• Title, Summary, Keyword: eggshell

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Microarray Analysis of Genes Involved with Shell Strength in Layer Shell Gland at the Early Stage of Active Calcification

  • Liu, Zhangguo;Zheng, Qi;Zhang, Xueyu;Lu, Lizhi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.609-624
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to get a comprehensive understanding of how genes in chicken shell gland modulate eggshell strength at the early stage of active calcification. Four 32-week old of purebred Xianju hens with consistent high or low shell breakage strength were grouped into two pairs. Using Affymetrix Chicken Array, a whole-transcriptome analysis was performed on hen's shell gland at 9 h post oviposition. Gene ontology enrichment analysis for differentially expressed (DE) transcripts was performed using the web-based GOEAST, and the validation of DE-transcripts was tested by qRT-PCR. 1,195 DE-transcripts, corresponding to 941 unique genes were identified in hens with strong eggshell compared to weak shell hens. According to gene ontology annotations, there are 77 DE-transcripts encoding ion transporters and secreted extracellular matrix proteins, and at least 26 DE-transcripts related to carbohydrate metabolism or post-translation glycosylation modification; furthermore, there are 88 signaling DE-transcripts. GO term enrichment analysis suggests that some DE-transcripts mediate reproductive hormones or neurotransmitters to affect eggshell quality through a complex suite of biophysical processes. These results reveal some candidate genes involved with eggshell strength at the early stage of active calcification which may facilitate our understanding of regulating mechanisms of eggshell quality.

Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage using Eggshells and Microalgae (폐난각과 미세조류를 이용한 산성광산배수처리)

  • Choi, Hee-Jeong
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.647-652
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the heavy metal removal and biomass productivity in the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) using eggshell and microalgae. The experiment was operated 6 days in the eggshell and microalgae hybrid system, and using eggshell powder and microalgae as Chlorella vulgaris. The obtained result indicated that the biomass productivity of 2.82 g/L/d from 1.12 g/L initial concentration in 6 days was reached with light transmittance of 97% at a 305 mm depth in the optical panel photobioreactor (OPPBR). The total removal efficiency of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cd was found to be 98.92%, 99.91%, 98.78%, 88.99% and 98.00% in the AMD using eggshell and Chlorella vulgaris hybrid system, respectively. Additionally, there were significant relationships between biomass and concentration of each heavy metal ($R^2$ = 0.8771, 0.8643, 0.8669, 0.9134 and 0.6277 for Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cd). These results indicated that the eggshell and microalgae hybrid system was highly effective for heavy metal removal when compared to the conventional biological process in the AMD. Therefore, the eggshell and microalgae hybrid system was effective for heavy metal removal and biomass productivity and can be applied to treat AMD in treatment plant.

A Study on the Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater by Eggshell (난각을 이용한 폐수중의 인 제거에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Su;Kang, Seon-Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.174-180
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    • 2004
  • This study is a fundamental research to test the applicability of abandoned eggshell as seed material for crystallization reaction. Eggshell was calcinated at $850^{\circ}C$ and ground to lesser than 0.42mm. The calcination characteristics of eggshell were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of initial calcium concentration, alkalinity, reaction temperature condition, seed dosage were studied by batch test. For the low concentration sample(P concentration is under 50mg/L), more than 90% of P can be removed. The effect of initial calcium concentration(0~120mg/L) was performed. At the result of the test, more than 50mg/L calcium concentration has high removal efficiency. Alkalinity effect was studied for synthetic solution(100mg/L initial P, 50mg/L calcium, 0.025% seed dosage) with 0~300mg/L bicarbonate alkalinities. For synthetic solution(100mg/L initial P, 50mg/L calcium, 100mg/L bicarbonate alkalinity, 0.025% seed dosage), the phosphorus concentration was examined with $10{\sim}35^{\circ}C$. In addition, calcinated eggshell was injected to swine wastewater to test the applicability to actual wastewater.

Preparation of Calcium Powder from Eggshell and Use of Organic Acids for Enhancement of Calcium Ionization (난각칼슘의 제조 조건 및 유기산이 칼슘의 이온화에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Hyung-Soon;Kim, Kong-Hwan
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.531-535
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    • 1997
  • An efficient process for recovery of calcium from the eggshell was developed and some organic acids were used in an attempt to enhance the degree of calcium ionization. Eggshell membrane was readily separated from crushed eggshell based on the differences in specific gravities. The conditions which allowed most efficient membrane removal were found to be 30 rpm of speed, 30 min of residence time and 0.08 of volume fraction. It took 3 hours for the eggshell powder prepared at $1000^{\circ}C$ to reach L value of 90 with the Hausner ratio being 1.43. The calcium ion concentrations were 990, 3500, 3900 and 4200 ppm in pure water, acetic acid, citric acid and lactic acid$(0.05{\sim}3%)$ aqueous solution, respectively. The degrees of ionization of calcium-citrate-malate complex(CCM), calcium-citric acid complex(CC) and calcium malic acid complex(CM) increased by 4 to 5 times compared to eggshell calcium powder.

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN EGGSHELL QUALITY AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF CALCIUM METABOLISM

  • Kang, C.W.;Nam, K.T.;Olson, O.E.;Carlson, C.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.715-722
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    • 1996
  • To determine relationships of biochemical parameters involved in Ca metabolism with eggshell quality, serum Ca level, duodenal and uterine calcium binding protein (CaBP) and uterine carbonic anhydrase (CA) activities were measured using 102-week old hens. Three groups of chickens were selected, those showing high quality (HQ) and low quality (LQ) eggshells and non-laying activity (NE). NE hens exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) lower serum Ca levels than laying hens. HQ and LQ hens were not different in the Ca level, indicating that serum Ca level was not good indicator of hen's ability to produce different quality eggshells. Duodenal CaBPs was highest in HQ and lowest in NE (p < 0.10). Uterine CaBPs of LQ and NE were not different and lower significantly (p<0.10) than that of HQ, suggesting that CaBP played an important role in determining eggshell quality. Uterine CA activities of the three groups were significantly different (p < 0.01) ; highest in HQ and lowest in NE, suggesting intimate relationship between CA and Eggshell quality.

Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

  • An, S.H.;Kim, D.W.;An, B.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1477-1482
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01). A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01). The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05). These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

Removal of Heavy Metals(Pb, Cr) Using Waste Eggshell

  • Park, Heung-Jai;Bong, Sang-Hun;Jeong, Seong-Ug
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.386-393
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    • 2005
  • The calcination characteristic of waste eggshell were examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), qualitative and quantitative analysis by X-ray fluorescence, and microstructural analysis by scanning electronic microscopy(SEM). The calcined sample was lager grain and pore size.

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Preparation and characterization of eggshell membrane/PVA hydrogel via electron beam irradiation technique

  • Choi, Jawun;Pant, Bishweshwar;Lee, Chohye;Park, Mira;Park, Soo-Jin;Kim, Hak-Yong
    • Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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    • v.47
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    • pp.41-45
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    • 2017
  • Eggshell membrane (ESM), which locates between the egg white and the inner surface of the eggshell, is generally considered as waste; however, it can be utilized in various fields. In this contribution, we report a fabrication of ESM based hydrogel by incorporating with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) via an electron beam irradiation technique. A hydrogel with porous structure along with homogeneous networks was obtained by this ecofriendly approach. The resulting ESM based hydrogels were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The swelling analysis of the produced hydrogel showed a super absorption property. This cost effective method eliminates the use of sophisticated equipment's and toxic chemicals used to fabricate hydrogel for various applications.

Effects of Egg Size and Eggshell Conductance on Hatchability Traits of Meat and Layer Breeder Flocks

  • Shafey, Tarek M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2002
  • Eggs obtained from 46 and 42 weeks old meat (Hybro) and layer (Leghorn) breeders flocks, respectively were used to examine the effects of genetic type of birds and egg size (small, medium and large) on variables of eggshell characteristics and hatchability traits. The variables measured were egg weight (EW), egg surface area (ESA) and eggshell characteristics (shell conductance (EC), per cent shell (PS), shell thickness (ST), shell volume (SV), shell density (SD) and hatchability traits (per cent hatchability (HP), early dead embryos (ED), late dead embryos (LD), pips with live embryos (PL) and pips with dead embryos (PD)). Genetic type of bird influenced all egg characteristics and HP of eggs. Eggs produced by the small Leghorn bird had lower EW, ESA, EC, ST, SV and HP than those produced by the heavy Hybro bird. The reduction of HP was associated with an increase in the percentage of ED and PL. Egg size influenced all variables measured except ST. Small size eggs had lower EW, ESA and EC and higher PS and SD than those of large eggs. Medium size eggs produced a higher HP when compared with that of large size eggs. The reduction of HP in large eggs was associated with higher percentage of ED, LD and PL. There were significant interactions between the genetic group of birds and egg size on LD and HP. Large egg size of Hybro birds had higher LD and lower HP than those of small size eggs produced by the same flock. However, There was no difference in HP and LD among the different egg sizes produced by Leghorn birds. It was concluded that genetic make up of birds and egg size influence eggshell characteristics and HP. The type of bird (heavy or small) influences the optimum egg size for successful hatching. Attention should be given to the size and eggshell characteristics of eggs of breeders' flocks for achieving maximum HP.

Effects of Supplementary Blood Meal on Carnosine Content in the Breast Meat and Laying Performance of Old Hens

  • Namgung, N.;Shin, D.H.;Park, S.W.;Paik, I.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.946-951
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of blood meal (BM) as a source of histidine, and magnesium oxide (MgO) as a catalyst of carnosine synthetase, on carnosine (L-Car) content in the chicken breast muscle (CBM), laying performance, and egg quality of spent old hens. Four hundred eighty laying hens (Hy-Line$^{(R)}$ Brown), 95wk old, were allotted randomly into five replicates of six dietary treatments: T1; 100% basal diet, T2; 100% basal diet+MgO, T3; 97.5% basal diet+2.5% BM, T4; 97.5% basal diet+2.5% BM+MgO, T5; 95% basal diet+5% BM, T6; 95% basal diet+5% BM+MgO. Magnesium oxide was added at 0.3% of diets. The layers were fed experimental diets for 5wk. There were no significant differences in the weekly L-Car content in CBM among all treatments during the total experimental period, but some of the contrast comparisions showed higher L-Car in CBM of T6. The L-Car contents linearly decreased (p<0.01 or p<0.05) as the layers got older except in T4 (p>0.05). There were significant differences in egg weight (p<0.01) and soft and broken egg ratio (p<0.05). The control (T1) was highest in egg weight and T6 was lowest in soft and broken egg ratio. Among the parameters of egg quality, there were significant differences in eggshell strength (p<0.01) and egg yolk color (p<0.05). Magnesium oxide supplementation increased the eggshell strength and BM tended to decrease egg yolk color. Eggshell color, eggshell thickness, and Haugh unit were not influenced by BM and MgO. In conclusion, BM and MgO did not significantly influence the L-Car in CBM of spent layers. The L-Car content rapidly decreased as the layers became senescent. Eggshell strength was increased by MgO supplementation.