• Title, Summary, Keyword: dual modules

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COLOCALIZATION OF LOCAL HOMOLOGY MODULES

  • Rezaei, Shahram
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.167-177
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    • 2020
  • Let I be an ideal of Noetherian local ring (R, m) and M an artinian R-module. In this paper, we study colocalization of local homology modules. In fact we give Colocal-global Principle for the artinianness and minimaxness of local homology modules, which is a dual case of Local-global Principle for the finiteness of local cohomology modules. We define the representation dimension rI (M) of M and the artinianness dimension aI (M) of M relative to I by rI (M) = inf{i ∈ ℕ0 : HIi (M) is not representable}, and aI (M) = inf{i ∈ ℕ0 : HIi (M) is not artinian} and we will prove that i) aI (M) = rI (M) = inf{rIR𝖕 (𝖕M) : 𝖕 ∈ Spec(R)} ≥ inf{aIR𝖕 (𝖕M) : 𝖕 ∈ Spec(R)}, ii) inf{i ∈ ℕ0 : HIi (M) is not minimax} = inf{rIR𝖕 (𝖕M) : 𝖕 ∈ Spec(R) ∖ {𝔪}}. Also, we define the upper representation dimension RI (M) of M relative to I by RI (M) = sup{i ∈ ℕ0 : HIi (M) is not representable}, and we will show that i) sup{i ∈ ℕ0 : HIi (M) ≠ 0} = sup{i ∈ ℕ0 : HIi (M) is not artinian} = sup{RIR𝖕 (𝖕M) : 𝖕 ∈ Spec(R)}, ii) sup{i ∈ ℕ0 : HIi (M) is not finitely generated} = sup{i ∈ ℕ0 : HIi (M) is not minimax} = sup{RIR𝖕 (𝖕M) : 𝖕 ∈ Spec(R) ∖ {𝔪}}.

New Energy Efficient Clear Channel Assessment for Wireless Network

  • Shin, Soo-Young;Ramachandran, Iyappan;Roy, Sumit
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.5 no.8
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    • pp.1404-1422
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, a new clear channel assessment (CCA) method: cascaded-CCA, is proposed. The primary motivation for the proposed approach is to integrate the respective advantages of two standard CCA mechanisms, energy detect and preamble detect, to arrive at a new dual threshold CCA family that can provide greater flexibility towards tuning MAC performance. Cascaded-CCA integrates energy efficiency of the energy detector (ED) and the reliability of the preamble detector (PD). The probability of detection/false alarm and power consumption of cascaded-CCA in the CCA modules of IEEE 802.11b are analyzed and compared with ED and PD as an example. The performance of cascaded-CCA is explored via MATLAB simulations that implement the CCA modules and medium access control (MAC) protocol for IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4. Simulation results showed that cascaded-CCA improves the energy efficiency significantly compared to ED-only or PD-only CCA. In addition, ED, PD, and cascaded CCA are applied to a cognitive network scenario to validate the effectiveness of the proposed cascaded-CCA.

Effects of Ginsenosides $Rg_3$ and $Rh_2$ OH the Proliferation of Prostate Cancer Cells

  • Kim Hyun-Sook;Lee Eun-Hee;Ko Sung-Ryong;Choi Kang-Ju;Park Jong-Hee;Im Dong-Soon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.429-435
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    • 2004
  • Ginseng has an anti-cancer effect in several cancer models. This study was to characterize active constituents of ginseng and their effects on proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC3. Cell proliferation was measured by $[^3H]$thymidine incorporation, the intracellular calcium concentration by a dual-wavelength spectrophotometer system, effects on mite-gen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by Western blotting, and cell attachment and morphologic changes were observed under a microscope. Among 11 ginsenosides tested, ginsenosides $Rg_3\;and\;Rh_2$ inhibited the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. $EC_{50}s\;of\;Rg_3\;and\;Rh_2$ on PC3 cells were $8.4{\mu}M\;and\;5.5{\mu}M$, respectively, and $14.1{\mu}M\;and\;4.4{\mu}M$ on LNCaP cells, respectively. Both ginsenosides induced cell detachment and modulated three modules of MAP kinases activities differently in LNCaP and PC3 cells. These results suggest that ginsenosides $Rg_3\;and\;Rh_2$-induced cell detachment and inhibition of the proliferation of prostate cancer cells may be associated with modulation of three modules of MAP kinases.

An Operating Software Architecture for PC-based (PC기반의 생산시스템을 위한 운용소프트웨어 구조)

  • Park, Nam-Jun;Kim, Hong-Seok;Park, Jong-Gu
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1196-1204
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, a new architecture of operating software associated with the component-based method is proposed. The proposed architecture comprises 문 execution module and a decision-making module. In order to make effective development and maintenance, the execution module is divided into three components. The components are referred to as Symbol, Gateway, and Control, respectively: The symbol component is for the GUI environments and the standard interfaces; the gateway component is for the network communication and the structure of asynchronous processes; the control component is for the asynchronous processing and machine setting or operations. In order to verify the proposed architecture, and off-line version of operating software is made, and its steps are as follows; I) Make virtual execution modules for the manufacturing devices such as dual-arm robot, handling robot, CNC, and sensor; ii) Make decision-making module; iii) Integrate the modules and GUI using a well-known development tools such as Microsofts Visual Basic; iv) Execute the overall operating software to validate the proposed architecture. The proposed software architecture in this paper has the advantages such as independent development of each module, easy development of network communication, and distributed processing of resources, and so on.

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A High-Efficiency High-Power Step-Up Converter with Low Ripple Content

  • Kang Jeong-il;Roh Chung-Wook;Moon Gun-Woo;Youn Myung-Joong
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
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    • pp.708-712
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    • 2001
  • A new phase-shifted parallel-input/series-output (PI SO) dual inductor-fed push-pull converter for high-power step­up applications is proposed. This converter is operated at a constant duty cycle and employs an auxiliary circuit to control the output voltage with a phase-shift between the two modules. It features a voltage conversion characteristic which is linear to changes in the control input, and high step-up ratio with a greatly reduced switch turn-off stress resulting in a significant increase in the converter efficiency. It also shows a low ripple content and low root-mean-square (RMS) current in the output capacitor. The operational principle is analyzed and a comparative analysis with the conventional pulse-width-modulated (PWM) PISO dual inductor-fed push-pull converter is presented. A 50kHz, 800W, 350Vdc prototype with an input of 20-32Vdc has also been constructed to validate the proposed converter. The proposed converter compares favorably with the conventional counterpart and is considered well suited to high-power step-up applications.

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Development of Dual FDG Auto Synthesis Module (듀얼 FDG 자동합성장치 개발)

  • Jeong, Cheol-Ki;Lee, Goung-Jin;Hur, Min-Goo;Jang, Hong-Suk;Min, Young-Don
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.313-316
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    • 2011
  • [$^{18}F$]FDG (2-[$^{18}F$] Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose), which is required Automated Synthetic Module for production, is most often used Radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. In this study, an Automated Synthesis Module was developed to produce FDG in two consecutive time when F-18 feds continuously by modifying a domestic FDG Automated Synthetic Module on structural geometry and control system. The results were showed that the Average Synthesis Yields on the developed Automated Synthetic Module were $45{\pm}3%$ (n=20), $50{\pm}3%$ (n=20) respectively. The Quality Control results, such as Radio TLC, Radiochemical purity, Gamma-counter, pH, LAL Test, Micro bacteria test, showed in same level with domestic [$^{18}F$]FDG Auto-Synthetic modules. Therefore, if some features were improved by considering the components life time and appearance, commercial sales can be expected because of low price and easy maintenance compared with foreign products.

Advanced Induction Heating Equipment using Dual Mode PWM-PDM Controlled Series Load Resonant Tank High Frequency Inverters

  • Fathy, Khairy;Kwon, Soon-Kurl;Nakaoka, Mutsuo
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.246-256
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    • 2007
  • In this paper, a novel type auxiliary active edge resonant snubber assisted zero current soft switching pulse modulation Single-Ended Push Pull (SEPP) series load resonant inverter using IGBT power modules is proposed for cost effective consumer high-frequency induction heating (IH) appliances. Its operating principle in steady state is described by using each switching mode's equivalent operating circuits. The new multi resonant high-frequency inverter with series load resonance and edge resonance can regulate its high frequency output power under a condition of a constant frequency zero current soft switching (ZCS) commutation principle on the basis of the asymmetrical pulse width modulation (PWM) control scheme. Brand-new consumer IH products using the proposed ZCS-PWM series load resonant SEPP high-frequency inverter using IGBTs is evaluated and discussed as compared with conventional high-frequency inverters on the basis of experimental results. In order to extend ZCS operation ranges under a low power setting PWM as well as to improve efficiency, the high frequency pulse density modulation (PDM) strategy is demonstrated for high frequency multi-resonant inverters. Its practical effectiveness is substantially proved from an application point of view.

The Influence of Changing PV Array Interconnections under a Non-uniform Irradiance

  • Ding, Kun;Feng, Li;Qin, Si-Yu;Mao, Jing;Zhang, Jing-Wei;Wang, Xiang;Peng, Tao;Zhai, Quan-Xin
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.631-642
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    • 2016
  • Usually, the output characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) array are significantly affected by non-uniform irradiance which is caused by ambient obstacles, clouds, orientations, tilts, etc. Some local maximum power points (LMPP) in the current-voltage (I-V) curves of a PV array can result in power losses of the array. However, the output power at the global maximum power point (GMPP) is different in different interconnection schemes in a PV array. Therefore, based on the theoretical analysis and mathematical derivation of different topological structures of a PV array, this paper investigated the output characteristics of dual series PV arrays with different interconnections. The proposed mathematical models were also validated by experimental results. Finally, this paper also concluded that in terms of performance, the total cross tied (TCT) interconnection was not always the optimal structure, especially in a dual series PV array. When one of the PV modules was severely mismatched, the TCT worked worse than the series parallel (SP) structure. This research can provide guidance for switching the interconnection to gain the greatest energy yield in a changeable- structure PV system.

Development of a Wireless Sensor Network Node with Dual Interfaces of UHF Radio and Bluetooth (UHF-RF 및 블루투스 이중 접속 무선 센서 네트워크 노드개발)

  • Kim, Ho-Joon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.10 no.10
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    • pp.1905-1913
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    • 2006
  • The researches about the hardware and the software implementing ubiquitous sensor network have great rush in recent years. This paper deals the development of a sensor node with the dual interface which also has an RF wireless interface while has an Bluetooth interface used widely in present. This sensor node includes a Atmeg32 microcontroller, a Bluetooth module, a RF module. a temperature-humidity sensor. and I also develop the F/Ws controlling each modules with C language using GCC compiler. The sensor node developed can reaches 15m with Bluetooth interface and 60m with RF interface. It works stably with the voltage above 5V and it consumes currents 21mA average in idle mode, 63mA average in active mode.

A Novel Induction Heating Type Super Heated Vapor Steamer using Dual Mode Phase Shifted PWM Soft Switching High Frequency Inverter

  • Sugimura, Hisayuki;Eid, Ahmad;Lee, Hyun-Woo;Nakaoka, Mutsuo
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
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    • pp.774-777
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, a constant frequency phase shifting PWM controlled voltage source full bridge-type series load resonant high-frequency inverter using the IGBT power modules is presented for innovative consumer electromagnetic induction heating applications such as a hot water producer, steamer and super heated steamer. The full bridge arm side link passive quasi-resonant capacitor snubbers in parallel with the each power semiconductor device and high frequency AC load side linked active edge inductive snubber-assisted series load resonant tank soft switching inverter with a constant frequency phase shifted PWM control scheme is discussed and evaluated on the basis of the simulation and experimental results. It is proved from a practical point of view that the series load resonant and edge resonant hybrid high-frequency soft switching PWM inverter topology, what is called class DE type. including the variable-power variable-frequency(VPVF) regulation function can expand zero voltage soft switching commutation range even under low output power setting ranges, which is more suitable and acceptable for induction heated dual packs fluid heater developed newly for consumer power utilizations. Furthermore, even in the lower output power regulation mode of this high-frequency load resonant tank high frequency inverter circuit it is verified that this inverter can achieve ZVS with the aid of the single auxiliary inductor snubber.

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