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Changes of egg Quality according to eggshell treatment and storage condition (계란의 난각 처리와 보관 방법에 따른 품질 변화)

  • Lee Sung-Mo;Hong Chong-Hae
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.225-234
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    • 2005
  • Egg has been considered as one of the most important food sources in both nutritionally and economically. However, because the hazards of egg flow chains' complexity from producers to consumers and the insufficiency of cold chain systems in Korea are still remained, preventive measures for egg safety should be established. This experiment was carried out to investigate the changes of egg qualify during storage in order to find out the proper storage condition and eggshell treatment. Eggs were stored at cold condition $(5^{\circ}C,\;relative\;humidity;\;RH:\;65\pm3\%)$ and room Condition $(1st: Sep\; 6\~Nov\; 15,\;2001,\; 10\~30^{\circ}C,\;RH\;41\~86\%,\;2nd;\; Dec\;13,\;2001\~Feb\;21,\;2002,\;4\~23^{\circ}C,\;RH\;36\~89\%)$ after eggshell treatment (unwashed, washed and coated egg) during'10 weeks and examined weight loss and interior quality periodically. Weight loss was in decreasing order room washed > room unwashed > cold washed > cold unwashed > room coated > cold coated egg. And, Haugh unit was decreasing order room washed > room unwashed > room coated > cold washed > cold unwashed > cold coated egg. Our findings show that both coated eggs and refrigeration reduces the rate of decline in Haugh units and egg weight. And, washed eggs had lower average Haugh units and a higher weight loss than any of the eggshell treatment in both storage conditions. Conclusively, for washing eggshell, 150 ppm of sodium hypochlorite, regular exchange and temperature control of water should be consistent and also eggs should be dried immediately after washing. Also, national guidelines for temperature and moisture of storage places, transportation and expiration data should be established to keep quality and weight loss of eggs. Storage temperature that is a critical factor in the quality and safety of eggs should be kept under 12'c and labelling of expiration date should be obligatory.

Synthesis of β-tricalcium Phosphate by Using an Eggshell (달걀껍질을 이용한 생체용 β-tricalcium Phosphate 분말의 합성)

  • Kwon, Myoung-Do;Oh, Sun-Ho;Lee, Sang-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.39 no.11
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    • pp.1103-1107
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    • 2002
  • Biocompatible ${\beta}$-Tricalcium Phosphate(${\beta}$-TCP) powder was successfully synthesized by using a re-cycled eggshell and phosphoric acid. The crystallization behavior of the synthesized powder was dependent on the mixing ratio between the eggshell and phosphoric acid, the starting condition of the eggshell and calcination temperature. The ${\beta}$-TCP was stably synthesized in the 1:1.3~1:1.5 (wt%) mixing ratios of calcined eggshell and phosphoric acid. The synthesis was achieved at about $900{\circ}$ for 1h in an air atmosphere. The crystalline development and microstructure of the synthesized powder were examined by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy.

Soil-blending Effect of Eggshell Powder on the Control of Club root Disease and the Growth of Chinese Cabbage in the Field (배추 무사마귀병 발병 억제 및 생육증진을 위한 달걀껍질 토양혼화처리 효과)

  • Gao, Yuliang;Kim, Byeong-Kwan;Lim, Tae-Heon;Li, Kui-Hua;Paek, Kee-Yoeup;Cha, Byeong-Jin
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.106-111
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    • 2009
  • Before transplanting Chinese cabbage seedlings, two kinds of eggshell powder were blended into the soil of cabbage field where the club root pathogen, Plasmodiophora brassicae, was infested. The incidence of clubroot disease, the shoot and root growth of cabbages, and soil pH were examined four times at 10 to 13 days interval from transplanting Chinese cabbage. As results, the cabbages treated with eggshell powder without membrane showed the fastest growth in above ground part, and the lowest disease index for clubroot disease. The cabbages treated with eggshell powder with membrane showed better growth than the cabbages of non-treated check, but lower growth than those treated with eggshell powder without membrane. Soil pH started to increase from 3 weeks after soil blending of eggshell powder, and it reached to above 8.0. However, the soil pH of non-treated check stayed at around 6.8. In the experiment to compare the effect of eggshell powder with other calcium compounds, soil-blending of $CaCO_3$ resulted the lowest disease incidence of 1.7 and the registered fungicide, 'flusulfamide', and the resistant variety 'CR Green cabbage' followed with the incidence of 1.9. Cabbages of non-treated check scored the highest disease incidence, 3.4, and that of eggshell powder without membrane was as high as 2.7. However, the growth of Chinese cabbage showed the different pattern to the disease incidence. Chinese cabbages treated with eggshell without membrane recorded the highest average growth, around 2.1 kg. On the other hand, the average growth of CR Green Chinese cabbage was about 2.0 kg, that of flusulfamide-treatment plot was 1.7, and that of non-treated check was as low as 1.3 kg. Soil blending of eggshell powder without membrane did not inhibit the development of clubroot, but increased the growth of cabbage to a great extent. Therefore, it was confirmed that soil blending of eggshell powder before transplanting makes the Chinese cabbage culture possible even in the field infested with club root pathogen.

Characteristics of Eggshell Powder as Carriers of Probiotics (생균제의 부형제(운반체)로서의 난각분말의 특성)

  • Lee, Woo-Do;Niu, Kai-Min;Lim, Jeong-Min;Yi, Kwon-Jung;Lee, Bong-Joo;Kim, Kang-Woong;Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Hur, Sang-Woo;Han, Hyon-Sob;Kim, Soo-Ki
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.90-98
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    • 2018
  • Eggshell (ES) is a by-product of table eggs with high content of calcium carbonate which can be used as a calcium source in feed. In this study, we have first illuminated the potential application of ES as a novel carrier for probiotics. The carriers used in the study include a SBM (Soybean meal), ESL (Eggshell powder with large particles), ESF (Eggshell powder with fine particles), and the complex carriers (SBM+ESL, SBM+ESF). The structure of carriers absorbed by L. plantarum was confirmed by SEM image. Among these carriers, the complex carrier SBM+ESF showed the highest viability of L. plantarum with pH 7~8 during four weeks storage at room temperature. The SBM+ESF was further tested as a carrier for various probiotic strains at $4^{\circ}C$ or $30^{\circ}C$. All the probiotic strains showed high viability at $4^{\circ}C$ storage. However, a significant reduction of Lactobacillus cells was observed at $30^{\circ}C$ storage. B. lichenifomis maintained high viability whereas B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and S. cerevisiae showed the reduction of $2{\log}_{10}$ (CFU/g). These results suggest that if the ESF as a calcium source in feed was mixed with SBM, it can be used as an effective complex carrier for improving the viability of some probiotics including B. licheniformis.

Consumer Preference for Eggshell Color in Korea - Eggs from the Research of Developing Fowl Typhoid Resistant Strains - (난각색에 대한 한국 소비자 기호도 조사 -가금티푸스 저항성 계통 개발연구에서 생산된 계란을 중심으로-)

  • 이규희;한성욱;이봉덕;오봉국;김기석
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2003
  • It has been well documented that white egg layers are far more resistant to fowl typhoid than the brown egg layers. In Korea, however, most consumers prefer brown eggs to white ones. Therefore, a study was conducted to Produce fowl typhoid-resistant crossbred layers producing somewhat brown-colored eggs. Several crossbred strains were obtained from crossbreeding white egg lines (W) with brown egg lines (B). These crossbred layers (W${\times}$B) produced eggs with varying degrees of brown-colored shells between the white eggs obtained from W (White) and the brown eggs from B (Brown). Eggs from the peak stage of production were collected and their eggshell color values were measured. The mean eggshell color values of White and Brown were 81.9 and 36.4, respectively. Eggs from the crossbred lines (W${\times}$B) were collected, and their eggshell color values were measured to re-group these eggs according to their color. The mean eggshell color values of Trt-White, Middle, and Trt-Brown were 70, 60, and 50, respectively (Fig. 1). A total of 247 people living in Daejeon area, mainly housewives, took part in this survey. First, they were offered eggs with varying degrees of eggshell color in a paper egg-tray, together with a questionnaire. After they filled out the first questionnaire, they were instructed that the eggshell color has nothing to do with its nutritive value. In the second questionnaire, their preference on both eggshell color and price, i.e., purchasing will, were investigated. In the first questionnaire, the Brown (eggshell color lightness 36.4) were most preferred, and the Trt-white (eggshell color lightness 70) were least preferred. No statistical significance was detected between Brown and Trt-Brown, and White and Trt-White. In the second questionnaire, the trend was the same as in the first. Although no significant difference was found between Trt-Brown and Brown, however, the Trt-Brown were most preferred, surpassing the Brown. In conclusion, regardless of the nutritive values, the Korean consumers prefer brown eggs to white ones, and this trend could be changed gradually through consumer education.

Effects of Eggshell Powder on Clubroot Disease Control and the Growth of Chinese Cabbage (달걀껍질이 배추의 생육과 무사마귀병 발병억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Byeong-Kwan;Lim, Tae-Heon;Kim, Youn-Hee;Park, Seok-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Hwa;Cha, Byeong-Jin
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2008
  • Blending of eggshell powder into soil as ratio of 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, and 1:25 did not affect seed germination rates of several crops including Chinese cabbage. The blending increased pH of distilled water and decreased the viability of resting spores of Plasmodiophora hrassicae. The ratio of non-viable resting spores in eggshell-blending water was over five times higher than in distilled water of the same pH. Chinese cabbage (cv. 'Norangbom') grew more in eggshell-blended soil than in non-treated soil, but other crops grew less. Leaf numbers and above ground growth of Norangbom increased to around 150% and 470%, respectively, in soil blended with $1:20{\sim}1:15$ of eggshell powder. Even though the optimum sizes of eggshell powder were $0.8{\sim}2.0mm$ for growth and smaller than 0.4 mm for inhibition of clubroot disease of Chinese cabbage, there was no statistical difference among the sizes. Soil pH was above 8.0 in all eggshell treatments without any statistical difference among them. Eggshell powder blending to 1:20 showed lower control efficacy, 58.5%, than registered fungicide 'Hokanna (flusulfamide)', 78.5%. However, Chinese cabbage of that blending ratio recorded the highest growth among the treatments. Therefore, blending of eggshell powder into clubroot-contaminated soil may make culture of Chinese cabbage possible by growth-increasing, even though eggshell powder could not inhibit clubroot disease entirely.

A Strategy for Quality Poultry Egg Production I. Eggshell Strength and Pigmentation (양질의 계란 생산전략 I. 난각과 난각색형성)

  • 남기홍
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.115-132
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    • 2000
  • Eggshell strength and eggshell pigmentation are described in this paper since these are needed for quality egg production. A strong eggshell is determined by the components of the shell (cuticle, true shell and membranes) as well as the proper function of the gastrointestinal tract, the shell gland, the Kidneys and the endocrine system. When the puller reaches sexual maturity, the medullary bone must be ready for the laying hen at the peak egg shell formation. The amount of calcium in the layer diet, sources of calcium feed, the ratio of calcium and phosphorus in the layer diet, adequate levels of vitamin D and the dietary mineral (electrolyte) balance in the body fluid are important factors along with the levels of other nutrients. Biological, environmental and managerial factors such as the age of laying flock, temperature and humidity of the hen house, bird strain, disease, egg collection through transportation and others and influence the shell breakage at various stages of movement of the eggs from the producer to the consumer. The pigments present in eggshells are protoporphyrin-Ⅸ, biliverdin-Ⅸ and its zinc chelate and occasional traces of coproporphyrin-Ⅲ. However, there are several causes of changes in eggshell pigmentation such as the age of hen, disease, drugs and surface defects due to abnormal post-cuticular deposits.

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Evaluation of the Feasibility of Oyster-Shell and Eggshell Wastes for Stabilization of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil (농축수산 폐기물(굴껍질 및 달걀껍질)을 이용한 비소 오염토양의 안정화 효율 평가)

  • Lim, Jung-Eun;Moon, Deok-Hyun;Kim, Dong-Jin;Kwon, Oh-Kyung;Yang, Jae-E.;Ok, Yong-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1095-1104
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of using oyster-shell and eggshell wastes for the stabilization of arsenic-contaminated soil. Artificial As(V) contaminated soil was mixed with 0~5% oyster-shell and eggshell wastes and each sample was incubated for 30 days in a controlled environment. The efficiency of each treatment was evaluated using various single extractants (1 N HCl, 0.1 N NaOH and 0.5 N $H_2SO_4$). The concentration of As(V) was reduced by 10% upon a 5% oyster-shell or eggshell waste treatments based on the Korea Standard Test method (1 N HCl extraction). Analogous trends were observed in the 0.1 N NaOH or 0.5 N $H_2SO_4$ extractions. In addition, the oyster-shell and eggshell waste treatments increased the pH of each soil from 6.54 (Control) to 7.62~7.94. The exchangeable Ca in each soil also sharply increased from 6.87 cmol(+)/kg (Control) to 12.77~20.18 cmol(+)/kg. Further research is needed to increase the effectiveness of the oyster-shell and eggshell waste for the stabilization of As(V) in the contaminated soil.

Effects of Addition of Eggshell to Sawdust Substrate on the Growth and Development of Winter Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (계란껍질 첨가배지(添加培地)가 팽이버섯의 균사생장(菌絲生長)과 자실체(子實體)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Cheong, Jong-Chun;Kim, Gwang-Po;Kim, Han-Kyung;Kim, Young-Ho;Cha, Dong-Yeul;Chung, Bong-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.226-231
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    • 1995
  • Tile effects of addition of eggshell to sawdust substrate for the growth of F. velutipes were investigated. Eggshell used in this study contained 20.7% C, 0.81% N, 2530 ppm $P_2O_5$ and 44.37% Ca. The addition of eggshell resulted in the increase in bulk density and decrease of moisture content of the substrate. The addition of eggshell significantly increased the yield of the mushroom fruitbody. The addition rate of 15% (v/v), by 25% and at the rates of 5% and 10%, about 20%. Although the addition of eggshell to substrate did not improve the quality of mushroom, it increased the number of effective stipes as compared to control plot; approximately 13% more than in the control plot.

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WATER LOADED PRESSURE METHOD FOR MEASURING EGGSHELL QUALITY

  • Kang, C.W.;Nam, K.T.;Olson, O.E.;Carlson, C.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.723-726
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    • 1996
  • A water loaded pressure device using water as the breaking force was developed to evaluate eggshell strength and compared with a dropping ball techniques. Further, relationships of shell thickness and weight of eggs to shell strength were also studied. Values for both of the shell strength measuring methods showed a highly significant correlation (p < 0.001) with shell thickness. The water loaded pressure method had a much higher simple correlation coefficient for shell thickness (r = + 0.786) than the dropping ball method (r = + 0.577). The shell strength measured by the water loaded pressure method appeared not to be correlated to egg weight. On the other hand, the negative sign of the standard partial regression coefficient and the partial regression coefficient of egg weight in the estimated multiple regression equation implied that for a given shell thickness a larger egg tended to have less shell strength than a smaller egg.