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Monitoring Technique of Pumpkin Fruit Flies Using Terpinyl Acetate-Protein Diet Lure and Development of Its Spraying Formulation for The Fly Control (Terpinyl acetate-단백질먹이 유인제를 이용한 호박과실파리류 연중발생 모니터링 기술 및 살포용 방제 제형 개발)

  • Kim, Yonggyun;Ahn, Jeong Joon
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2020
  • Two tephritid fruit flies are infesting pumpkins in Korea. Both are classified into genus of Zeugodacus. The striped fruit fly, Z. scutellata, males are attracted to a lure called Cuelure (CL), which has been used to monitor the occurrence of this fruit fly in the crop field. In contrast, no effective male lure was not developed to monitor the pumpkin fruit fly, Z. depressa. Protein diet lure has been used to attract females of most fruit flies. The addition of terpinyl acetate (TA) was effective to increase the attractiveness of Z. depressa. This study aimed to monitor the occurrence of Z. depressa in pumpkin field with TA-protein diet lure. To validate the efficiency of TA-protein diet lure, Z. scutellata was monitored in a year of 2019 using CL and TA-protein diet lures, and the yearly monitoring data were compared. The occurrence patterns derived from both lures were similar except late season after October. The extended catches of TA-protein diet lure might be explained by the adult diapause induction of Z. scutellata at late September. Monitoring Z. depressa with TA-protein diet lure gave two peaks at mid July and August-September, in which more than 80% catches were females. Based on the attractiveness of TA-protein diet lure, its wettable powder with an addition of spinosad insecticide was formulated and sprayed to pumpkin crops. After 7 days post-spray, the control efficacy recorded more than 70%. However, the control efficacies decreased as the time progressed after the spray. These results demonstrated the application of TA-protein diet lure for monitoring occurrence of Z. depressa in pumpkin-cultivating field conditions. The wettable powder containing spinosad can be applied to develop a new control agent against two pumpkin fruit flies.

The Effect of Ammonia and Sodium Hydroxide Treatment on the Storage and Rumen Microbial Fiber Degradation in Silage of Rice Straw Contaminated Mycotoxin (암모니아 및 가성소다 처리가 Mycotoxin 오염 사료용 볏짚의 사일레지 저장 및 반추위 미생물의 섬유소 분해에 미치는 영향)

  • Sung, Ha Guyn
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to research on the efficacy of chemical treatment as an effective method for reducing mycotoxin in rice straw silage. As a chemical treatment method, ammonia and sodium hydroxid were treated at 4% level of rice straws contaminated with mycotoxin, and the effects of silage storage on fungal toxin reduction, fermentation quality, and fiber digestion were evaluated. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and fumonisin B1, B2 as well as deoxynivalenol were not detected in all experimental groups, and ochratoxin A and zearalenone were detected. Ochratoxin A was detected lower in the chemical treatment than control (41.23 g / kg) (p<0.05). Zearalenone showed lower results in sodium hydroxide treatment (297.44 ㎍ / kg) than control (600.33 ㎍ / kg) and ammonia treatment (376.00 ㎍ / kg) (p<0.05). The pH of rice straw silage was the lowest in ammonia treatment and the highest in sodium hydroxide treatment (p<0.05). The lactic acid contents of control and ammonia treatments were similar, but sodium hydroxide treatment was the lowest (p<0.05). Propionic acid was higher in the control than in the chemical treatments (p<0.05), and showed similar contents in the ammonia and sodium hydroxide treatment. Both the rumen microbial degradation rate of NDF and ADF showed the highest in sodium hydroxide treatment, followed by ammonia treatment, and the control showed the lowest level (p<0.05). Therefore, the results of this study are demonstrated to have a good effect on the treatment of ammonia and sodium hydroxide to reduce the mycotoxins and increase the rumen microbial degradation rate in the rice straw silage. Sodium hydroxide treatment was more effective in reducing mycotoxins and improving fiber degradation rate than ammonia treatment, but it is thought to have an inefficient effect on silage fermentation in rice straw silage.

Clinical Characteristics of Chronic Cough in Korea

  • An, Tai Joon;Kim, Jin Woo;Choi, Eun Young;Jang, Seung Hun;Lee, Hwa Young;Kang, Hye Seon;Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung;Lee, Jong Min;Kim, Sung-Kyung;Shin, Jong-Wook;Park, So Young;Rhee, Chin Kook;Moon, Ji-Yong;Kim, Yee Hyung;Lee, Hyun;Kim, Yong Hyun;Kim, Je Hyeong;Lee, Sang Haak;Kim, Deog Kyeom;Yoo, Kwang Ha;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Jung, Ki-Suck;Kim, Hui Jung;Yoon, Hyoung Kyu;Cough Study Group of the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.83 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 2020
  • Background: Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines. Methods: This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, exsmokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines. Results: Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response. Conclusion: The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.

Antioxidant Effect of Arthrospira platensis Extract and Effect on UVB-induced Free Radical Production (Arthrospira platensis 추출물의 항산화 및 UVB에 의해 유도된 활성산소 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min Seung;Yang, Jae-Chan;Kim, Bo-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.153-161
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    • 2020
  • Arthrospira platensis is the oldest marine microalgae on the planet, is said to contain most of the nutrients needed by the human body. It's components are reported to contain a large amount of various substances such as phycocyanin, chlorophyll and β-carotene, and are known to have an aging and whitening effect. In this study, UVB-induced reactive oxygen species reduction efficacy and antioxidant activity of spirulina purified water extract were investigated. effect was confirmed by measuring DPPH radical scavenging activity, FRAP reducing power and ABTS+ radical scavenging activity of 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 1.0 mg/mL of spirulina purified water extract. The coagulation rate, hatching rate and heart rate toxicity were measured by treating spirulina purified water extract with 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 mg/mL concentration using Zebrafish, an alternative experimental animal model. UVB-induced ROS measurement was treated with spirulina extract at 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 mg/mL concentration, and then stained with DCFH-DA to confirm the inhibitory effect of ROS. As a result of measuring antioxidant effect, DPPH, FRAP and ABTS+ showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effects in comparison with ascorbic acid. and measuring the coagulation rate, hatching rate, and heart rate using Zebrafish, an alternative experimental animal, it was confirmed that there was no toxicity in 0.05 and 0.10 mg/mL except 0.5 mg/mL compared to the control group. The ROS scavenging activity of UVB-induced zebrafish showed higher ROS reduction than the positive control. The results of this study suggest that spirulina and purified water extracts are valuable for UV and skin protection cosmetics.

Antioxidant components and antioxidant activities of mixtures with Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai and Ficus erecta var. sieboldii (좁은잎천선과 및 조릿대 혼합 추출물의 항산화 성분과 항산화 활성)

  • Kwon, Hee-Yeon;Choi, Sun-Il;Han, Xionggao;Men, Xiao;Jang, Gill-Woong;Choi, Ye-Eun;Kang, Jun-Chul;Cho, Ju-Hyun;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.369-376
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant components and activities of HR02/04(8:2)-W, a mixture of S. quelpaertensis Nakai and F. erecta var. sieboldii. We investigated the p-coumaric acid, total flavonoid, and total phenol contents. To evaluate the antioxidant efficacy, we measured the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, FRAP activity, reducing power, and ORAC value. We observed the protective effect of hydrogen peroxide against cell damage in human dermal fibroblasts. As a result of the experiment, the p-coumaric acid, total flavonoid, and total phenol contents were 75.62±1.56 mg/100 g, 21.57±0.84 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g, and 21.25±1.31 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, respectively. In the experiments on antioxidant activity, HR02/04(8:2)-W was found to have significantly increased antioxidant activity. In the human dermal fibroblasts, the HR02/04(8:2)-W treated groups could effectively protect cells against oxidative damage. In this study, we confirmed that HR02/04(8:2)-W is a material with effective physiological antioxidant activity.

Characteristics of Intravenous Midazolam Sedation with Nitrous Oxide in Pediatric Dental Treatment (소아환자에서 midazolam 정주 및 아산화질소 흡입진정법 하 치과치료의 특성)

  • Kim, Hyuntae;Song, Ji-Soo;Hyun, Hong-Keun;Kim, Young-Jae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Jang, Ki-Taeg;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Shin, Teo Jeon
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2020
  • Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that is widely used in pediatric dental sedation. However, its clinical effectiveness as an intravenous sedative agent in children has not been widely documented. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous midazolam and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation in pediatric dental treatment. The subjects were 115 patients (118 cases) who received dental treatment under intravenous midazolam and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation. Demographic factors, general health status, sedation time, midazolam and nitrous oxide dosage, and success rate of sedation were evaluated from electronic medical records. Behavioral management was the main reason of choosing sedation. Mean duration of sedation was 56.7 minutes for surgical treatment, and 74.4 minutes for restorative treatment. The initial dosage of intravenous midazolam was 0.051 ± 0.019 mg/kg. In 34 cases (28.8%), additional midazolam of 0.036 ± 0.057 mg/kg was delivered during the treatment. The concentration of nitrous oxide was maintained between 40% and 50%. The success rate of sedation was 99% (n = 117). In 1 case, laryngospasm occurred and the patient was reversed with benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil. Intravenous midazolam sedation with nitrous oxide was shown to be clinically effective for the dental treatment in children, if administered by trained personnel and patients are carefully selected in accordance with guidelines.

The Preparation of Magnetic Chitosan Nanoparticles with GABA and Drug Adsorption-Release (GABA를 담지한 자성 키토산 나노입자 제조와 약물의흡수 및 방출 연구)

  • Yoon, Hee-Soo;Kang, Ik-Joong
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.541-549
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    • 2020
  • The Drug Delivery System (DDS) is defined as a technology for designing existing or new drug formulations and optimizing drug treatment. DDS is designed to efficiently deliver drugs for the care of diseases, minimize the side effects of drug, and maximize drug efficacy. In this study, the optimization of tripolyphosphate (TPP) concentration on the size of Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) produced by crosslinking with chitosan was measured. In addition, the characteristics of Fe3O4-CNPs according to the amount of iron oxide (Fe3O4) were measured, and it was confirmed that the higher the amount of Fe3O4, the better the characteristics as a magnetic drug carrier were displayed. Through the ninhydrin reaction, a calibration curve was obtained according to the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of Y = 0.00373exp(179.729X)-0.0114 (R2 = 0.989) in the low concentration (0.004 to 0.02 wt%) and Y = 21.680X-0.290 (R2 = 0.999) in the high concentration (0.02 to 0.1 wt%). Absorption was constant at about 62.5% above 0.04 g of initial GABA. In addition, the amount of GABA released from GABA-Fe3O4-CNPs over time was measured to confirm that drug release was terminated after about 24 hr. Finally, GABA-Fe3O4-CNPs performed under the optimal conditions were spherical particles of about 150 nm, and it was confirmed that the properties of the particles appear well, indicating that GABA-Fe3O4-CNPs were suitable as drug carriers.

The Change of Christian Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers through Development of Bible-Based Early Childhood Language Education Activities (성경에 기초한 유아 언어 교육 활동 개발을 통한 기독 예비 유아 교사의 변화)

  • Kim, Min-Jung
    • Journal of Christian Education in Korea
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    • v.61
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    • pp.165-201
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to explore the development of language education of Christian early childhood education by exploring the change of pre-Christian preschool teachers through the development of biblical language education activities. Interviews, surveys, action plans, and reflections of 19 Christian education students who participated in the development of bible-based language education activities for children based on the language of early childhood language, were conducted from September 3 to December 28, 2018. The data were collected through a portfolio. By analyzing the collected data, the key categories were derived and categorized. For the objectification of data analysis and interpretation, two thematic and early childhood education specialists were identified. As a result, the preparatory Christian teacher experience for the development of bible-based langage education activities for young children was categorized into cognitive change, personality change and practical change. First, through the development of bible-based early childhood language education activities, Christian pre-service early childhood teachers have brought cognitive changes as 'processes not outcomes', 'integration not separation', 'living non-curriculum' and 'meaning not effect'. In developing bible-based language education activities for young children, Christian pre-service early childhood teachers experienced a cognitive change in the 'process of language education activities' rather than the developmental achievements and results of early childhood language education. Christian pre-service early childhood teachers recognized the necessity of 'integration of listening-speaking-reading-writing', not the separation of early childhood language education. They recognized the importance of 'informal language education in kindergarten life', as well as teacher-centered formal language education. In addition, they have made a cognitive change that 'child-centered meaningful language education experience' is more important than the effectiveness of early childhood language education. Second, in developing bible-based language education activities for young children, Christian pre-service early childhood teachers showed personality changes as 'confident teachers', 'professional teachers', and 'teachers with reflective thoughts and attitudes'. Finally, in developing bible-based language education activities for young children, Christian pre-service early childhood teachers recognized the power of positive language and practiced it to form habits of using the right language and to link Christian education with early childhood education. Through the development of bible-based language education activities for young children, Christian pre-service early childhood teachers are equipped with the heart attitude and enthusiasm required to become true early childhood teachers for young children in unpredictable educational conditions and rapidly changing educational realities. Teacher efficacy has improved. In the future, it is expected that various teacher education programs linking Christian education and early childhood education will be continuously and systematically implemented.

Quercetin suppress CCL20 by reducing IκBα/STAT3 phosphorylation in TNF-α/IL-17A induced HaCaT cells (TNF-α/IL-17A 유도된 HaCaT 세포주에서 Quercetin의 IκBα/STAT3 인산화 조절에 의한 CCL20 발현 억제)

  • Kim, Mi Ran;Kim, Min Young;Hwang, Hyung Seo
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.63 no.3
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    • pp.211-219
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    • 2020
  • Quercetin is a polyphenol compound with excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. However, little has been reported about the efficacy of quercetin to control psoriasis. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin to regulate psoriatic dermatitis with HaCaT cell lines activated by TNF-α and IL-17A, which are in vitro psoriasis skin models. When quercetin was treated with TNF-α-activated HaCaT cell line, inflammatory cytokine expressions such as IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6 were reduced by 49.1±7.14, 42.8±8.16, and 34.5±2.52%, respectively. In addition, mRNA expression levels of IL-8 and CCL20 the chemokines that attract immune cells such as Th17 cells and dendritic cells to the inflammatory reaction site, were also reduced by 38.4±5.83 and 52.9±4.59% compared to the TNF-α treatment group. The expression of proteins KRT6A and KRT16, which was nonspecifically increased in psoriatic skin was also significantly suppressed. Moreover, phosphorylation of IκBα and STAT3 proteins activated by TNF-α was also significantly inhibited. After stimulating the HaCaT with IL-17A, known as another psoriasis-inducing cytokine, it was observed that IκBα mRNA expression decreased by 55.8±5.28%, and STAT3 phosphorylation was downregulated by 36.3±6.81%. Finally, after co-activation by TNF-α/IL-17A, quercetin inhibited all of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and CCL20 gene expression. The above results strongly suggest that quercetin is a material that has not only anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, but also has an activity in improving psoriasis.

Comparison of Efficacy of Overlapped Versus Long Eluting Stent in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients with Diffuse Long Lesion (미만성 긴 병변이 있는 급성심근경색환자에서 긴 단일 용출 스텐트 시술과 중첩 스텐트 시술의 효과 비교)

  • Kim, Won Hyo;Kim, In Soo;Kong, Chang gi;Han, Jae Bok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.319-336
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of two interventional methods, overlapping drug-eluting stents (DES) and long DES, for long-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of 438 patients with AMI (65.9±11.0 years, 306 males) from June 2008 to March 2019 who had diffuse long coronary artery lesion, more than 30mm were divided into two groups; group I (overlapped DES group; n=140) and group II (long DES group; n=298). We compared the incidences of major adverse cardiac events [MACEs; cardiac death, myocardial infaction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR) and stent thrombosis (ST)] during 12 months between the two groups. Everolimus-eluting stent was more commonly used in group II than in group I (28.1% vs. 51.8% p<0.001). Mean lesion diameter was slightly longer in group II (3.1±0.3mm vs. 3.2±0.3mm, p=0.042), and prevalence of ACC/AHA lesion type C was higher in group I (41.7% vs. 25.4%, p<0.001). Incidences of MACEs during 12 months were higher in group I than group II (18.5% vs. 14.4%, p=0.034). The rates of cardiac death (2.1% vs. 4.4%, p=0.667), MI (5.0% vs. 2.7%, p=0.260) and stent thrombosis rate (0.7% vs. 1.7%, p=0.669) were similar between the two groups. However, TLR rate was higher in group I (10.7% vs. 5.6%, p=0.041). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, presence of diabetes mellitus [Hazard ratio (HR) 2.383, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.332-4.260, p=0.003] and use of paclitaxel-eluting stent (HR) 2.367, 95% CI 1.371-4.086, p=0.002) were independent predictors of 12-month MACEs, without significant differences in prevalence between the two groups. In AMI patients with diffuse long lesion, TLR rate was higher in the overlapped DES group during 12-month follow-up. Presence of diabetes and use of paclitaxel-eluting stent were independent predictors of MACEs.