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Effect of Gastrodiae elata Blume Components on Systolic Blood Pressure and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Fed High Fat Diet (천마성분이 본태성고혈압쥐의 혈압과 혈청지질 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Hee-Do;Shim, Eun-Jung;Kim, Kyung-Im;Choi, Sang-Yoon;Han, Chan-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.174-179
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Gastrodiae elata Blume fractions on systolic blood pressure and serum lipid profiles in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NCrj) fed high fat diet. Twenty-four males SHR weighing approximately 160 g were randomly divided into four groups; A (low molecule, GR-1), B (polysaccharide, GR-2), C (protein, GR-3) fractions of G. elata Blume, respectively, and D (high fat diet as control). After orally tube feeding the fractions of G. elata Blume, there were no differences in final body weights among the treatment groups. Diet intake was somewhat high in the control group (D), but there were no significant differences in feed efficiency ratios. In terms of serum lipid profiles, total-cholesterol level was statistically higher in the control group (D) than in G. elata Blume fraction groups (p<0.05). Triglyceride levels of low molecule (A) and polysaccharide (B) groups were lower by 16% and 11%, respectively than that of the control group (D). HDL-cholesterol level was remarkably higher (p<0.05), whereas LDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower (by 25%) in the group B as compared to the control group (D). Atherogenic index (AI) of G. elata Blume fraction groups were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.05). Reference blood pressure (RBP) showed an average of $180\sim190mmHg$ at 8 weeks old after 3 weeks on feeding high fat diet. Compared with RBP, final blood pressure of treatment groups (35 days after feeding the fractions of G. elata Blume gractions) were decreased by 1.7% (A), 5.5% (B) and 3.6% (C), respectively, but the control group (D) contrarily showed an increase of 2.6%. Especially, final systolic blood pressure of the polysaccharide group (B) was lower by 22 mmHg than that of the control group (D). From these findings, it can be suggested that polysaccharide fraction may improve blood serum lipids and should be considered as effective in lowering of blood pressure.

Anti-carcinogenic Effects of Korean Mistletoe Extract and Lectin in Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis (실험적 간암모델에서 한국산 겨우살이(Mistletoe)추출물 및 렉틴의 발암 억제효과 탐색)

  • 김미정;김정희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.697-702
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    • 2001
  • This study was done to investigate effects of Korean mistletoe extract and lectin on serum GOT, GPT and $\alpha$-L-fucosidase activities and the preneoplastic lesion in chemically induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. To attain the above objectives weanling Sprangue-Dawley male rats were fed modified AIN-76 diets containing 10% corn oil for 9 weeks. One week after feeding rats were intraperitonealy injected twice with a dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 50 mg/kg body weight(BW)) and were provided 0.05% phenobarbita (PB) with drinking water from one week after DEN treatment until the end of experiment. For the same period as PB treatment, rats were injected mistletoe extract (10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg BW European mistletoe, 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg BW and 100 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg BW Korean mistletoe) and lectin(1 ng/kg BW, 10 ng/kg BW) twice a week. At the end of 9th week rats were sacrificed and the formation of hepatic glutthione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P+) foci serum GOT, GPT and $\alpha$-L-fucosidase activities were determined. By treatment of mistletoe extract or lectin there were no significant effects on serum GOP, GPT and $\alpha$-L-fucosidase activities whereas those activities showed a tendency to increase by DEN treatment. The formation of GST-P+ foci was significantly decreased by mistletoe extract or lectin treatment especially in group of 100$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg BW Korean mistletoe. These results suggest that Korean mistletoe extract and lectin have a possibility to inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis of animals.

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STUDIES ON THE UTILIZATION OF ANTARCTIC KRILL 2. Processing of Paste Food, Protein Concentrate, Seasoned Dried Product, Powdered Seasoning, Meat Ball, and Snack (남대양산 크릴의 이용에 관한 연구)

  • PARK Yeung-Ho;LEE Eung-Ho;LEE Kang-Ho;PYEUN Jae-Hyeung;KIM Se-Kweun;KIM Dong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.65-80
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    • 1980
  • Processing conditions of the krill products such as paste food, krill protein concentrate, seasoned dried krill, powdered seasoning, meat ball, and snack have been examined and the quality was evaluated chemically and organoleptically. In the processing of paste food, krill juice was yielded $71\%$ and krill scrap $29\%$. The yields of paste and broth from the krill juice showed $53\%$ and $43\%$, respectively. In amino acid composition of the krill paste, proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, and leucine were abundant, while histidine, methionine, tyrosine, serine and threonine were poor. The optimum condition for solvent extraction in the processing of krill protein concentrate was the 5 times repetitive extraction using isopropyl alcohol at $80^{\circ}C$ for 5 mins. The yield of krill protein concentrate when used fresh frozen materials was $10.2\%$ in isopropyl alcohol solvent and $8.8\% in ethyl alcohol, and when used preboiled frozen materials, the yield was $13.0\%$ in isopropyl alcohol and $11.8\%$ in ethyl alcohol. Amino acid composition of krill protein concentrate showed a resemblance to that of fresh frozen krill meat. In quality comparison of the seasoned dried krill, hot air dried krill was excellent as raw materials and sun dried krill was slightly inferior to hot air dried krill, but preboiled frozen krill showed the poorest quality. The result of quality evaluation for seasoning made by combination of dried powdered krill, parched powdered sesame, salt, powdered beef extract, monosodium glutamate, powdered red pepper and ground pepper showed that the hot air dried krill was good in color and sundried krill was favorable in flavor. When krill meat ball was prepared using wheat flour, monosodium glutamate and salt as side materials, the quality of the products added up to $52\%$ of krill meat was good and the difference in quality upon the results of the organoleptic test for raw materials was not recognizable between fresh frozen and preboiled frozen krill. In the experiment for determining the proper amount of materials such as dried Powdered krill, $\alpha-starch$, sweet potato starch, sugar, salt, monosodium glutamate, glycine, potassium tartarate, ammonium bicarbonate, and sodium bicarbonate in processing krill snack, sample B(containing $7.7\%$ of dried powdered krill) and sampleC (containing $10.8\%$ of dried powdered krill) showed the most palatable taste from the view point of organoleptic test. Sweet potato starch in testing side materials was good in the comparison of suitability for processing krill snack. Corn starch and kudzu starch were slightly inferior to sweet potato starch, while wheat flour was not proper for processing the snack. In the experiment on frying method, oil frying showed better effect than salt frying and the suitable range of frying temperature was $210-215^{\circ}C$.

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Protective Effects of Korean Panax Ginseng Extracts against TCDD-induced Toxicities in Rat (랫드에서 TCDD 투여에 의해 유도된 생체독성의 고려홍삼 추출물에 의한 억제 효과)

  • Choi, Soo-Jin;Sohn, Hyung-Ok;Shin, Han-Jae;Hyun, Hak-Cheol;Lee, Dong-Wook;Song, Yong-Bum;Lee, Soo-Hyun;Gang, Dong-Ho;Lim, Hak-Seob;Lee, Cheol-Won;Moon, Ja-Young
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.382-389
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    • 2008
  • To achieve a better understanding of protective effects of water extracts of Panax ginseng against TCDD-induced toxicities, we monitored physiological and clinical changes in rat for 4 weeks after administrations of each Panax Ginseng extract or TCDD, and co-administration of the two materials. For this study, 120 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 190-210 g each (8 weeks old) were divided into four groups: TCDD-administered, co-administered group with TCDD and ginseng extract, ginseng extract-administered, and control group. The TCDD-administered group received single dose of TCDD in a corn oil vehicle ($25\;{\mu}g/kg$ body weight) by intraperitoneal administration on Day 1. The Panax ginseng extracts-administered group received intraperitoneally 100 mg/kg body weight every other day for one month. For the co-administered group with TCDD and ginseng extracts, Panax ginseng extracts were intraperitoneally administered to rats at 100 mg/kg body weight every other day for one month after a single intraperitoneal dose of $25\;{\mu}g$ of TCDD/kg body weight on Day 1. Panax ginseng extracts attenuated the mortality induced by TCDD administration. The extracts also slightly attenuated the TCDD-induced body weight loss. Administration of TCDD alone increased liver weight at 2, 5, and 16 days after administration of TCDD. Administration of Panax ginseng extracts rather decreased liver weight through whole the experimental period, but which was statistically insignificant. Administration of TCDD alone at $25\;{\mu}g/kg$ body weight increased both serum enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at 32 days, indicating that liver damage occurred maximally at that time. Ginseng extract administration caused insignificant changes in serum ALT, but gradually decreased in AST as the exposure time increased. Coadministration of TCDD and ginseng extracts caused serum AST activity to significant recovery to normal value at 16 days and 32 days after exposure to TCDD. The extracts also significantly decreased the TCDD-induced ALT activity after 16 days of TCDD administration. These results suggest that Panax ginseng extracts may possess a protective effect against TCDD-induced toxicities including hepatotoxicity in rats.

A Study on Commodity Asset Investment Model Based on Machine Learning Technique (기계학습을 활용한 상품자산 투자모델에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Jin Ho;Choi, Heung Sik;Kim, Sun Woong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.127-146
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    • 2017
  • Services using artificial intelligence have begun to emerge in daily life. Artificial intelligence is applied to products in consumer electronics and communications such as artificial intelligence refrigerators and speakers. In the financial sector, using Kensho's artificial intelligence technology, the process of the stock trading system in Goldman Sachs was improved. For example, two stock traders could handle the work of 600 stock traders and the analytical work for 15 people for 4weeks could be processed in 5 minutes. Especially, big data analysis through machine learning among artificial intelligence fields is actively applied throughout the financial industry. The stock market analysis and investment modeling through machine learning theory are also actively studied. The limits of linearity problem existing in financial time series studies are overcome by using machine learning theory such as artificial intelligence prediction model. The study of quantitative financial data based on the past stock market-related numerical data is widely performed using artificial intelligence to forecast future movements of stock price or indices. Various other studies have been conducted to predict the future direction of the market or the stock price of companies by learning based on a large amount of text data such as various news and comments related to the stock market. Investing on commodity asset, one of alternative assets, is usually used for enhancing the stability and safety of traditional stock and bond asset portfolio. There are relatively few researches on the investment model about commodity asset than mainstream assets like equity and bond. Recently machine learning techniques are widely applied on financial world, especially on stock and bond investment model and it makes better trading model on this field and makes the change on the whole financial area. In this study we made investment model using Support Vector Machine among the machine learning models. There are some researches on commodity asset focusing on the price prediction of the specific commodity but it is hard to find the researches about investment model of commodity as asset allocation using machine learning model. We propose a method of forecasting four major commodity indices, portfolio made of commodity futures, and individual commodity futures, using SVM model. The four major commodity indices are Goldman Sachs Commodity Index(GSCI), Dow Jones UBS Commodity Index(DJUI), Thomson Reuters/Core Commodity CRB Index(TRCI), and Rogers International Commodity Index(RI). We selected each two individual futures among three sectors as energy, agriculture, and metals that are actively traded on CME market and have enough liquidity. They are Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Corn, Wheat, Gold and Silver Futures. We made the equally weighted portfolio with six commodity futures for comparing with other commodity indices. We set the 19 macroeconomic indicators including stock market indices, exports & imports trade data, labor market data, and composite leading indicators as the input data of the model because commodity asset is very closely related with the macroeconomic activities. They are 14 US economic indicators, two Chinese economic indicators and two Korean economic indicators. Data period is from January 1990 to May 2017. We set the former 195 monthly data as training data and the latter 125 monthly data as test data. In this study, we verified that the performance of the equally weighted commodity futures portfolio rebalanced by the SVM model is better than that of other commodity indices. The prediction accuracy of the model for the commodity indices does not exceed 50% regardless of the SVM kernel function. On the other hand, the prediction accuracy of equally weighted commodity futures portfolio is 53%. The prediction accuracy of the individual commodity futures model is better than that of commodity indices model especially in agriculture and metal sectors. The individual commodity futures portfolio excluding the energy sector has outperformed the three sectors covered by individual commodity futures portfolio. In order to verify the validity of the model, it is judged that the analysis results should be similar despite variations in data period. So we also examined the odd numbered year data as training data and the even numbered year data as test data and we confirmed that the analysis results are similar. As a result, when we allocate commodity assets to traditional portfolio composed of stock, bond, and cash, we can get more effective investment performance not by investing commodity indices but by investing commodity futures. Especially we can get better performance by rebalanced commodity futures portfolio designed by SVM model.