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Plant Oils for Improving Thermotolerance of Beauveria bassiana

  • Kim, Jae-Su;Skinner, Margaret;Parker, Bruce L.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1348-1350
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    • 2010
  • Conidia of Beauveria bassiana ARSEF-7060, produced in millet amended with plant oils such as sunflower, corn, or cotton seed oil, were exposed to $45^{\circ}C$ of wet heat for 90 min. Conidia from millet+corn oil medium had the highest thermotolerance [$LT_{50}$ (median survival time): 45.7 min]. The mycotized millet grains were coated with each of the same plant oils as a granular formulation and subjected to $50^{\circ}C$ of dry heat for 8 h. Corn oil coating ($LT_{50}$: 8.68 h) was superior to sunflower and cotton seed oil coatings, suggesting the feasibility of using corn oil to increase conidial thermotolerance.

Feeding Value of High-oil Corn for Taiwan Country Chicken

  • Lin, Min-Jung;Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg;Chang, Shen-Chang;Croom, Jim;Fan, Yang-Kwang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1348-1354
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    • 2003
  • The feeding value of high-oil corn fed to Taiwan Country (TC) chicken was examined by measuring apparent metabolizable energy (AME), growth performance, sexual maturity, carcass characteristics, and plasma pigmentation. In a completely randomized design, 870 sex-intermingled one-wk-old chicks were assigned to one of 30 floor pens, 29 birds per pen, and each pen randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments. The experiment was ended when birds were 16 wk of age. The five dietary treatments varied in main fat sources, which were corn oil (CO), high-oil corn (HOC), lard (LRD), whole soybean (WSB) and yellow corn (YC), respectively. All the diets were formulated isonitrogenously, isocalorically, and of equal lysine and methionine contents except YC, in which equal amounts of YC replaced HOC. The results indicated that feed conversion in HOC was 8% higher (p<0.05) than YC whereas the calculated AME of HOC was only 3.5% to 4.0% higher than that of YC. No significant differences were observed in body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and ME efficiency for body weight gain among CO, HOC, LRD, and WSB. No significant differences existed in both skin and muscle pigmentation of breast among the five dietary treatments. No significance differences existed in plasma carotenoid content measured at various ages among the five dietary treatments except that birds fed with HOC had less (p<0.05) plasma carotenoids at 16 wk-old. The results indicate that if the price of high-oil corn is no more than 1.05 times that of yellow corn, the dietary cost per kg of body weight gain for TC chickens fed diets containing high-oil corn will be less, although their body weight may be lighter compared to chickens fed diets formulated with other fat sources.

Effects of Corn Oil, Perilla Oil, Sardine Oil Diet on the Hepatic Glutathione S-transferase(GST-P) Positive Foci and Glutathione Related Enzyme System in Carcinogen Treated Rats (옥수수유, 들깨유, 정어리유의 급여가 발암물질의 투여한 쥐 간의 Glutathione S-transferase(GST-P) 양성결절과 Glutathione 관련 효소계에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kyung-Min
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.276-284
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    • 2010
  • The effects of different dietary fatty acids on the hepatic glutathione S-transferase(GST-P) positive foci and glutathione related enzyme system were investigated in carcinogen treated rats. Weaning male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed the diets of 15% corn(CO), perilla(PO), and sardine oil(SO), respectively. Hepatocellular carcinogenesis was initiated with diethylnitrosamine(DEN) and then fed the diet containing 0.02% 2-acetylaminofluorene(2-AAF) followed by 0.05% phenobarbital for 10 weeks. The hepatic tissues were homogenized and centrifugated to prepare microsomal and cytosolic fractions. The enzyme activities of hepatic glutathione S-transferase(GST), glutathione reductase(GR), and glutathione peroxidase(GPx) were determined from cytosolic fractions. The number of GST-P hyperplastic nodules was the highest in corn oil group at 6th week, the early stage of hyperplastic nodule formation. GST activities were increased significantly by carcinogens in all dietary groups after 6th wk. GR activities followed the same trend as GST activities. GPx activities were decreased by carcinogens in all dietary groups at 10th week. In this experiment, corn oil diet may have promotive effect on hyperplastic nodule formation during the early promotional stages of chemical carcinogenesis.

Production of Structured Lipid Containing Capric and Conjugated Linoleic Acids and Studies of Physicochemical Characteristics (Capric acid와 conjugated linoleic acid를 함유한 재구성 지질의 합성 및 특성연구)

  • Shin, Jung-Ah;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.537-541
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    • 2004
  • Based on reaction time and substrate molar ratio, structured lipid (SL-corn) was produced at 1:2:2(corn oil/capric acid/CLA) and 4% immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RM IM). Reaction was carried out for 24 hr at $55^{\circ}C$ in 1-L stirred-batch reactor. After reaction, 13.3 mol% capric acid and 8.9%, CLA were incorporated into corn oil. Iodine and saponification values of SL-corn were 68 and 202, respectively. Tocopherol content decreased after reaction (about 39%). SL-corn showed more yellowish color than corn oil (p<0.05). Reversed-phase HPLC indicated triacylglycerol species containing capric acid in SL-corn resulted in faster crystallization than that of corn oil.

Feed Application of High Oil Corn for Poultry : A Review (가금에 있어서 High Oil Corn의 사료이용)

  • 이봉덕
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.99-107
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    • 2000
  • Because of the significant genetic improvement in animal performance, the use of high nutrient density diets has become common practice in animal industry. High oil corn(HOC) became available to feed manufacturers about half a decade ago. Current HOC contains approximately 87% higher crude fat, making its energy content 4.5 to 6% higher than that of typical corn. Its protein content is 3.3 to 6.4% higher, and its qualities are at least equal or better than that of typical corn. In addition, there are several non-nutritional benefits which may result from the use of HOC. These nutritional and non-nutritional advantages could be captured by the feed manufacturers in general, and poultry producers in particular.

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Effects of Lipophilic Fraction from Korean Red Ginseng on Platelet Aggregation and Blood Coagulation in Rats Fed with Corn Oil and Beef-tallow Diet (옥수수기름 및 우지 식이에 의한 혈소판 응집 반응과 혈액응고에 있어서 홍삼 지용성성분이 미치는 영향)

  • 이정희;박화진
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.206-211
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    • 1995
  • This study was investigated to find the effects of petroleum ether extract (Lipophilic fraction) from Korean red ginseng on platelet aggregation and thrombin time of the plasma in two groups of the experimental rats. One group of rats were fed with 15% corn oil (15%kg-diet) containing a number of 18 : 2 (linoleic acid) or 15% beef-tallow (15%/kg-diet) containing saturated fatty acids for 3 weeks, and were followed by feeding the petroleum ether extract (25 mg/kg-diet) for 3 weeks. The other group of rats (control group) were fed with 15% corn oil or 15% beef-tallow for 6 weeks. The platelet aggregation induced by thrombin and collagen was significantly inhibited and the thrombin time was prolonged in the 15% corn oil plus petroleum ether extract administrated group than in the 15% corn oil administrated group. And the same results were shown in the 15% beef-tallow plus petroleum ether extract administrated group. These results suggest that the petroleum ether extract from Korean red ginseng may have the beneficial effects on the inhibition of the platelet aggregation and the inhibition of blood coagulation induced by dietary fats.

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Utilization of Fat Sources in Pigs Weaned at 21 Days of Age

  • Piao, X.S.;Jin, J.;Kim, J.H.;Kim, J.D.;Shin, I.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1255-1262
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    • 2000
  • A total of 80 pigs ($5.68{\pm}0.61kg$ BW; 21 d of age) were used to evaluate the effect of fat sources in weaned pigs. Pigs were allotted into five treatments based on body weight, in a completely randomized block design. Treatments consisted of diets representing different ratio between soy oil or corn oil and tallow; 1) S100 (soy oil 100%), 2) S75 (soy oil:tallow=75:25), 3) S50 (soy oil:tallow=50:50), 4) C75 (corn oil:tallow=75:25), 5) C50 (corn oil:tallow=50:50). During d 0 to 14, pigs were fed diets containing 3,400 kcal ME, 23% crude protein, 1.65 % lysine and for the period of d 15 to 28, pigs were fed diets supplying 3,400 kcal ME, 20.5% crude protein, 1.355% lysine. For d 0 to 14, a significant differences in ADG and ADFI were observed among treatments, pigs fed animal-vegetable fat blends gained more than pigs fed the S100. As tallow addition was increased from 25% to 50% replacing soy or corn oil, ADG was improved from 6.32% to 28.38%. In phase II (d 15 to 28) period, ADG, ADFI and FCR were not significantly different among treatments. For overall period (d 0 to 28), pigs fed 50% animal:50% vegetable fat blends diets consumed more feed and grew faster than pigs fed control diet and 75% vegetable oil:25% tallow groups, but the differences was not significant among treatments. Apparent DM, CP and fat digestibility were increased with time postweaning for each treatment. There were no differences in digestibilities of total amino acid during overall period. The combination of soy oil or corn oil with tallow produced slightly higher serum triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) combination compared with the soy oil alone. In conclusion, tallow:soy (or corn) oil blends diets improved growth rate and the ratio of 50% tallow plus 50% soy (or corn) oil blends diets were favorable for growth and nutrient digestibilities of weaned pigs.

Effect of Fish Oils on Brain Fatty Acid Composition and Learning Performance in Rats

  • Lee, Hye-Ju
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.901-909
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    • 1994
  • The effects of sardine oil(high in eicosapentaenoic acid : EPA) and tuna oil(high in docosahexaenoic acid : DHA, also high in EPA) on fatty acid composition of brain and learning ability were evaluated in male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats and compared with the effects of corn oil and beef tallow. Animals assigned by randomized block design to one of the four experimental diet groups containing dietary lipid at 15%(w/w) level were given ad libitum for 7 weeks. Food intake and body weight gain of the fish oil groups were significantly lower than those of the corn oil and beef tallow groups. However, brain weights of the groups were not significantly different. In the brain fatty acid composition, the corn oil group showed high concentrations of n-6 fatty acids, the fish oil groups of n-3 fatty acids, and the beef tallow group of saturated fatty acids. Brain EPA and DHA contents of the fish oil groups showed significantly higher than the other groups while the brain ratio of saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acid was controlled in a narrow range. In a maze test, the fish oil groups appeared to arrive at the goal faster than the corn oil and beef tallow groups. It explained that EPA in diets might efficiently convert to DHA resulting in DHA accumulation in brain tissue and might increase the learning performance as DHA did.

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Suppression of Fatty Acid Synthase by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids is Mediated by Fat itself, not by Peroxidative Mechanism

  • Kim, Hye-Kyeong;Choi, Sung-Won;Lee, Hae-Jeung;Lee, Joo-Hee;Choi, Hay-Mie
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.258-264
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    • 2003
  • This study examined the effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that were supplemented with vitamin E on lipid peroxidation, glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzyme system activity, and lipogenic fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in rat liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed semipurified diets containing either 1% (w/w) corn oil or 10% each of beef tallow, corn oil, perilla oil, and fish oil for 4 wk. Alpha-tocopherol was supplemented in perilla oil (0.015%) and fish oil (0.019%). Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, an estimate of lipid peroxidation, were not significantly different among the dietary groups. The glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase activities were all elevated by the polyunsaturated fats, especially fish oil. The activity of FAS was reduced in the polyunsaturated fat-fed groups in the order of fish oil, perilla oil, and corn oil. The mRNA contents decreased in rats that were fed the 10% fat diets, particularly polyunsaturated fats, compared with the rats that were fed the 1% corn oil diet. Similarly, the inhibitory effect was the greatest in fish oil. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation can be minimized by vitamin E; PUFA in itself has a suppressive effect on lipogenic enzyme.

Fuel properties of biodiesel produced from beef-tallow and corn oil blends based on the variation in the fatty acid methyl ester composition

  • Woo, Duk Gam;Kim, Tae Han
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.941-953
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    • 2019
  • Biodiesels are being explored as a clean energy alternative to regular diesel, which causes pollution. In this study, the optimum conditions for producing biodiesel (BD) by combining beef tallow, an animal waste resource with a high saturated fatty acid content, and corn oil, a vegetable oil with a high unsaturated fatty acid content, were investigated, and the fuel properties were analyzed. Furthermore, Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to verify the optimum conditions for producing biodiesel. The influences of control factors, such as the oil blend ratio and methanol to oil molar ratio, on the fatty acid methyl ester and biodiesel production yield were investigated. As a result, the optimum condition for producing blended biodiesel was verified to be tallow to corn oil blend ratio of 7 : 3 (TACO7) and a methanol to oil molar ratio of 14 : 1. Moreover, the interaction between the oil blend ratio and the methanol to oil molar ratio has the most crucial effects on the production of oil blended biodiesel. In conclusion, the analysis results of the fuel properties of TACO7 BD satisfied the BD quality standard, and thus, the viability of BD blended with waste tallow as fuel was verified.