• Title, Summary, Keyword: eggshell

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Effects of Sea Urchin Shell Powder on Haugh unit and Eggshell Characteristics of Old Laying Hens (성게껍질 분말을 산란노계 사료에 첨가시 계란 신선도와 난각의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Woo-Whan;Choi, In Hag
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1011-1014
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the egg freshness and eggshell characteristics of old laying hens by adding sea urchin shell powder to the feed of such hens to achieve the objectives continuously pursued by environmental management, such as business profitability and waste resource utilization. A total of 90 Hy-Line Brown layers (66 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 2 treatments with 3 replicates, each of which consisted of 15 older layers, for 4 weeks. These treatments included a control (i.e., 0%) and 2% sea urchin shell powder. The 2% supplementation of sea urchin shell powder increased the Haugh unit (HU) at 2 and 4 weeks and eggshell strength at 4 wks compared to the controls (p<0.05). The HU at 0 weeks, eggshell thickness from 0 through 3 weeks, and eggshell strength at 0 and 2 weeks were not different between treatments (p>0.05). These results suggest that the addition of 2% sea urchin powder to the feed of laying hens improves egg freshness and eggshell strength in old laying hens.

Comparison of energy and nutrient utilization in the aged laying hens with different eggshell strengths or different intensities of brown eggshell color

  • Kim, Jong Hyuk;Han, Gi Ppeum;Kang, Hwan Ku;Kil, Dong Yong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.569-577
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    • 2019
  • The current experiment was conducted to compare nutrient utilization in the aged laying hens with different eggshell strengths or different intensities of brown eggshell color. Two metabolic trials with 96-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were conducted. Twelve hens with a strong eggshell strength (SES) and 12 hens with a weak eggshell strength (WES) were selected and used in the first experiment, whereas 12 hens with dark brown eggshells (DBE) and 12 hens with light brown eggshells (LBE) were selected and used in the second experiment. All hens were fed a common commercial layer diet. Diets included chromic oxide as an indigestible marker to determine the apparent total tract retention (ATTR) of the gross energy (GE), dry matter, acid-hydrolyzed ether extract, nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash, and minerals. The results indicate that the ATTR of Ca in the aged laying hens with SES (59.7%) was greater (p < 0.05) than in the aged laying hens with WES (48.6%). However, the ATTR of the GE and other nutrients was not different between the hens with SES or WES. There were no differences in the ATTR of GE and nutrients between the hens with DBE or LBE. In conclusion, aged laying hens with SES have a greater ability to utilize dietary Ca than those with WES, indicating that the extent of dietary Ca utilization determines the eggshell strength of aged laying hens. However, nutrient utilization in diets may have little impact on eggshell brown coloration in aged laying hens.

A study on Blood pigments removal of butchery wastewater by heat processed Eggshell (Heat processed Eggshell에 의한 도축폐수의 혈색소 제거에 관한 연구)

  • 박경식
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this experimental study examine characteristics of blood pigments removal of butchery wastewater by heat processed eggshell, compare activated carbon with its efficiency. Calcined eggshell were classified into four kinds of mesh as HPES-32(Heat Processed Eggshell 32 $mesh=500{\mu}m$), HPES-48($300{\mu}m$), HPES-150($180{\mu}m$) and HPES-150($106{\mu}m$). And two contacting process of CMFA(Complete Mixing Float Adsorption) and FLFA(Fixing layer Flow Adsorption) Were used for getting removal efficiency of blood pigments. In case of using CMFA process, the removal efficiency of blood pigments was occurred as HPES-80>HPES-150>HPES-32, but in case of using FLFA process was occurred as HPES-150>HPES-80>HPES-48>HPES-32. The two results between CMFA and FLFA were differ in strength of removal efficiency of blood pigments.

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Efficiency of methyl-esterified eggshell membrane biomaterials for intensified microalgae harvesting

  • Choi, Hee-Jeong
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.356-362
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    • 2017
  • This study investigates the use of methyl-esterified eggshell membranes (MESM) for the harvesting of microalgae species under various conditions. Eggshell membranes were esterified with HCl to impact polycationic characteristics. After methyl esterification, the negative surface charge property of eggshell membrane was changed from negative to positive for all pH values to improve microalgae sorption capacity. The harvesting efficiency of microalgae by MESM reached 78-99% for all pH ranges evaluated. In addition, a 150 mesh particle size and $10mg\;L^{-1}$ MESM dose were found to yield up to 98% microalgae harvesting. These results indicate that the high cationic charge of MESM strongly adsorbs the negatively-charged microalgae. MESM is biocompatible and can be applied to the harvest of microalgae.

칼슘 및 칼슘대사 관련 생리활성물질의 첨가가 산란종계의 후기 난각질 및 종란 생산성에 미치는 영향

  • 김은집;안병기;강창원
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.53-68
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    • 2004
  • Eggshell quality is one of the most important factors that influence hatchability. The porosity and overall quality of eggshell have a very significant effect on exchange of vital gas (carbon dioxide and oxygen) between the developing embryo and the air during incubation. Thin-shelled eggs showed the greater weight loss than do thick-shelled eggs. causing the chick to have difficulty in hatching. Thin-shelled eggs also have a much greater chance of being cracked during handling. On the other hand. thick-shelled eggs showed the higher hatchability as a result of greater fertility and lower intermediate and late embryonic mortalities. Even a small percentage improvement in the eggshell quality could result in significant saving to the breeder industry in an increasingly competitive environment. Many factors including nutrition. management practices, environmental conditions and breeding are known to be related to eggshell quality. In this review brief accounts of each factor associated with eggshell quality and hatchability were provided. We conducted three experiments to investigate the effects of dietary Ca. vitamin D3 metabolite and some bioactive materials on eggshell quality and hatching egg production. The results of our studies showed that relatively high levels of dietary Ca in combination with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol had beneficial effects on improving eggshell quality and reproductive performances in aged egg-type breeder hens. It was also suggested that the proper use of some feed additives such as isoflavon and chitosan might provide means of improving eggshell quality and reproductive performances in aged egg-type breeder hens.

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Prediction of Eggshell Ultrastructure via Some Non-destructive and Destructive Measurements in Fayoumi Breed

  • Radwan, Lamiaa M.;Galal, A.;Shemeis, A.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.993-998
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    • 2015
  • Possibilities of predicting eggshell ultrastructure from direct non-destructive and destructive measurements were examined using 120 Fayoumi eggs collected from the flock at 45 weeks of age. The non-destructive measurements included weight, length and width of the egg. The destructive measurements were breaking strength and shell thickness. The eggshell ultrastructure traits involved the total thickness of eggshell layer, thickness of palisade layer, cone layer and total score. Prediction of total thickness of eggshell layer based on non-destructive measurements individually or simultaneously was not possible ($R^2=0.01$ to 0.16). The destructive measurements were far more accurate than the non-destructive in predicting total thickness of eggshell layer. Prediction based on breaking strength alone was more accurate ($R^2=0.85$) than that based on shell thickness alone ($R^2=0.72$). Adding shell thickness to breaking strength (the best predictor) increased the accuracy of prediction by 5%. The results obtained indicated that both non-destructive and destructive measurements were not useful in predicting the cone layer ($R^2$ not exceeded 18%). The maximum accuracy of prediction of total score ($R^2=0.48$) was obtained from prediction based on breaking strength alone. Combining shell thicknesses and breaking strength into one equation was no help in improving the accuracy of prediction.

Fabrication of Calcium Phosphate Glass Using Eggshell and its Crystallization Behavior

  • Kang, Tea-Sung;Lee, Sang-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.395-399
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    • 2017
  • The thermal properties and crystallization behavior of calcium phosphate glass fabricated using eggshell were examined. Nature eggshell has several impurities in the main component of $CaCO_3$. To manufacture calcium phosphate glass, washed eggshell was dissolved in aqua-regia while adding a solution of isopropyl alcohol, D. I. water and phosphoric acid. The calcined precursor was melted at $1000^{\circ}C$, and the glass ($T_g$ : $540^{\circ}C$) was crystallized at $620{\sim}640^{\circ}C$, which temperature range is relatively low compared to the crystallization temperature of other general types of calcium phosphate glass. The calcium phosphate glass using eggshell was successfully crystallized without any additional nucleating agents due to the multiple effects of impurities such as $Fe_2O_3$, $Al_2O_3$, SrO and $SiO_2$ in the eggshell. The main crystalline phase was ${\beta}-Ca(PO_3)_2$ and a biocompatible material, hydroxyapatite, was also observed. The crystallization process was completed under the condition of a holding time of only 1 h at the low temperature.

Histological Change of Uterus Endometrium and Expression of the Eggshell-related Genes according to Hen Age (닭의 산란연령에 따른 자궁내막조직의 변화 및 난각 관련 유전자의 발현양상)

  • Park, Ji Ae;Cho, Eun Jung;Park, Jung Yeon;Sohn, Sea Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.19-28
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    • 2017
  • The eggshell is an intricate and highly ordered structure composed of multiple layers and a calcified matrix. The eggshell is formed at the uterine segment of the chicken oviduct. In this study, histological changes in the uterine endometrium and the expression of the eggshell-related genes were investigated according to hen age. We analyzed the expression of eggshell protein-related genes, such as OCX-32, OCX-36, OC-17, OC-116, and eggshell-ion-related genes, such as CABL-1, SPP1, SCNN1G, ATP2A2, CA2, and CALM1. In chicken uterine endometrium, histological deformation, fibrosis, atrophy and elimination of micro-villi were found with increasing hen age. The concentration of blood-ion components did not significantly change with age. The amount of telomeric DNA in uterine endometrial cells decreased with increasing hen age. The expression of most of the eggshell-related genes changed significantly with increasing hen age. The expression of some ovo-proteins, which play a role in eggshell formation, increased with increasing hen age; however, there were no significant correlations among eggshell protein genes. Eggshell ion-related genes, such as ATP2A2, SCNN1G, CA2, and CALM1, were closely related to each other. The OCX-32 and OCX-36 genes were closely related to some of the eggshell ion genes. Eggshell protein-related genes, such as the OCX-32, OCX-36 genes and ion-related genes such as CALB-1, ATP2A2, SCNN1G, CA2, CALM1, affected eggshell formation, mutually or independently. This study shows that, uterine although endometrial cell damage occurs with increasing hen age, normal eggshells can be formed in old hens. This suggests that eggshell protein-and eggshell ion-related genes also control the homeostasis of eggshell formation.

Effects of Supplementary Mineral Methionine Chelates (Zn, Cu, Mn) on the Performance and Eggshell Quality of Laying Hens

  • Lim, H.S.;Paik, I.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1804-1808
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    • 2003
  • A layer experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementary methionine chelates (Cu, Zn and Mn), individual or in combination, on laying performance, eggshell quality, gizzard erosion, and IgG level of serum for 8 weeks. Five hundred 96-wk-old force molted ISA Brown layers were assigned to five dietary treatments. Basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed the nutrients requirements listed in NRC (1994). Five experimental diets were control, Zn-methionine chelate (Zn-Met) supplemented, Cumethionine chelate (Cu-Met) supplemented, Zn-Mn-methionine chelate (Zn-Mn-Met) supplemented and Zn-Mn-Cu-Met supplemented diet. Each treated diet was supplemented with respective mineral(s) at the level of 100 ppm in the form of methionine chelate. Egg production was increased by Cu-Met supplementation but decreased by Zn-Met supplementation. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) lower in Cu-Met treatment than those of the control and Zn-Met treatment. Specific gravity of eggs and eggshell strength were highest and soft egg production was lowest in Cu-Met treatment. Gizzard erosion index was significantly increased by supplementation of Cu-Met, Zn-Mn-Met or Zn-Mn-Cu-Met. Zinc content in liver significantly increased by Zn-Met, but not by Zn-Mn-Cu-Met treatment. In conclusion, 100 ppm Cu in Cu-Met chelate improved laying performance and eggshell quality but also increased gizzard erosion index. Supplementation of Zn-Met or its combination with other mineral chelates had no beneficial effects on laying performance and eggshell quality.

Microarray Analysis of Genes Involved with Shell Strength in Layer Shell Gland at the Early Stage of Active Calcification

  • Liu, Zhangguo;Zheng, Qi;Zhang, Xueyu;Lu, Lizhi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.609-624
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to get a comprehensive understanding of how genes in chicken shell gland modulate eggshell strength at the early stage of active calcification. Four 32-week old of purebred Xianju hens with consistent high or low shell breakage strength were grouped into two pairs. Using Affymetrix Chicken Array, a whole-transcriptome analysis was performed on hen's shell gland at 9 h post oviposition. Gene ontology enrichment analysis for differentially expressed (DE) transcripts was performed using the web-based GOEAST, and the validation of DE-transcripts was tested by qRT-PCR. 1,195 DE-transcripts, corresponding to 941 unique genes were identified in hens with strong eggshell compared to weak shell hens. According to gene ontology annotations, there are 77 DE-transcripts encoding ion transporters and secreted extracellular matrix proteins, and at least 26 DE-transcripts related to carbohydrate metabolism or post-translation glycosylation modification; furthermore, there are 88 signaling DE-transcripts. GO term enrichment analysis suggests that some DE-transcripts mediate reproductive hormones or neurotransmitters to affect eggshell quality through a complex suite of biophysical processes. These results reveal some candidate genes involved with eggshell strength at the early stage of active calcification which may facilitate our understanding of regulating mechanisms of eggshell quality.