• Title, Summary, Keyword: dioxins

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Structure-dependent Mechanism of Action of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cultured Primary Hepatocytes (간세포에서 PAH의 구조 의존적 작용기전)

  • Kim Sun-Young;Hong Sung-Bum;Yang Jae-Ho
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2006
  • Among poly aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxin and PCBs are the most controversial environmental pollutants in our modern life. These pollutants are known as human carcinogens, and liver is the most sensitive target in animal cancer models. Specific aims of the study were focused on the mechanism of carcinogenesis in hepatocytes and the structure-activity relation among these diverse environmental chemicals. Because key mechanisms of dioxin-induced carcinogenesis in human epithelial cell model are the alteration of signal transduction pathway and PKC isoforms, the alteration of the signal transduction pathways and other factors associated with carcinogenesis were studied. Rat hepatocytes cultured under the sandwich protocols were exposed with the various concentration of dioxins and PCBs, and signal transduction pathway, protein kinase C isoforms, oxidant stress, and apoptotic nuclei were evaluated. Since it is important to understand the structure-activity relation among these chemicals to properly assess the carcinogenic potentials, the study analyzed the parameters associated with carcinogenic processes, based on their structural characteristics. In addition, signal transduction pathways and PKC isoforms involved in inhibition of UV-induced apoptosis were also analyzed to elaborate the tumor promotion mechanism of these chemicals. Induction of apoptosis by UV irradiation was optimal at $60\;J/m^2$ in primary hepatocyte in culture. Compared to non coplanar PCBs such as PCB 114 and PCB 153, coplanar PCBs such as PCB 77 and PCB126 showed a stronger inhibition of apoptosis induced by UV irradiation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was more stimulated by non-coplanar PCBs than coplanar PCBs with the most potent induction of ROS by chlorinated non-coplanar PCB. As compared to the level of induction by PCB126, non-coplanar PCB153 showed a higher increase of intracellular concentrations. Besides the alteration of intracellular calcium concentration, translocation of PKC from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction was clearly observed upon the exposure of non-coplanar PCB. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that there is a potent structure-activity relationship among PCB congeners and the mechanism of PAH-induced carcinogenesis is structure-specific. The study suggested that more diverse pathways of PAH-induced carcinogenesis should be taken into account beyond the boundary of Ah receptor dogma to assess the health impact of PAH with more accuracy.

Levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Waste Paper and Waste Lumber and Evaluation of their Sources (폐지와 폐목재에서의 잔류성 유기오염물질의 농도 및 배출원 추정)

  • Hwang, In-Kyu;Lee, In-Seok;Oh, Kwang-Joong;Kim, Ji-Won;Park, Hung-Suck;Oh, Jeong-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.9
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    • pp.870-878
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the concentration and the sources of ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants [i.e., 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), 12 coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)] in waste papers and lumbers from industrial complexes. The total concentrations in waste papers and lumbers ranged from 9.69~176.77 pg/g-dry and 0.14~0.25 pg/g-dry for 17 PCDD/Fs, 109.95~4097.25 pg/g-dry and 28.23~59.88 pg/g-dry for 12 Co-PCBs and 9.30~52.18 ng/g-dry and 0.82~1.82 ng/g-dry for 16 PAHs respectively. Generally, the concentration of these pollutants in waste papers was higher than those in waste lumbers. OCDD was dominant in waste papers and lumbers and the PCDD/F patterns of these samples were similar with that of stack gas. The distribution patterns of Co-PCBs in wastes were related with commercial PCB products, indicating the effect of commercial PCB products on ubiquitous environment. The diagnostic ratios of several PAH compounds in waste paper showed that they were related with pyrogenic sources.

Health Status Based on Questionnaire Survey Among Residents Around Camp Carroll, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea (설문조사에 근거한 캠프 캐럴 인근 주민의 건강수준)

  • Min, Young-Sun;Lim, Hyun-Sul;Lee, Kwan;Park, Sun Ae;Lee, Duk-Hee;Ju, Young-Su;Yang, Wonho;Kim, Geun-Bae;Yu, Seung Do
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.312-321
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    • 2013
  • Objective: In May 2011, an interview with three United States Forces Korea veterans revealed that chemicals believed to be 'Agent Orange' were buried at Camp Carroll (situated in Waegwan, Chilgok-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea) in 1978. Many hazardous chemicals, such as perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and organochlorines were subsequently found in a joint US-ROK environmental investigation, although dioxins or burial evidence related to 'Agent Orange' have been not uncovered. This study was carried out to investigate the relevance of hazardous chemical exposure and health effects of the residents around Camp Carroll. Methods: The authors conducted a health questionnaire survey among residents around Camp Carroll regarding Waegwan groundwater ingestion, length of residence in Waegwan, and physician-diagnosed disease history (such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes and etc.). Logistic regression was performed to identify the associations between hazardous chemical exposure and physician-diagnosed diseases. Results: Among the 5,320 residents, excluding those living outside the Waegwan area, 3,430 subjects age 30 and over were analyzed. Among females, upon correction of age, smoking history and Camp Carroll working history, a higher distribution in the Waegwan groundwater ingestion group was demonstrated for patients with physician-diagnosed cancer and hypertension. The odds ratios have a tendency to increase with increased length of Waegwan groundwater ingestion. Conclusions: This study may be limited by not adopting a cohort study for the evaluation of factors that may confound environmental exposure. Yet it is meaningful that the correlation between Waegwan groundwater ingestion and chronic diseases were found through regression analysis in female; and further, this outcome may be used as a sampling basis for a secondary epidemiologic study.

Characteristics of Wastewater from the Pulp.Paper Industry and its Biological Treatment Technologies (펄프.제지산업(製紙産業) 폐수(廢水)의 특성(特性)과 생물학적(生物學的) 처리기술(處理技術))

  • Abn, Ji-Whan;Lim, Mi-Hee
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.16-29
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    • 2009
  • This paper describes characteristics of pollutants in wastewater from the pulp and paper industry and biological technologies for the wastewater treatment. The wastewater from the pulp and paper industry contains high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and shows high toxicity and strong black-brown color. In particular, organic chlorinated compounds such as dioxins and furans may be formed by the chlorination of lignin in wood chips. Thus the pulp and paper industry is recently trending toward total chlorine-free (TCF) bleaching processes. All biological technologies for pulp and paper wastewater treatment are based on the contact between wastewater and bacteria, which feed on organic materials in the wastewater, thus they reduce BOD concentration in it. Both aerobic and anaerobic treatments were found to be effective for the wastewater treatment. Furthermore, advanced technologies such as fungal application and combined biological-filtration process have been also introduced to the wastewater treatment field. These technologies would be useful for water recycling to reduce water consumption throughout pulp and paper making process.

Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Different Sizes of Particles in the Ambient Air of the Pyeongteak Area (평택지역 대기 중 먼지 입경별 잔류성유기오염물질 분포특성 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Gi;Woo, Jung-Sik;Kim, Yong-Jun;Jung, Hye-Eun;Park, Ju-Eun;Cho, Duck-Hee;Moon, Hee-Chun;Oh, Jo-Gyo
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.192-203
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The concentration distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenlys (dl-PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine particles were investigated to provide basic data on POP behavior and composition analysis. Methods: The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PAHs by particle size were evaluated for TSP, PM10, and PM2.5. Also, fine dust component analysis and factor analysis were performed to identify the source of PCDD/Fs. Results: The particle size distribution was found to account for 24.3% of >10 ㎛, 14.5% of 2.5-10 ㎛, and 61.2% of <2.5 ㎛. The average contributions of coarse particles (>2.5 ㎛) and fine particles (<2.5 ㎛) were PCDD/Fs 67%, dl-PCBs 66%, benzo (a) pyrene 83% and PAHs 84%, and the contributions of fine particles (<2.5 ㎛) were higher than coarse particles (>2.5 ㎛). However, the contributions of coarse particles increased in April to September with higher temperatures, while those of fine particles increased in February to March with lower temperatures. Conclusions: Low chlorinated (4Cl-5Cl) PCDD/Fs were more adsorbed compared to coarse particles due to the influence of pollutant migration from particulate to gas phase according to temperature rise, whereas high chlorinated (6Cl-8Cl) PCDD/Fs were more adsorbed compared to fine particles. PCDD/Fs sources were assessed to be major sources of emissions, such as incineration facilities and/or open burning.

Evaluation of Decomposition Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides Using Thermal Method (열적방법을 활용한 유기염소계 폐농약의 분해 특성 평가)

  • Kwon, Eun-Hye;Yoon, Young-Sam;Bea, Ji-Su;Jeon, Tae-Wan;Lee, Young-Ki
    • Journal of Korea Society of Waste Management
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    • v.35 no.8
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    • pp.744-753
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    • 2018
  • The Stockholm Convention, which was adopted in Sweden in 2001 to protect human health and the environment, includes regulations for Persistent Organic Pollutant Rotors such as toxic and bioaccumulatives. Currently, there are 28 types of materials. This prohibits and limits the production, use, and manufacture of products. Korea is a member of the Convention, and it is necessary to prepare management and treatment plans to address the POP trends. Thus, we experimentally investigate whether the environmentally stable incineration is achieved when the sample is thermally treated using the Lab-scale (1 kg/hr). The target samples is pesticides in liquid phase and solid phase. In this study, organic chlorinated pesticides and their thermal characteristics were analyzed. We calculated the theoretical air volume based on the element analysis results. Because the interior of the reactor is small, more than 10 times of the air ratio was injected. The retention time was set to at least 4 seconds using a margin. The incineration temperature was $850^{\circ}C$ and $1100^{\circ}C$. Thus, we experimentally investigated whether the environmentally stable incineration was achieved when the sample was thermally treated using the Lab-scale (1 kg/hr). We analyzed five types of exhaust gas; the 02 concentration was high, but the CO amount decreased. Complete combustion is difficult because of the small size of the furnace due to the nature of Lab-scale. The organic chlorine-containing pesticide had an average decomposition rate of 99.9935%. Considering the decomposition rates of organic chlorine-containing pesticide in this study, the incineration treatment at over 2 ton/hour, which is typical for a conventional incinerator, is possible. Considering the occurrence of dioxins and unintentional persistent organic pollutants, it can operate at more than $1,100^{\circ}C$.

Prioritizing Management Ranking for Hazardous Chemicals Reflecting Aggregate Exposure (통합노출을 고려한 유해물질 관리의 우선순위 선정)

  • Jeong, Ji-Yoon;Jung, Yoo-Kyung;Hwang, Myung-Sil;Jung, Ki-Kyung;Yoon, Hae-Jung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.349-355
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we configured a system which ranks hazardous chemicals to determine their management priorities based on experts' opinions and the existing CRS (chemical ranking and scoring). Aggregate exposure of food, health functional food, oriental/herbal medicine and cosmetics have been taken into account to determine management priority. In this study, 25 hazardous chemicals were selected, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic, etc. These 25 materials were ranked according to their 1) risk (exposure or hazard) indexes, 2) exposure source-based weight, and 3) public interests, which were also formed based on the existing priority ranking system. Cadmium was scored the highest (178.5) and bisphenol A the lowest (56.8). Ten materials -- cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, tar, acrylamide, benzopyrene, aluminium, benzene, and PAHs -- scored higher than 100. Eight materials -- aflatoxin, manganese, phthalate, chromium, nitrate/nitrite, ethylcarbamate, formaldehyde, and copper -- recorded scores in the range from 70 to 100. Also evaluated as potential risks were 7 materials; sulfur dioxide, ochratoxin, dioxins, PCBs, fumonisin, methyl mercury, and bisphenol A, and these materials were scored above 50. Then we compared risk index and correlation coefficient of total scores to confirm the validity of the total scores; we analyzed correlation coefficient of parameter and indicator. We discovered that the total score and weight, which has incorporated public interests, were high and statistically significant. In conclusion, the result of this study contributes to strengthening risk assessment and risk management of hazardous chemicals.