• Title, Summary, Keyword: cultivated ginseng

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Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng and the change of ginsenoside components in the process of red ginseng (인삼.산양삼.자연산 산삼의 ginsenoside 함량 분석 및 홍삼화 후의 변화 관찰)

  • Jeong, H.S.;Lim, C.S.;Cha, B.C.;Choi, S.H.;Kwon, K.R.
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.63-77
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to provide an objective differentiation of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng through component analysis, and to know the change of ginsenoside components in the process for making red ginseng. Methods: Comparative analysis of ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, $Rg_1,\;Rg_3,\;Rh_1$ and $Rh_2$ from the cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng were conducted using High Performance Liquid Chromatography(hereafter HPLC). And the same analyses were conducted in the process of red ginseng. Results: 1. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rb_1$, Rc, Rd, Rf, $Rg_1$ and $Rh_1$, wild ginseng showed high content, followed cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng showed low content than any other samples. 2. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rb_2$ and Re, cultivated ginseng 4 years showed high content, followed wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng showed low content than any other samples. 3. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rg_3$, wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng were only showed low content. 4. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rh_2$, cultivated wild ginseng was only showed low content. 5. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rc, Rd, $Rg_3$ and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside Re and $Rg_1$ were decreased in cultivated wild ginseng. 6. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rg_3$ and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside $Rb_2$, Rc, and Re were decreased in cultivated ginseng 4 years. 7. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rf and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside Rc and Rd were decreased in cultivated ginseng 6 years. Conclusions: Distribution of ginsenoside contents to the cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng was similar and was not showed special characteristics between samples. And the change of ginsenoside to the process of red ginseng, cultivated ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng were showed different aspect.

A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts (자연산 산삼, 산양삼 및 인삼의 항산화능 비교연구)

  • Jang, Hae-Young;Park, Hee-Soo;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Rhim, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.67-78
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    • 2008
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC), total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS) scavenging effect using 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein(DCF) fluorescence. Results: 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and $20{\mu}g$ extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05). 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of $FeSO_4$/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05) higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions: In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities- (인삼 및 산양삼의 항산화 효능 비교 -Superoxide radical과 Hydroxy radical 소거활성을 중심으로-)

  • Rhim, Tae-Jin;Jeong, Hee-Sun;Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Doo-Young;Han, Young-Ju;Kwon, Hae-Yon;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and $0.50mg/m{\ell}$. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and $5.0mg/m{\ell}$. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

Analysis of Ginsenoside Composition of Woods-grown Ginseng Roots

  • Han, Sung-Tai;Shin, Cha-Gyun;Yang, Byung-Wook;Hahm, Young-Tae;Sohn, Uy-Dong;Im, Byung-Ok;Cho, Soon-Hyun;Lee, Boo-Yong;Ko, Sung-Kwon
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.281-284
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    • 2007
  • The objective of this research is to provide basic information necessary to differentiate between ginseng (Panax ginseng) grown in woods environments and cultivated ginseng. The ginseng saponin (ginsenoside) contents of Korean woods-grown, 4 year-old cultivated, and 6 year-old cultivated ginsengs were determined via HPLC analysis. The total saponins in the woods-grown ginseng (0.648%) were approximately twice that of the 4 year-old cultivated (0.270%) and the 6 year-old cultivated ginsengs (0.280%). The protopanaxadiols (PD)/protopanaxatriols (PT) ratio of the woods-grown ginseng (3.258%) was higher than that of the 4 year-old cultivated (2.456%) and the 6 year-old cultivated ginsengs (2.183%). The $Rb_1/Rg_1$ ratio of the woods-grown ginseng (10.225%) was also higher than those of the 4 year-old cultivated (3.514%) and the 6 year-old cultivated ginsengs (4.865%).

Component analysis of cultivated ginseng and mountain ginseng to the change of ginsenoside components in the process of heating and fermentation. (열처리 및 발효과정이 인삼 및 산양삼의 ginsenoside 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Bae-Cheon;Yoon, Hye-Chul;Lee, Dae-Ho;Park, Jae-Seuk;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.33-49
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to provide an objective differentiation of cultivated ginseng, mountain ginseng through component analysis, and to know the change of gin senoside components in the process of heating and fermentation Methods: Comparative analyses of ginsenoside $Rb_1$, $Rb_2$, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, $Rg_1$, $Rg_3$, $Rh_1$, and $Rh_2$, from the cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, and mountain cultivated ginseng were conducted using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC). And the same analyses were conducted in the process of heating and fermentation using mixed Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium lactis for 7 days. Results: The change of ginsenosides to the process of red ginseng and fermentation, cultivated ginseng and mountain cultivated ginseng were showed another results. Mountain ginseng showed a lot of change compared with cultivated ginsengs. In the 7 days of fermentation, mountain ginseng showed that ginsenoside $Rg_1$, $Rb_1$, $Rb_2$, Rc, and Rd were decreased and increased ginsenoside Re, Rf, $Rg_3$ and $Rh_1$ were increased compared with cultivated ginseng Conclusions: It seemed that ginsenosides of mountain cultivated ginseng was better resolved than cultivated ginseng because the difference of structure or distribution of ginsenosides in the condition of fermentation.

Anti-metastatic mechanism of mountain cultivated wild ginseng in human cancer cell line

  • Jang, S.B.;Lim, C.S.;Jang, J.H.;Kwon, K.R.
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2010
  • Objective : Ginseng is one of most widely used herbal medicine. Ginseng showed anti-metastasis activities. However, its molecular mechanisms of action are unknown. So we want to report the wild ginseng repress which plays key roles in neoplastic epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. Methods : Treatment of the human colorectal carcinoma LOVO cells and human gastric carcinoma SNU601 cells with the increased concentrations of cultivated wild ginseng extracts resulted in a gradual decrease in the AXIN2 gene expression. Results : Metastasis-suppressor genes, maspin and nm23 was not affected by the treatment of ginseng extracts in LOVO cells. Moreover, the mountain cultivated wild ginseng or mountain wild ginseng are similar in their inhibitory effects on the expression of AXIN2 gene, but are substantially stronger than cultivated ginseng. Conclusion : We described the novel mechanism of wild ginseng-induced anti-metastasis activity by repressing the expression of AXIN2 gene that plays key roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition process.

Proteomic analysis of amino acid metabolism differences between wild and cultivated Panax ginseng

  • Sun, Hang;Liu, Fangbing;Sun, Liwei;Liu, Jianzeng;Wang, Manying;Chen, Xuenan;Xu, Xiaohao;Ma, Rui;Feng, Kai;Jiang, Rui
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2016
  • Background: The present study aimed to compare the relative abundance of proteins and amino acid metabolites to explore the mechanisms underlying the difference between wild and cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) at the amino acid level. Methods: Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation were used to identify the differential abundance of proteins between wild and cultivated ginseng. Total amino acids in wild and cultivated ginseng were compared using an automated amino acid analyzer. The activities of amino acid metabolism-related enzymes and the contents of intermediate metabolites between wild and cultivated ginseng were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and spectrophotometric methods. Results: Our results showed that the contents of 14 types of amino acids were higher in wild ginseng compared with cultivated ginseng. The amino acid metabolism-related enzymes and their derivatives, such as glutamate decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine, all had high levels of accumulation in wild ginseng. The accumulation of sulfur amino acid synthesis-related proteins, such as methionine synthase, was also higher in wild ginseng. In addition, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle-related enzymes as well as their intermediates had high levels of accumulation in wild ginseng. Conclusion: This study elucidates the differences in amino acids between wild and cultivated ginseng. These results will provide a reference for further studies on the medicinal functions of wild ginseng.

Authentication of Korean Panax ginseng from Chinease Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius by AFLP analysis

  • Kim Bo-Bae;Jeong Jae-Hun;Jung Su-Jin;Yun Doh-Won;Yoon Eui-Soo;Choi Yong-Eui
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2005
  • Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. The international trade of ginseng is increasing yearly. The disguise of Chinese and American ginseng into Korean ginseng became a problem in recent years in abroad and Korea. An effective method to authenticate the Korean Panax ginseng from others at a DNA level is necessary for the healthy development of the ginseng market. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to develop a method for the identification of Korean ginseng between Chinese ginseng and American ginseng. It is very difficult to detect the different polymorphic bands among Korean field cultivated ginseng, and between field and wild-cultivated ginseng. The genetic distance coefficient by AFLP analysis between field- and wild cultivated Korean ginseng was very low, 0.056. Whereas, polymorphic bands between Korean and Chinese wild-cultivated ginseng was significantly different. The genetic distance coefficient between wild-cultivated Korean and Chinese ginseng was 0.149. The genetic distance coefficients between the P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were ranging from 0.626 to 0.666. These results support that the AFLP analysis could be applied to authenticate Korean P. ginseng from others Chinese P. ginseng and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius).

인삼과 산양삼, 산삼의 HPLC를 이용한 부위별 성분 분석 비교

  • Han, Young-Ju;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Cha, Bae-Chun;Kwon, Oh-Man
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.37-53
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-$Rg_3$, ginsenoside-$Rh_2$, and ginsenosides $Rb_1$ and $Rg_1$ from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside $Rg_1$ than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides $Rg_1$ and $Rb_1$ than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside $Rb_1$. Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides $Rg_1$ and $Rb_1$ than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside $Rh_2$ was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

인삼, 한국 및 중국산 산양삼의 간 보호 효능에 관한 실험적 연구

  • Kim, Young-Jin;Park, Hee-Soo;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Kim, Ho-Hyun
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.101-107
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : This study was aimed at investigating liver protection mechanism of Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese by inducing liver toxicity through $CCl_4$ and t-BHP in mice and evaluated serological findings. Methods : Experiment groups was categorized into untreated normal group, treated control group, and orally administered Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese experimental groups. At the termination of experiment, gross examination of the liver as well as Total bilirubin, AST, and ALT contents in the serum were evaluated. Results : 1. In the $CCl_4$ induced acute hepatotoxicity test, total bilirubin, AST and ALT didn't show significant differences between the control and experimental groups. 2. In the t-BHP induced acute hepatotoxicity test, total bilirubin, AST and ALT didn't show significant differences between the control and experimental groups. Conclusion : Taken together, Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese cannot be effectively used for recovering the liver functions in acute hepatotoxicity tests using $CCl_4$ and t-BHP. Further researches, for example treated long period, must be tried to verify the efficacies.