• Title/Summary/Keyword: eel

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The C-terminal Phosphorylation Sites of eel Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor are Important Role in the Signal Transduction

  • Kim, Jeong-Min;Byambaragchaa, Munkhzaya;Kang, Myung-Hwa;Min, Kwan-Sik
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.143-153
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    • 2018
  • The large extracellular domain of glycoprotein hormone receptors is a unique feature within the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) family. After interaction with the hormone, the receptor becomes coupled to Gs, which, in turn stimulates adenylyl cyclase and the production of cAMP. Potential phosphorylation sites exist in the C-terminal region of GPCRs. The experiments described herein represent attempts to determine the functions of the eel follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (eelFSHR). We constructed a mutant of eelFSHR, in which the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail was truncated at residue 614 (eelFSHR-t614). The eelFSHR-t614 lacked all potential phosphorylation sites present in the C-terminal region of eelFSHR. In order to obtain the eelFSHR ligand, we produced recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone ($rec-eelFSH{\beta}/{\alpha}$) in the CHO-suspension cells. The expression level was 2-3 times higher than that of the transient expression of eelFSH in attached CHO-K1 cells. The molecular weight of the $rec-eelFSH{\beta}/{\alpha}$ protein was identified to be approximately 34 kDa. The cells expressing eelFSHR-t614 showed an increase in agonist-induced cAMP responsiveness. The maximal cAMP responses of cells expressing eelFSHR-t614 were lower than those of cells expressing eelFSHR-wild type (eelFSHR-WT). The $EC_{50}$ following C-terminal deletion in CHO-K1 cells was approximately 60.4% of that of eelFSHR-WT. The maximal response in eelFSHR-t614 cells was also drastically lower than that of eelFSHR-WT. We also found similar results in PathHunter Parental cells expressing ${\beta}$-arrestin. Thus, these data provide evidence that the truncation of the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail phosphorylation sites in the eelFSHR greatly decreased cAMP responsiveness and maximal response in both CHO-K1 cells and Path-Hunter Parental cells expressing ${\beta}$-arrestin.

Optimal Process of Eel Hot-Water Extract for Proper Edible Volume (장어고음의 적정 음용량을 위한 제조공정의 설정)

  • Cho, Young-Je;Jung, Ho-Jin;Kim, Yun-Chul;Oh, Sang-Min;Son, Myoung-Jin;Kim, Seung-Mi;Sim, Kil-Bo
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.374-378
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    • 2006
  • Eel is Anguilla japonica and Anguillidae family as a freshwater fish, and Japanese name is Unagi. The content of vitamin A of eel muscle are about 4,000IU/100g and they have many effective components, so it is known as healthy food. Therefore, many people have eel that cooked roast and hot-water extract in Korea. WHO encouraged that daily edible content of vitamin A is 2,000IU. Now, Japan government proposes the weight of roasted eel in lunch basket as 50g. But, Korea government does not proposes in every related aspects. Therefore, we researched content of vitamin A in hot-water extract from eel and optimal processing condition of hot-water extract from eel, in order to determine a proper edible volume. The content of vitamin A in eel hot-water extract sold at a market was about 200 IU. This study resulted from the fact that many eel hot-water extracts lacked the vitamin A. The reason was that the lipids were removed for taste on processing. But, The content of vitamin A in eel hot-water extract which didn't removed lipid on processing was about 800IU. Therefore, in drinking for 3packs per day, eel hot-water extract might have adjusted 100mL per pack which is almost consistent with the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A in WHO.

Functional Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Eel Teriyaki Sauce with Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) (복분자 첨가 장어 데리야끼 소스의 기능성 성분 및 항산화 활성)

  • Sung, Ki-Hyub;Chung, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.287-299
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    • 2015
  • Antioxidant activity of factory eel teriyaki sauce with bokbunja was investigated by functional analysis. Sugar content analysis of eel teriyaki sauce-free with bokbunja showed fructose and glucose but not maltose. Anthocyanin content of eel teriyaki sauce with bokbunja juice concentrate was 40%. DPPH radical scavenging activity and total polyphenol content of bokbunja added eel teriyaki sauce increased with increasing amount of bokbunja and were 80% higher than control sample. Total polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity were closely related to electron donating ability. The preferred concentrations of eel teriyaki sauce for commercial production were 60% for bokbunja, 40% for bokbunja concentrate, 20% for bokbunja powder eel.

Studies on Immuno-responses of Eel, Anguilla japonica-I. Serological Studies on Edwardsiella tarda (뱀장어의 면역응답에 관한 연구-I 에드와드병 원인균의 혈청형에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Soo-Il
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 1989
  • Edwardsiella tarda, the causative organism of Edwardsiellosis, was isolated from the water and the eel, Anguilla japonica of the recirculating eel culture ponds in 1988. E. tarda was always isolated from the water of eel culture ponds in the number of log 2.30~log 4.78 CFU/$m{\ell}$ without distinguishable seasonal characteristics. The counts of isolated E. tarda were changed with the health condition of the eel, i. e., a number of E. tarda were isolated from all checked organs, intestine contents, liver, spleen and kidney of the diseased eel, however, it was hardly isolated from spleen and kidney of the healthy eel. The isolates were classified according to o-agglutinating test into three serotypes (I, II, III). There were no distinct differences in the composition of the serotypes between intestine contents of eel and pond water samples(I, 52.4~53.3% ; II, 20.0~23.8% ; III, 4.8~6.7%). Serotype I was ascendant in the spleen(66.7%) and the kidney(73.7%) samples. By experimental challenge, most of serotype I proved highly virulent to eel in comparison with the other serotypes tested.

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Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album Coloratum) Extract Induces Eel (Anguilla japonica) Non-specific Immunity

  • Yoon, Taek-Joon;Park, Kwan-Ha;Choi, Sang-Hoon
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 2008
  • Background: The immunomodulatory effects of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album Coloratum) on the innate immune responses of eel (Anguilla japonica) were studied. Methods: Mistletoe, Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a control was injected into eel peritoneal cavities. Results: Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-positive cells in the head kidney of eel were significantly augmented by the second day post-injection of mistletoe. Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) were more produced in mistletoe-injected fish kidney leucocytes than in FCA-injected ones. The level of lysozyme activity in the serum of fish 2 days after injection with mistletoe was also significantly higher than that in the serum of the control fish. The optimal concentration of mistletoe in inducing the highest serum lysozyme activity was revealed to 500${\mu}$g/200 g of fish. In phagocytic activity assay, mistletoe-sensitized eel kidney phagocytes captured more zymosan than did the control fish. Conclusion: Korean mistletoe appeared to be a good activator of the non-specific immune responses of eel.

Comparison of Food Component between Conger eel (Conger myriaster) and Sea eel (Muraenesox cinereus) as a Sliced Raw Fish Meat (생선회로서 붕장어 (Conger myriaster) 및 갯장어 (Muraenesox cinereus)의 식품성분 비교)

  • KIM Jin-Soo;OH Kwang-Soo;LEE Jung-Suck
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.678-684
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    • 2001
  • In Korea, the conger eel, Conger myriaster and sea eel, Muraenesox cinereus have been eaten as a sliced raw ash meat for a long time. This study was carried out to compare the food component and sensory differences of the conger eel and sea eel as a sliced raw fish meat. The yield and ash content of conger eel were slightly higher than those of sea eel, and no significant differences in moisture, crude protein and crude lipid. The major fatty acids of conger eel were 16:0 ($19.9\%$), 18 : 1n-9 ($36.1\%$) and 22: 6n-3 ($8.3\%$), while those of sea eel were 16:0 ($24.0\%$), 16: 1n-7 ($12.1\%$) and 18:1n-9 ($21.9\%$), The contents of (n-3)-fatty acids were low in all of the two samples. The contents of total amino acid in the conger eel and sea eel were 19,147.2 mg/100 g and 18,527.1 mg/100 g, respectively. The major amino acids of two samples were aspartic acid, glutamic acid and lysine. The chemical score in protein of conger eel was higher about $6\%$ than that of sea eel, and the Ca and P contents of conger eel were also higher than those of sea eel. Although the nutritional value of conger eel as a sliced raw fish meat was generally higher than that of sea eel, the sensory scores in taste and texture of conger eel were lower than those of sea eel.

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Studies on Lipids in Fresh-Water Fishes 7. Comparison of Lipid Components among Wild and Cultured Eel (Anguilla japonica), and Conger Eel (Astroconger myriaster) (담수어의 지질에 관한 연구 7. 천연 및 양식 뱀장어와 붕장어의 지질성분 비교)

  • CHOI Jin-Ho;RHIM Chae-Hwan;BAE Tae-Jin;BYUN Dae-Seok;YOON Tai-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.439-446
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    • 1985
  • This study was designed to compare the lipid components among wild and cultured eel, Anguilla japonica, and conger eel, Astroconger myriaster. The lipid components of cultured eel were analyzed and compared with those of wild and conger eel. In the content of total lipid, the lipid content in cultured eel was slightly higher than that in wild one, but 2 times higher than that in conger eel. The lipid contents in edible portion of wild and cultured eel were 5 times higher than those in viscera, but the lipid content in edible portion of conger eel showed a similar trend to that in viscera. In the fatty acid composition of neutral lipid in edible portion, percentages of $C_{14:0},\;C_{16:0}\;and\;C_{18:1}$ in cultured eel were higher than those in wild one, while percentages of $C_{16:1},\;C_{18:2},\;C_{18:3},\;C_{20:4},\;C_{20:5},\;C_{22:5}\;and\;C_{22:6}$ lower, and percentages of $C_{18:0},\;C_{20:4}\;and\;C_{22:6}$ in conger eel were noticeably higher than those in wild and cultured eels. In the case of phospholipid in edible portion, percentages of $C_{18:0}\;and\;C_{18:2}$ in cultured eel were higher than those in wild one, while percentages of $C_{16:0},\;C_{16:1},\;C_{18:1},\;C_{18:3},\;C_{20:4},\;C_{20:5},\;C_{22:5}\;and\;C_{22:6}$ lower. The unsaturation (TUFA/TSFA) of neutral lipid was no significant difference among wild and cultured eel, and conger eel, but that of phospholipid in wild eel was higher than that in cultured eel and conger eel. The essential fatty acid content(TEFA) of neutral lipid in edible portion of wild eel was 3 times higher than that of cultured one. but the TEFA of phospholipid in edible portion was no significant difference among wild and cultured eels, and conger eel. The w3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content (w3 HUFA) of neutral lipid in edible portion of wild eel was 2.0 to 2.5 times higher than that of cultured eel and conger eel, but the w3 HUFA of phospholipid in edible portion of wild eel was noticeably higher than that of cultured eel and conger eel. In the ratio (A/B) of fatty acid content (A) in cultured eel to that (B) in diet, the A/B ratios of $C_{18:2}\;w6,\;C_{18:3}\;w3,\;C_{20:5}\;w3\;and\;C_{22:6}\;w3$ were 0.23 to 0.48 much lower than the other fatty acid. Consequently, it is considered that the ratios of w3 HUFA is related to the biosynthesis of polyenoic acid and growth rate of cultured eel.

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Signal Transduction of Equine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (eFSHR) by rec-eelFSHβ/α, Natural Porcine FSH, and Natural Human FSH

  • Byambaragchaa, Munkhzaya;Kim, Dae-Jung;Kang, Myung-Hwa;Min, Kwan-Sik
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we analyzed signal transduction by equine follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (eFSHR) on sti- mulation with recombinant $eelFSH{\beta}/{\alpha}$ ($rec-eelFSH{\beta}/{\alpha}$), natural porcine FSH (pFSH), and natural human FSH (hFSH). cAMP stimulation in CHO-K1 cells expressing eFSHR was determined upon exposure to different doses (0-1450 ng/mL) of these hormones. The $EC_{50}$ value of $rec-eelFSH{\beta}/{\alpha}$ was 53.35 ng/mL. The Rmax values of $rec-eelFSH{\beta}/{\alpha}$ and pFSH were 28.12 and 2.88 ng/mL, respectively. The activity of $rec-eelFSH{\beta}/{\alpha}$ was much higher than that of natural pFSH. However, signal transduction in CHO PathHunter Parental cells expressing eFSHR was not enhanced by stimulation with natural hFSH. Thus, $rec-eelFSH{\beta}/{\alpha}$ was completely active in cells expressing eFSHR. However, natural hFSH did not invoke a signal response in cells expressing eFSHR. Particularly, natural pFSH was weakly active in the same cells. These results showed that $eelFSH{\beta}/{\alpha}$ has potent activity in cells expressing eFSHR. Thus, $rec-eelFSH{\beta}/{\alpha}$ may efficiently bind to eFSHR, where as natural hFSH does not bind to eFSHR.

Signal Transduction of Eel Luteinizing Hormone Receptor (eelLHR) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (eelFSHR) by Recombinant Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (rec-eCG) and Native eCG

  • Byambaragchaa, Munkhzaya;Lee, So-Yun;Kim, Dae-Jung;Kang, Myung-Hwa;Min, Kwan-Sik
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 2018
  • Previous studies showed that recombinant equine chorionic gonadotropin ($rec-eCG{\beta}/{\alpha}$) exhibits both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)-like activities in rat LHR- and FSHR-expressing cells. In this study, we analyzed signal transduction by eelFSHR and eelLHR upon stimulation with $rec-eCG{\beta}/{\alpha}$ and native eCG. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) stimulation in CHO-K1 cells expressing eelLHR was determined upon exposure to different doses (0-1,450 ng/mL) of $rec-eCG{\beta}/{\alpha}$ and native eCG. The $EC_{50$ values of $rec-eCG{\beta}/{\alpha}$ and native eCG were 172.4 and 786.6 ng/mL, respectively. The activity of $rec-eCG{\beta}/{\alpha}$ was higher than that of native eCG. However, signal transduction in the CHO PathHunter Parental cells expressing eelFSHR was not enhanced by stimulation with both agonist $rec-eCG{\beta}/{\alpha}$ and native eCG. We concluded that $rec-eCG{\beta}/{\alpha}$ and native eCG were completely active in cells expressing eelLHR, similar to the activity in the mammalian cells expressing LHRs. However, $rec-eCG{\beta}/{\alpha}$ and native eCG did not invoke any signaling response in the cells expressing eelFSHR. These results suggest that eCG has a potent activity in cells expressing eelLHR. Thus, we also suggest that $rec-eCG{\beta}/{\alpha}$ can induce eel maturation by administering gonadotropic reagents (LH), such as salmon pituitary extract.

SIMULATION OF ENERGY HARVESTING EEL BY THE IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD

  • Jung, Ki-Sung;Huang, Wei-Xi;Sung, Hyung-Jin
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.197-203
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    • 2008
  • In the present study, we carry out numerical simulations of energy harvesting eel by using the immersed boundary method. Eel is modeled by a flexible filament and is placed behind a circular cylinder. We perform systematic simulations in order to explore the effects of Reynolds number. The instantaneous eel motion is analyzed under different conditions and surrounding vortical structures are identified. The flapping frequency of eel has been compared with that in case of plate alone as well as filament alone. As increasing Reynolds number, we can see that the flexible filament flaps passively by obtaining the Strouhal number of cylinder alone and filament with cylinder.

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