• Title, Summary, Keyword: dioxins

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A Temporal Trend of Dioxins Levels in Environmental Media

  • Park, Kyunghee;Daeil Kang;Junheon Youn;Lee, Choong;Sunghwan Jeon;Jingyun Na
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.148-148
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    • 2003
  • This study is to investigate the environmental levels and trend of dioxins, which was the 3$\^$rd/ year of environmental monitoring research for endocrine disrupting chemicals since 1999. Total 282 samples were analyzed from 115 sites including 26 sites of airs, 43 sites of waters, 11 sites of sediments and 35 sites of soil, which were the same as those of investigated sites in 2000. Sampling period was from June 2001 to June 2002. Target chemicals were seventeen species of 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted PCDD and PCDF congeners and were analyzed by the standard methods, established by National Institute Environmental Research (NIER). The average concentration of dioxins in air decreased from 0.324 pg-TEQ/N㎥ in 2000 to 0.287 pg-TEQ/N㎥ in 2001, and those in water and soil were 0.073pg-TEQ/L and 1.703pg-TEQ/dry g, respectively, which was the less values detected in 2000. In sediment, however, the value was 0.086pg-TEQ/dry g, which was the increase from the value of the year 2000. The concentration range of dioxins in air for 26 sites in 17 regions detected were 0.013∼l.664pg-TEQ/N㎥, 4 sites from those were exceeded the Air Quality Standards of Dioxin in Japan (0.6 pg-TEQ/N㎥). The tolerable daily intake of dioxins was calculated at the highest level (1.664) in air, with referring the soil and food data from Japan, was calculated to be 2.85pg-TEQ/kg/day, which was below the level of 4 pg-TEQ/kg/day suggested in KFDA(Korea). While the average concentration of dioxins in 15 big cities was 0.190 pg-TEQ/N㎥, that in 8 medium/small cities constituting an industrial complex was 0.558 pg-TEQ/N㎥. In water, the concentration range detected were 0∼0.946pg-TEQ/L and the trend of the average concentrations shows an increase from those of 1999 but decreased from those of 2000, any sites however were not exceeded the Water Quality Standards of Dioxin in Japan (1 pg- TEQ/L). In soil. the detected range were 0∼43.333 pg-TEQ/dry g and the average concentration decreased, compared with the results of 2000. According to the monitoring results by land utilization, the detected range were 0∼43.333pg-TEQ/dry g in farmland, 0.017∼0.601 pg-TEQ/dry g in the industrial area, 0.005∼0.049pg-TEQ/dry g in the park and 0.008∼1.825 pg-TEQ/dry g in the rest. In sediment, the detected range increased from 0∼0.244 pg-TEQ/dry g to 0∼0.537 pg-TEQ/dry g, based on the results of 2000. For the proper control of dioxins, continuous monitoring needs to be performed and in addition, the dioxin inventory should be prepared for major sources through the dioxin emission survey. These results would provide sound and solid basis for proper decision making of dioxins management like establishment of environmental quality standards in Korea.

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The Removal of Dioxins and the Formation of 2, 3, 7, 8-TeCDF in Drinking Water Treatment in Japan (정수처리에서의 다이옥신 제거 및 2, 3, 7, 8-TeCDF 생성)

  • Kim, Hyun-koo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.758-766
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    • 2008
  • To evaluate homologue patterns and removal efficiency before and after water treatment, the concentrations of dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) were determined in 122 samples from 42 drinking water treatment plants throughout Japan over a two year period. The mean concentrations and toxic equivalent (TEQ) values of dioxins in raw and treated waters were 60.24 pg/L (0.14 pg-WHO-TEQ/L) and 4.15 pg/L (0.016 pg-WHO-TEQ/L), respectively. The dioxins contribution ratio of drinking water in relation to dioxins tolerable daily intake (TDI, 4 pg-TEQ/kg/day) was 0.016%. The mean TEQ removal rate of dioxins by drinking water treatment was over 88%. However, the mean removal rate of 2, 3, 7, 8-TeCDF (tetrachlorodibenzofuran) by water treatment in the 122 samples was minus 17%. Therefore, to identify which process affected the level of 2, 3, 7, 8-TeCDF, the removal efficiencies at both the advanced and conventional water treatment plants were investigated. For the TEQ removal rate across the processes, the dioxin congeners, TeCDF and non-ortho-PCBs remarkably indicated minus values after chlorination in both the advanced and conventional water treatments plant. From this study, the level of 2, 3, 7, 8-TeCDF was found to be increased as a result of chlorination.

Certification and Quality Control of the Official Test Facilities of Dioxins in Korea (국내 다이옥신 측정분석기관 지정 및 정도관리)

  • Jang, Seong-Ki;Kim, Tae-Seung;Lee, Won-Seok;Chung, Young-Hee;Choi, Doug-Il
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.675-682
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    • 2000
  • The concentration of dioxins from flue gases of municipal waste incineration facilities with capacities over 50 tons/day are regulated by the guideline: $0.1ng-TEQ/Nm^3$ for new facilities, and $0.5ng-TEQ/Nm^3$ for existing facilities and it will be strengthened to $0.1ng-TEQ/Nm^3$ until 2003 year. Dioxins from these incineration facilities have to be measured more than 2 times annually by the Official Test Facilities of Dioxins. Seven institutions have been certified so far as the Official Test Facilities of Dioxins. These facilities have to be evaluated by the quality control program provided by National Institute of Environmental Research every year. We reported the results of quality control test performed in 1999. Four institutions certified in 1998 sampled flue gases at stack of M incineration facilitiy and analyzed dioxins by Official Methods of Air Pollution. The isokinetic coefficients, the parameter for evaluation of sampling ability were excellent for all four institutions. They were 100.9%, 102.4%, 102.1% and 99.2%, respectively. The criteria required are as follows; resolution over 10,000, mass calibration within ${\pm}5ppm$, ion abundance ratio within 15%, and the recovery of 50-120%. As results, those institutions also met these parameters of Official Method of Air Pollution.

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Formation of Tetra-Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Their Thermal Decomposition Products from Pyrolysis Reaction of Tri-Chlorophenates

  • 홍종기;박종세;김강진
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.334-338
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    • 1996
  • Tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (tetra-CDDs) were prepared by microscale pyrolysis of trichlorophenates. During the pyrolysis reaction, tri-, di-, and mono-CDDs were also formed by the thermolysis of tetra-CDDs. The dechlorination pathways of tetra-CDDs were suggested for this reaction. The identification of these products was performed with capillary column gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

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An Approach to Detect Health Risk of Dioxins

  • Pavittranon, Sumol;Sinhaseni, Palarp
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.17
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    • pp.323-327
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    • 2001
  • March 19, 1999, the renovation qf the runway of the Bo-Fai ai1field in Hua Hin, Prachubk-erikhan, Thailand, unearthed chemicals which were left over from the project "anch Hand Operation" held during the Vietnam war era. The chemical mixtures were analyzed by the US EPA, the Department oj Medical Sciences (DMSc), Ministry oj Public Health (MoPH) and the Pollution Control Department (PCD), the Ministry oj Science Technology and Environment (MOSTE) of Thailand, The samples were found to contain several defoliants used in the operation. They were 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, Dicamba, Cocydelic acid, and Dioxins. Due to the complexity of the issue, the multiplicity of possible health effects, and the socio-economic implications for imports and exports, the Thai Society of Toxicology submitted a proposal to request World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva. The assistance is for the area of chemical safety and called for immediate action to explore the magnitude qf risk involved with Dioxins. In this paper we present our approach to health risk assessment which takes into an account the epidemiological studies of high-risk group exposed to the Ranch Hand operation. Dioxins are endocrine disruption chemicals which public concerns are developed due to presumption that a hazard exists (www.eva.gov/dioxins/html) for which current methodologies are deemed insufficient. The recent concepts of how oxidative stress toxicants may affect health end points and biomarkers of exposure of exposed individuals are discussed. While research activities are undergoing, The Thai Society of Toxicology do not anticipate significant risk to local residents and the environment due to our concurrence with opinion from the international experts invited by the World Health Organization proposed to the local experts at a workshop in Bangkok.n Bangkok.

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Comparison of Estimated Daily Dietary Intake of Dioxins in Coastal, Rural, and Urban District (어촌, 농촌, 도시 지역별 주민의 식품을 통한 다이옥신의 섭취량 추정)

  • Park, Jung-Duck;Huang, Ming-Ai;Im, Ruth;Choi, Byung-Sun;Yang, Jae-Ho;Bae, Yun-Jung;Jun, Ye-Sook;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.325-332
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    • 2008
  • The human population is mainly exposed to dioxins through the diet. The purpose of this study was to estimate the daily dietary intake of PCDDs and PCDFs in Korean adults residing in different regions. Subjects were recruited and divided into three groups according to the districts where they lived: rural (n=213), coastal (n=193), and urban district (n=187). Subjects were interviewed using a general questionnaire and 24-hour recall for dietary intake. The daily intake of dioxins was estimated through the use of the database of dioxins contents in 35 Korean foods. The average age of the subjects were 61.5 years for coastal district, 57.6 years for rural district, and 49.4 years for urban district. Daily energy intake was 1707.7 kcal for rural district, 1596.5 kcal for urban district, and 1493.8 kcal for coastal district. There was no significant difference in total food intake by regions. The intakes from fishes of coastal district, those from cereals, vegetables, meats, and seasonings of rural district, and those from sugars, pulses, eggs, seaweeds, milks, oils of urban area were higher than those of the other two districts. The daily dioxins intake of coastal district (0.70 pgTEQ/kg/day) was significantly higher than those of rural district (0.32 pgTEQ/kg/day) and urban district (0.46 pgTEQ/kg/day). The dioxins intake from cereals, pulses, vegetables, fishes of coastal district and those from eggs and milks of urban area were the highest among the districts. The daily dioxins intake was positively correlated with the intakes of meats, eggs, fishes, oils, and seasonings. Therefore, it could be concluded that the daily dioxins intake of coastal district is higher than that in other districts and the fish is one of the main sources in dioxin intakes. However, daily dioxins intakes of the three regions were below the level of tolerable daily intake (TDI).

A Synthesis of Optically Active cis and trans 2-(5-Hydroxypoperidin-2-yl)acetates

  • P.N. Reddy;한상수;정교현
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.617-618
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    • 1998
  • A simple and reproducible pretreatment method was developed for the determination of dioxins in milk sample. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was used for the initial extraction of the analyte from milk. For the elimination of interferences coextracted from milk, acid treatment followed by multilayer silica gel, and then alumina column clean-up were performed. The clean extract could be obtained without carbon column or high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) clean-up procedure. Polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) and dioxins were separated on neutral alumina activated at 180 ℃ for 12 hours. The final extract was analyzed by HPLC and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The recovery of dioxins spiked in milk at 75-300 ppt level was 83.3-98.9% and their relative standard deviation was 4.1-14%.

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Analytical Method for Dioxin and Organo-Chlorinated Compounds : (I) Pretreatment of Milk Samples for Dioxin Analysis

  • 양정수;김진영;최용욱;이대운
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.619-624
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    • 1998
  • A simple and reproducible pretreatment method was developed for the determination of dioxins in milk sample. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was used for the initial extraction of the analyte from milk. For the elimination of interferences coextracted from milk, acid treatment followed by multilayer silica gel, and then alumina column clean-up were performed. The clean extract could be obtained without carbon column or high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) clean-up procedure. Polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBS) and dioxins were separated on neutral alumina activated at 180 ℃ for 12 hours. The final extract was analyzed by HPLC and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The recovery of dioxins spiked in milk at 75-300 ppt level was 83.3-98.9% and their relative standard deviation was 4.1-14%.

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Characteristics and Sampling of Dioxins/Furans from Emission Gas and Fly Ash Produced in Municipal Waste Incinerator (도시 소각로 쓰레기 소각후 생성된 폐가스 및 비산재중에 포함된 다이옥신류의 측정 및 특성고찰)

  • Lim, Chae-Hyun;Kim, Hee-Taik;Sohn, Jung-Hyun;Chang, Yoon-Seok
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.790-795
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    • 1997
  • Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuransfurans are the archetype of toxic chemicals. So it has absorbed public attention. The majors primary sources of PCDDS and PCDFs are chemical, thermal and photochemical reactions. Municipal solid waste incinerator facilities has been reported as the major contributors of dioxins to the environment. In this paper, Dioxins and furans were examined emission gas and fly ash produced during combustion in municipal solid waste incinerator. More effective method for sampling, extraction was described. The sample was extracted using a soxhlet method and purified using silicagel, alumina and carbon fibre HPLC to remove interfering compound. The extract was then analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The result of this study showed recovery standard was good and the data resembled those of thermal processes. Total dioxins and furans were $1076.20pg/Nm^3$ and $1452.34pg/Nm^3$ respectively. The amount of highly chlorinated compound was more than that of lowly chlorinated compound. The 2,3,7,8-substituted TCDD was Just 0.34% of the total dioxins/furans amount.

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Serum Concentration and Exposure History of Dioxins and Organochlorine Pesticides among Residents around the Camp Carroll Area (캠프캐럴 인근 주민에서 다이옥신류 및 유기염소계 농약의 혈중 농도 및 노출력)

  • Bae, Sang Geun;Kim, Geun-Bae;Cho, Yong-Sung;Lee, Yu-mi;Lee, Duk Hee;Yang, Wonho;Ju, Young-Su;Lee, Kwan;Min, Young-Sun;Lim, Hyun-Sul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study was performed in order to evaluate whether 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) could be detected among residents living near Camp Caroll in Waegwan and whether serum concentrations of dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are associated with length of residence. Methods: Study subjects totaled 113 (for dioxins) and 190 (for OCPs) adults who were selected from participants in a medical investigation. Serum concentrations of dioxins and OCPs were measured using HRGC/HRMS. Information on length of residence was obtained through questionnaires. Results: 2,3,7,8-TCDD was not detected in serum among all subjects. When length of residence was classified as a categorical variable, after adjusting for confounding variables, only residents living in Waegwan for 40 years or longer tended to have high total TEQ values and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF with marginal significances. There was no dose-response relation between length of residence and serum concentrations of these chemicals. In multiple regression models with continuous values of the length of residence, total TEQ value and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were positively associated with length of residence. However, they explained about 3-5% of total variations of serum concentrations of these compounds, while age, consumption of fatty fish, body mass index, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking were main variables affecting serum concentrations of dioxins or OCPs. Conclusions: In the current study, high concentrations of certain compounds were mainly observed among persons who lived in Waegwan for at least for 40 years without a dose-response relation. Therefore, it seems difficult to conclude that length of residence meaningfully contributed to the current serum concentrations of dioxins or OCPs among residents in Waegwan. However, considering the half-life of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and indirect exposure routes, the limitations of the current study design should be considered in the interpretation of the study findings.