• Title, Summary, Keyword: earthquake excitation

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Dynamic Analysis of Floating Bridge with Discrete Pontoons Subject to Earthquake Load (이산 폰툰형 부유식 교량의 지진응답 해석)

  • 권장섭;백인열;장승필
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2002
  • Dynamic response analysis are conducted for a floating bridge subjected to multiple support earthquake excitation. The floating bridge used in this study is supported by discrete floating pontoons and horizontal pretension cables supported at both ends of the bridge. The bridge is modeled with finite elements and the hydrodynamic added mass and added damping due to the surrounding fluid around pontoons are obtained using boundary elements. Multiple support excitation is introduced at both ends of the bridge and the time history response is compared to that of a simultaneous excitation. The results shows that the differences between two results are not so large except for cable tension for which the multiple support excitation yields larger values. During the analysis the concept of retardation function is utilized to consider the frequency dependency of the hydrodynamic coefficients.

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Effect of ground motion characteristics on the pure friction isolation system

  • Nanda, Radhikesh P.;Shrikhande, Manish;Agarwal, Pankaj
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.169-180
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    • 2012
  • The performance of pure friction isolation system with respect to the frequency bandwidth of excitation and the predominant frequency is investigated. A set of earthquake ground motions (artificial as well as recorded [with different combinations of magnitude-distance and local site geology]) is considered for investigating effectiveness of pure friction isolators. The results indicate the performance of pure friction base isolated system does not only depend upon coefficient of friction and mass ratio but the stick-slip behaviour depends upon the frequency content of the excitation as well. Slippage prevails if the excitation frequency lies in a suitable frequency range. This range widens with increasing mass ratio. For larger mass ratios, the sliding effect is more pronounced and the maximum acceleration response is further reduced in the neighbourhood of frequency ratio (${\omega}/{\omega}_n$) of unity. The pure friction isolation system is effective in the case of broadband excitations only and that too, in the acceleration sensitive range of periods. The pure friction system is not effective for protection against narrow band motions for which the system response is quasi-periodic.

Seismic design of structures using a modified non-stationary critical excitation

  • Ashtari, P.;Ghasemi, S.H.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.383-396
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    • 2013
  • In earthquake engineering area, the critical excitation method is an approach to find the most severe earthquake subjected to the structure. However, given some earthquake constraints, such as intensity and power, the critical excitations have spectral density functions that often resonate with the first modes of the structure. This paper presents a non-stationary critical excitation that is capable of exciting the main modes of the structure using a non-uniform power spectral density (PSD) that is similar to natural earthquakes. Thus, this paper proposes a new method to estimate the power and intensity of earthquakes. Finally, a new method for the linear seismic design of structures using a modified non-stationary critical excitation is proposed.

Dynamic Analysis of Floating Bridge Subject to Earthquake Load Considering Multi-Support Excitation (다중지점 가진 효과를 고려한 부유식 교량의 지진응답 해석)

  • 권장섭;백인열;장승필
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2004
  • Dynamic response analysis is conducted for a floating bridge subjected to multiple support earthquake excitation. The floating bridge used in this study is supported by discrete floating pontoons and horizontal pretension cables supported at both ends of the bridge. The bridge is modeled with finite elements and the hydrodynamic added mass and added damping due to the surrounding fluid around pontoons are obtained using boundary elements. During the analysis the concept of retardation function is utilized to consider the frequency dependency of the hydrodynamic coefficients. Multiple support excitation is introduced at both ends of the bridge and the time history response is compared to that of a simultaneous excitation. The results show that the multiple support excitation yields larger values in some responses. for example in cable tensions. than the sumultaneous excitation.

Random Vibration Analysis of Nonlinear Structure System using Perturbation Method

  • Moon, Byung-Young;Kang, Beom-Soo;Kang, Gyung-Ju
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.243-250
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    • 2001
  • Industrial machines are sometimes exposed to the danger of earthquake. In the design of a mechanical system, this factor should be accounted for from the viewpoint of reliability. A method to analyze a complex nonlinear structure system under random excitation is proposed. First, the actual random excitation, such as earthquake, is approximated to the corresponding Gaussian process far the statistical analysis. The modal equations of overall system are expanded sequentially. Then, the perturbed equations are synthesized into the overall system and solved in probabilistic way. Several statistical properties of a random process that are of interest in random vibration applications are reviewed in accordance with nonlinear stochastic problem. The obtained statistical properties of the nonlinear random vibration are evaluated in each substructure. Comparing with the results of the numerical simulation proved the efficiency of the proposed method.

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Probabilistic study of the influence of ground motion variables on response spectra

  • Yazdani, Azad;Takada, Tsuyoshi
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.877-893
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    • 2011
  • Response spectra of earthquake ground motions are important in the earthquake-resistant design and reliability analysis of structures. The formulation of the response spectrum in the frequency domain efficiently computes and evaluates the stochastic response spectrum. The frequency information of the excitation can be described using different functional forms. The shapes of the calculated response spectra of the excitation show strong magnitude and site dependency, but weak distance dependency. In this paper, to compare the effect of the earthquake ground motion variables, the contribution of these sources of variability to the response spectrum's uncertainty is calculated by using a stochastic analysis. The analytical results show that earthquake source factors and soil condition variables are the main sources of uncertainty in the response spectra, while path variables, such as distance, anelastic attenuation and upper crust attenuation, have relatively little effect. The presented formulation of dynamic structural response in frequency domain based only on the frequency information of the excitation can provide an important basis for the structural analysis in some location that lacks strong motion records.

Determination of critical excitation in seismic analysis of structures

  • Kamgar, Reza;Rahgozar, Reza
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.875-891
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    • 2015
  • Earthquake can occur anywhere in the world and it is essential to design important members in special structures based on maximum possible forces that can be produced in them under severe earthquake. In addition, since the earthquake is an accidental phenomena and there are no similar earthquakes, therefore the possibility of strong earthquakes should be taken into account in earthquake-resistant design of important structures. Based on this viewpoint, finding the critical acceleration which maximizes internal forces is an essential factor in structural design. This paper proposes critical excitation method to compute the critical acceleration in design of important members in special structures. These critical accelerations are computed so that the columns' internal shear force at the base of the structure at each time step is maximized under constraints on ground motion. Among computed critical accelerations (of each time step), the one which produces maximum internal shear force is selected. A numerical example presents to show the efficiency of critical excitation method in determining the maximum internal shear force and base moment under variety of constraints. The results show that these method can be used to compute the resonant earthquake which have large enough effective duration of earthquake strong motion (between 12.86 sec to 13.38 sec) and produce the internal shear force and base moment for specific column greater than the same value for selected earthquakes in constructing the critical excitation (for different cases about 2.78 to 1.29 times the San Fernando earthquake). Therefore, a group of them can be utilized in developing the response spectrum for design of special structures.

Shaking table test of pounding tuned mass damper (PTMD) on a frame structure under earthquake excitation

  • Lin, Wei;Wang, Qiuzhang;Li, Jun;Chen, Shanghong;Qi, Ai
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.545-553
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    • 2017
  • A pounding tuned mass damper (PTMD) can be considered as a passive device, which combines the merits of a traditional tuned mass damper (TMD) and a collision damper. A recent analytical study by the authors demonstrated that the PTMD base on the energy dissipation during impact is able to achieve better control effectiveness over the traditional TMD. In this paper, a PTMD prototype is manufactured and applied for seismic response reduction to examine its efficacy. A series of shaking table tests is conducted in a three-story building frame model under single-dimensional and two-dimensional broadband earthquake excitations with different excitation intensities. The ability of the PTMD to reduce the structural responses is experimentally investigated. The results show that the traditional TMD is sensitive to input excitations, while the PTMD mostly has improved control performance over the TMD to remarkably reduce both the peak and root-mean-square (RMS) structural responses under single-dimensional earthquake excitation. Unlike the TMD, the PTMD is found to have the merit of maintaining a stable performance when subjected to different earthquake loadings. In addition, it is also indicated that the performance of the PTMD can be enhanced by adjusting the initial gap value, and the control effectiveness improves with the increasing excitation intensity. Under two-dimensional earthquake inputs, the PTMD controls remain outperform the TMD controls; however, the oscillation of the added mass is observed during the test, which may induce torsional vibration modes of the structure, and hence, result in poor control performance especially after a strong earthquake period.

Detailed Finite Element Analysis of Full-scale Four-story Steel Frame Structure subjected to Consecutive Ground Motions

  • Tagawa, Hiroyuki;Miyamura, Tomoshi;Yamashita, Takuzo;Kohiyama, Masayuki;Ohsaki, Makoto
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2015
  • Detailed finite element (FE) analyses of a full-scale four-story steel frame structure, subjected to consecutive 60% and 100% excitations from the JR Takatori records during the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, are conducted using E-Simulator. The four-story frame was tested at the largest shake-table facility in the world, E-Defense, in 2007. E-Simulator is a parallel FE analysis software package developed to accurately simulate structural behavior up to collapse by using a fine mesh of solid elements. To reduce computational time in consecutive dynamic time history analyses, static analysis with gravity force is introduced to terminate the vibration of the structure during the analysis of 60% excitation. An overall sway mechanism when subjected to 60% excitation and a story mechanism resulting from local buckling of the first-story columns when subjected to 100% excitation are simulated by using E-Simulator. The story drift response to the consecutive 60% and 100% excitations is slightly smaller than that for the single 100% excitation.

Semi-active control on long-span reticulated steel structures using MR dampers under multi-dimensional earthquake excitations

  • Zhou, Zhen;Meng, Shao-Ping;Wu, Jing;Zhao, Yong
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.557-572
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    • 2012
  • This paper focuses on the vibration control of long-span reticulated steel structures under multi-dimensional earthquake excitation. The control system and strategy are constructed based on Magneto-Rheological (MR) dampers. The LQR and Hrovat controlling algorithm is adopted to determine optimal MR damping force, while the modified Bingham model (MBM) and inverse neural network (INN) is proposed to solve the real-time controlling current. Three typical long-span reticulated structural systems are detailedly analyzed, including the double-layer cylindrical reticulated shell, single-layer spherical reticulated shell, and cable suspended arch-truss structure. Results show that the proposed control strategy can reduce the displacement and acceleration effectively for three typical structural systems. The displacement control effect under the earthquake excitation with different PGA is similar, while for the cable suspended arch-truss, the acceleration control effect increase distinctly with the earthquake excitation intensity. Moreover, for the cable suspended arch-truss, the strand stress variation can also be effectively reduced by the MR dampers, which is very important for this kind of structure to ensure that the cable would not be destroyed or relaxed.