu Xi's metaphysical viewpoints of human being. Therefore he revealed his viewpoint of human being and the theory of moral practice through his thoughts about the Lord of Heaven and human nature with spiritual inclination toward goodness. He has drawn the Lord of Heaven into Confucianism again. Heaven as the Lord endows human being with a nature that enjoys virtues and detests vices. It watches human being's good and evil. Here we can say Heaven is a outer efficient cause of moral behavior. According to Tasan, human being has its own 'self directed weight'自主之權 so that he can make a judgment and decision about what to do. Therefore we have to do manifest this moral inclination which is a inner efficient cause of moral behavior. That is to say, we must follow the order of daoxin道心 inside our mind. If we did go against it, our mind would be uncomfortable. Now through the method of so-called shu恕 we need to put filial piety孝 fraternal respect弟 compassion慈 into practice. These three moral practices represent the spirit of reciprocity in Confucianism. These lead us to make an achievement of ren仁, representative virtue in the theory of moral practice. Our moral practice means the fulfillment of humanity. This is the way to serve Heaven. Tasan insists that theses are the core thoughts of Confucius and Mencius.

The effect of practical reasoning Home Economics instruction on morality of middle school students (실천적 추론 가정과 수업이 중학생의 도덕성에 미치는 효과)

  • 채정현;유태명;박미정;이지연
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.41 no.12
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    • pp.53-68
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to develop lesson plans and teaching materials applying practical reasoning instruction for the 7th home economics curriculum content, and to test the effect of practical reasoning instruction on morality of middle school students. This study is a quasi-experimental research with a pretest-posttest design. Practical reasoning instruction for experimental group and traditionally lecture oriented instruction for comparison group were input, and tested the statistical differences between two groups before and after the treatment. The subjects for this study were 8th grade students of a middle school located in Kwangju city. Two classes of 76 students homogeneous in characteristics and academic record for each experimental and comparison group were assigned. Instrument used for this study was a revised moral indicator, that was developed by KEDI(2001). Spss/win for 10.0 statistics program was used for analysis of data. ANCOVA was done for testing statistical difference between pretest and posttest of experiment group and comparison group. Result of study which showed statistically significant difference between groups were:1. Virtue of "responsibility for words and deeds"(from 3.22 to 3.61 for experimental group and from 3.27 to 3.26 for comparison group) in domain of responsibility and cooperation, and virtue of "punctuality"(from 3.59 to 3.76 for experimental group and from 3.41 to 3.28 for comparison group) in domain of trustworthiness, 2. Virtue of "conversation etiquette"(from 3.47 to 3.67 for experimental group and from 3.28 to 3.31 for comparison group) in domain of caring for others, 3. Virtue of "forgiveness other′s mistakes"(from 3.32 to 3.65 for experimental group and from 3.33 to 3.25 for comparison group) in domain of kindness, concession, forgiveness, and virtue of "volunteering activity"(from 2.89 to 3.71 for experimental group and from 3.36 to 3.45 for comparison group) in domain of compassion and service, 4. Virtue of "equip the convenient facility for handicapped"(from 4.19 to 4.29 for experimental group and from 4.17 to 3.91 for comparison group) in domain of equality and human rights, virtue of "recovering selfness for own community"(from 2.34 to 2.79 for experimental group and from 2.14 to 2.29 for comparison group), virtue of "opposing way of accomplishing purpose by an means"(from 3.27 to 3.31 for experimental group and from 3.47 to 3.05 for comparison group), virtue of "opposing election of considering acquaintance"(from 3.35 to 3.56 for experimental group and from 3.12 to 3.14 for comparison group) in domain of fairness, and virtue of "eradication of military force or violence among countries"(from 3.49 to 3.57 for experimental group and from 3.38 to 3.05 for comparison group) in domain of love for humanity. The morality of experimental group was improved more than that of comparison group in all of above items. From the results of this study, following conclusion was drawn. Practical reasoning instruction in home economics is effective in raising students′ virtue and value of responsibility in words and deeds, trustworthiness in punctuality, courtesy of not interrupting conversation, forgiveness of other′s mistakes, volunteering activity, equity for handicapped, fairness opposing selfness for own community, fairness opposing way of accomplishing purpose by all means, fairness opposing election of considering acquaintance, and love for humanity opposing war.

Effects of SSI Argumentation Program based on SEL for Preservice Biology Teachers (예비 생물교사를 위한 사회정서학습에 기반한 SSI 논증 프로그램 적용 효과 탐색)

  • Kim, Sun Young;Kim, Su Hyeon
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.259-271
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    • 2018
  • This study examined the effect of the SSI argumentation program based on social and emotional learning(SEL). The program consisted of 3 stages: (1) express their own feelings about SSI, identify the issues of SSI, and define a goal; (2) think of many possible solutions and envision results through argumentation; (3) select the best solution and make a decision based on warrants, data, and rebuttals. In each stage, the social-emotional strategies of self-awareness, self-management, social-awareness, relationship-management, and responsible decision making were used. Seventeen preservice biology teachers participated in this study during one semester dealing with four socioscientific issues. The results indicated that the preservice teachers, as time went on, became accustomed to expressing identifiable rebuttals, dispute talk, and asking questions. At the first SSI argumentation, argumentation mainly consisted of cumulative talk with no rebuttals, representing level 2 argumentation. Level 3 argumentation represented rebuttals that were implicit and weak, with cumulative talk. In level 2 and 3 argumentation, the preservice teachers represented understanding of others and compassion for self and others. Level 4 argumentation had rebuttals that were explicit, asking critical questions of the opposite sides. In addition, level 5 argumentation represented more than two controversial points with several instances of dispute talk. In levels 4 and 5, the preservice teachers became actively engaged in communication, inquiry self with others, managing vulnerability and negotiation.

Flipped Learning in Socioscientific Issues Instruction: Its Impact on Middle School Students' Key Competencies and Character Development as Citizens (플립러닝 기반 SSI 수업이 중학생의 과학기술 사회 시민으로서의 역량 및 인성 함양에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Donghwa;Ko, Yeonjoo;Lee, Hyunju
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.467-480
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to investigate how flipped learning-based socioscientific issue instruction (FL-SSI instruction) affected middle school students' key competencies and character development. Traditional classrooms are constrained in terms of time and resources for exploring the issues and making decision on SSI. To address these concerns, we designed and implemented an SSI instruction adopting flipped learning. Seventy-three 8th graders participated in an SSI program on four topics for over 12 class periods. Two questionnaires were used as a main data source to measure students' key competencies and character development before and after the SSI instruction. In addition, student responses and shared experience from focus group interviews after the instruction were collected and analyzed. The results indicate that the students significantly improved their key competencies and experienced character development after the SSI instruction. The students presented statistically significant improvement in the key competencies (i.e., collaboration, information and technology, critical thinking and problem-solving, and communication skills) and in two out of three factors in character and values as global citizens (social and moral compassion, and socio-scientific accountability). Interview data supports the quantitative results indicating that SSI instruction with a flipped learning strategy provided students in-depth and rich learning opportunities. The students responded that watching web-based videos prior to class enabled them to deeply understand the issue and actively engage in discussion and debate once class began. Furthermore, the resulting gains in available class time deriving from a flipped learning approach allowed the students to examine the issue from diverse perspectives.

Examining the Relationship Among Restaurant Brand Relationship Quality, Attribution, and Emotional Response After Service Failure Experience (서비스 실패 경험 후 레스토랑 브랜드 품질, 귀인 및 감정반응 관계분석)

  • Jang, Gi-Hwa;Song, Soo-Ik;Oh, Sung-Cheon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.1120-1133
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to validate the failure attribution factors affecting emotional changes after a failed service by local restaurant users, and the relapse effects of the perceived failure of a customer's brand relationship. In this study, the implications of this study can be divided into the null theory and the homogenous theory, in which the study of the relationship between individual belief that influences the null theory and the post-gender emotional response is minimal. The independence of the crash response (angerous VS compassion) has been equally validated as building a belief-gathering-emotion three-step model. First, emotional BRQ (intimate and love) has a reduction effect on controllable geeks, and behavioral BRQ (relative existence) has an extended effect on controllable geeks. From a management perspective, restaurant managers should be less aware of the repeatability of a customer's service failure and call for customer sympathy. Integratedly, restaurant managers must control the customer's perception of service failure and restore the impact of the customer's BRQ on emotional reactions. A variety of service recovery measures should be established and the cerumen should be controlled. In addition, since BRQs have different effects on anger and sympathy (extended VS), different service failure recovery plans should be presented depending on the characteristics of the customer BRQ. For example, measures such as monetary compensation or fair dealing, emotional distribution to close and loving customers, and persuasion of reciprocal benefits to interdependent customers should be developed according to circumstances. This study explored the effectiveness of the geeks after a service failure and has limitations that do not take into account the various regulatory factors in the BRQ-return-Empression process. Thus, in further studies, the effects of adjusting service failure strength should be considered and a more complete model should be built.

The evaluation for the usability ofthe Varian Standard Couch modelingusing Treatment Planning System (치료계획 시스템을 이용한 Varian Standard Couch 모델링의 유용성 평가)

  • Yang, yong mo;Song, yong min;Kim, jin man;Choi, ji min;Choi, byeung gi
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2016
  • Purpose : When a radiation treatment, there is an attenuation by Carbon Fiber Couch. In this study, we tried to evaluate the usability of the Varian Standard Couch(VSC) by modeling with Treatment Planning System (TPS) Materials and Methods : VSC was scanned by CBCT(Cone Beam Computed Tomography) of the Linac(Clinac IX, VARIAN, USA), following the three conditions of VSC, Side Rail OutGrid(SROG), Side Rail InGrid(SRIG), Side Rail In OutSpine Down Bar(SRIOS). After scan, the data was transferred to TPS and modeled by contouring Side Rail, Side Bar Upper, Side Bar Lower, Spine Down Bar automatically. We scanned the Cheese Phantom(Middelton, USA) using Computed Tomography(Light Speed RT 16, GE, USA) and transfer the data to TPS, and apply VSC modeled previously with TPS to it. Dose was measured at the isocenter of Ion Chamber(A1SL, Standard imaging, USA) in Cheese Phantom using 4 and 10 MV radiation for every $5^{\circ}$ gantry angle in a different filed size($3{\times}3cm^2$, $10{\times}10cm^2$) without any change of MU(=100), and then we compared the calculated dose and measured dose. Also we included dose at the $127^{\circ}$ in SRIG to compare the attenuation by Side Bar Upper. Results : The density of VSC by CBCT in TPS was $0.9g/cm^3$, and in the case of Spine Down Bar, it was $0.7g/cm^3$. The radiation was attenuated by 17.49%, 16.49%, 8.54%, and 7.59% at the Side Rail, Side Bar Upper, Side Bar Lower, and Spine Down Bar. For the accuracy of modeling, calculated dose and measured dose were compared. The average error was 1.13% and the maximum error was 1.98% at the $170^{\circ}beam$ crossing the Spine Down Bar. Conclusion : To evaluate the usability for the VSC modeled by TPS, the maximum error was 1.98% as a result of compassion between calculated dose and measured dose. We found out that VSC modeling helped expect the dose, so we think that it will be helpful for the more accurate treatment.

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Dedicatory Inscriptions on the Amitabha Buddha and Maitreya Bodhisattva Sculptures of Gamsansa Temple (감산사(甘山寺) 아미타불상(阿彌陁佛像)과 미륵보살상(彌勒菩薩像) 조상기(造像記)의 연구)

  • Nam, Dongsin
    • MISULJARYO - National Museum of Korea Art Journal
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    • v.98
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    • pp.22-53
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    • 2020
  • This paper analyzes the contents, characteristics, and historical significance of the dedicatory inscriptions (josanggi) on the Amitabha Buddha and the Maitreya Bodhisattva statues of Gamsansa Temple, two masterpieces of Buddhist sculpture from the Unified Silla period. In the first section, I summarize research results from the past century (divided into four periods), before presenting a new perspective and methodology that questions the pre-existing notion that the Maitreya Bodhisattva has a higher rank than the Amitabha Buddha. In the second section, through my own analysis of the dedicatory inscriptions, arrangement, and overall appearance of the two images, I assert that the Amitabha Buddha sculpture actually held a higher rank and greater significance than the Maitreya Bodhisattva sculpture. In the third section, for the first time, I provide a new interpretation of two previously undeciphered characters from the inscriptions. In addition, by comparing the sentence structures from the respective inscriptions and revising the current understanding of the author (chanja) and calligrapher (seoja), I elucidate the possible meaning of some ambiguous phrases. Finally, in the fourth section, I reexamine the content of both inscriptions, differentiating between the parts relating to the patron (josangju), the dedication (josang), and the prayers of the patrons or donors (balwon). In particular, I argue that the phrase "for my deceased parents" is not merely a general axiom, but a specific reference. To summarize, the dedicatory inscriptions can be interpreted as follows: when Kim Jiseong's parents died, they were cremated and he scattered most of their remains by the East Sea. But years later, he regretted having no physical memorial of them to which to pay his respects. Thus, in his later years, he donated his estate on Gamsan as alms and led the construction of Gamsansa Temple. He then commissioned the production of the two stone sculptures of Amitabha Buddha and Maitreya Bodhisattva for the temple, asking that they be sculpted realistically to reflect the actual appearance of his parents. Finally, he enshrined the remains of his parents in the sculptures through the hole in the back of the head (jeonghyeol). The Maitreya Bodhisattva is a standing image with a nirmanakaya, or "transformation Buddha," on the crown. As various art historians have pointed out, this iconography is virtually unprecedented among Maitreya images in East Asian Buddhist sculpture, leading some to speculate that the standing image is actually the Avalokitesvara. However, anyone who reads the dedicatory inscription can have no doubt that this image is in fact the Maitreya. To ensure that the sculpture properly embodied his mother (who wished to be reborn in Tushita Heaven with Maitreya Bodhisattva), Kim Jiseong combined the iconography of the Maitreya and Avalokitesvara (the reincarnation of compassion). Hence, Kim Jiseong's deep love for his mother motivated him to modify the conventional iconography of the Maitreya and Avalokitesvara. A similar sentiment can be found in the sculpture of Amitabha Buddha. To this day, any visitor to the temple who first looks at the sculptures from the front before reading the text on the back will be deeply touched by the filial love of Kim Jiseong, who truly cherished the memory of his parents.