• Title, Summary, Keyword: eggshell

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Effect of Room-temperature, Calcined Eggshell Reactants on Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite

  • Kang, Tea-Sung;Pantilimon, Cristian M.;Lee, Sang-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.204-208
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    • 2015
  • Synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) was attempted through a room-temperature reaction of calcined eggshell with phosphoric acid. Ball-milled, calcined eggshell powder, which has a specific surface area of $31.6m^2/g$, was mixed with various concentrations of phosphoric acid at room temperature. The mixtures showed high reactivity and a vigorous exothermic reaction ; the reacted samples showed both $Ca(OH)_2$ and $CaHPO_4$ crystal phases. After heating at temperatures above $400^{\circ}C$, an HA crystal phase was observed in all samples. The calcined eggshell showed a pure CaO single phase, while the $Ca(OH)_2$ phase was only observed in the wet, ball-milled calcined powder. The degree of formation of the HA crystal phase increased as the phosphoric acid concentration and the heating temperature were increased. A mixture with 50 wt% phosphoric acid concentration showed a well-developed HA crystal phase after heat treatment at $800^{\circ}C$, while the formation of a more intensive amorphous phase was observed in the products of the room-temperature reaction.

Detection of Surface Cracks in Eggshell by Machine Vision and Artificial Neural Network (기계 시각과 인공 신경망을 이용한 파란의 판별)

  • 이수환;조한근;최완규
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.409-414
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    • 2000
  • A machine vision system was built to obtain single stationary image from an egg. This system includes a CCD camera, an image processing board and a lighting system. A computer program was written to acquire, enhance and get histogram from an image. To minimize the evaluation time, the artificial neural network with the histogram of the image was used for eggshell evaluation. Various artificial neural networks with different parameters were trained and tested. The best network(64-50-1 and 128-10-1) showed an accuracy of 87.5% in evaluating eggshell. The comparison test for the elapsed processing time per an egg spent by this method(image processing and artificial neural network) and by the processing time per an egg spent by this method(image processing and artificial neural network) and by the previous method(image processing only) revealed that it was reduced to about a half(5.5s from 10.6s) in case of cracked eggs and was reduced to about one-fifth(5.5s from 21.1s) in case of normal eggs. This indicates that a fast eggshell evaluation system can be developed by using machine vision and artificial neural network.

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The Effect of Clinoptilolite in Low Calcium Diets on Performance and Eggshell Quality Parameters of Aged Hens

  • Gezen, Serife Sule;Eren, Mustafa;Balci, Faruk;Deniz, Gulay;Biricik, Hakan;Bozan, Birgul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1296-1302
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    • 2009
  • Ninety six beak-trimmed 72 week-old Lohmann Brown hens were randomly divided into four equal groups. Each group comprised 4 replicates. Isoenergetic and isonitrogenous experimental diets contained low calcium (3.5%); optimum calcium (4.2%); low Ca (3.5% Ca)+1% Clinoptilolite (CLP); low Ca (3.5% Ca)+2% CLP. Data were collected biweekly and the experiment lasted 6 weeks. Egg production, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, tibia Ca, P, ash and eggshell thickness were not affected by addition of CLP to the diets (p>0.05). There were no significant differences in egg shell strength and ash when data were analyzed individually in measurement periods ($74^{th}$, $76^{th}$ and $78^{th}$ weeks). However, according to pooled data ($74^{th}$-$78^{th}$ weeks), eggshell strength was increased (p<0.05) only by 2% CLP supplementation versus low Ca (3.5%) diet, and shell ash was significantly increased by 2% CLP supplementation compared with the other diets. The damaged egg ratio on 1% and 2% CLP diets was significantly decreased between 76-78 weeks'data when compared with the low Ca diet. However; damaged egg ratio on the 2% CLP diet was significantly decreased when pooled data (74-78) were compared with no CLP diets. The differences in marketable egg ratio paralleled damaged egg ratio. The plasma calcium level at the end of experiment was increased on the 2% CLP diet when compared with the low Ca (3.5%) diet (p<0.05). Furthermore, at the end of the experiment a marked decrease of manure moisture was observed on both CLP diets (p<0.01). In conclusion, Clinoptilolite (2%) supplementation to layer diets tends to improve eggshell quality and manure dry matter (1% and 2% CLP) after six weeks.

An Efficient Method for Co-purification of Eggshell Matrix Proteins OC-17, OC-116, and OCX-36

  • Zhang, Maojie;Wang, Ning;Xu, Qi;Harlina, Putri Widyanti;Ma, Meihu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.769-778
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we improved the eggshell-membrane separation process by separating the shell and membrane with EDTA solution, evaluating effects of three different extraction solutions (acetic acid, EDTA, and phosphate solution), and co-purifying multiple eggshell proteins with two successive ion-exchange chromatography procedures (CM Sepharose Fast Flow and DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow). The recovery and residual rates of eggshell and membrane separated by the modified method with added EDTA solution were 93.88%, 91.15% and 1.01%, 2.87%, respectively. Ovocleidin-116 (OC-116) and ovocalyxin-36 (OCX-36) were obtained by loading 50 mM Na-Hepes, pH 7.5, 2 mM DTT and 350 mM NaCl buffer onto the DEAE-FF column at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, ovocleidin-17 (OC-17) was obtained by loading 100 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris, pH 8.0 on the CM-FF column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The purities of OCX-36, OC-17 and OC-116 were 96.82%, 80.15% and 73.22%, and the recovery rates were 55.27%, 53.38% and 36.34%, respectively. Antibacterial activity test suggested that phosphate solution extract exhibited significantly higher activity against the tested bacterial strains than the acetic acid or EDTA extract, probably due to more types of proteins in the extract. These results demonstrate that this separation method is feasible and efficient.

Genetic evaluation of eggshell color based on additive and dominance models in laying hens

  • Guo, Jun;Wang, Kehua;Qu, Liang;Dou, Taocun;Ma, Meng;Shen, Manman;Hu, Yuping
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.1217-1223
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Eggshells with a uniform color and intensity are important for egg production because many consumers assess the quality of an egg according to the shell color. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of dominant effects on the variations in eggshell color after 32 weeks in a crossbred population. Methods: This study was conducted using 7,878 eggshell records from 2,626 hens. Heritability was estimated using a univariate animal model, which included inbreeding coefficients as a fixed effect and animal additive genetic, dominant genetic, and residuals as random effects. Genetic correlations were obtained using a bivariate animal model. The optimal diagnostic criteria identified in this study were: L🟉 value (lightness) using a dominance model, and a🟉 (redness), and b🟉 (yellowness) value using an additive model. Results: The estimated heritabilities were 0.65 for shell lightness, 0.42 for redness, and 0.60 for yellowness. The dominance heritability was 0.23 for lightness. The estimated genetic correlations were 0.61 between lightness and redness, -0.84 between lightness and yellowness, and -0.39 between redness and yellowness. Conclusion: These results indicate that dominant genetic effects could help to explain the phenotypic variance in eggshell color, especially based on data from blue-shelled chickens. Considering the dominant genetic variation identified for shell color, this variation should be employed to produce blue eggs for commercial purposes using a planned mating system.

Acoustic Impulse Method with Neural Network for Detection of Cracks in Eggshell (음향충격법과 인공신경망에 의한 파란 검출)

  • 최완규;조한근;백진하;장영창
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.621-628
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    • 1998
  • In order to develop an inspection algorithm for an automatic eggshell inspection system, acoustic impulse response with neural network method was studied. An improved error backpropagation algorithm was selected as a loaming rule of neural network, and three layer network was chosen for the neural network architecture. Acoustic signals in time domain and theirs power spectrum were studied as the input to the neural network. The classification feasibility and success rate were investigated in terms of statistical analysis and neural network approach. As a result, the success rate was 95% with the statistical model having five independent variables. Among the neural network models studied, the power spectrum of acoustic signal as the input with 64 input neurons and the two impact data showed the success rate of 95.5% which was slightly higher than of statistical analysis.

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Avian Somitic Cell Chimeras Using Surrogate Eggshell Technology

  • Mozdziak, Paul E.;Hodgson, Dee;Petitte, James N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.801-806
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    • 2008
  • A classical technique to study somitic cell fate is to employ the cross-transplantation of quail somites into a chick host. The densely stained nucleoli of the quail cells makes it possible to assess the fate of the donor quail cells in the chick host. Classical somite transplantation techniques have been hampered by the necessity of a small opening in the chick eggshell, difficulty in hatching the offspring and interspecies post-hatch graft rejection. With the advent of transgenic chicken technology, it is now possible to use embryos from transgenic chickens expressing reporter genes in somite cross-transplantation techniques to remove any possibility of interspecies graft rejection. This report describes using a surrogate eggshell system in conjunction with transgenic chick:chick somitic cell cross-transplantation to generate viable chimeric embryos and offspring. Greater than 40% of manipulated embryos survive past 10 days of incubation, and ~80% of embryos successfully cultured past 10 days of incubation hatched to produce viable offspring.

Effects of Dietary Microbial-Fermented Molasses on Egg Production and Egg Quality in Laying Hens (미생물 발효 당밀을 산란계 사료에 첨가 시 계란생산성과 특성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, In Hag
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.159-162
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    • 2019
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary microbial-fermented molasses on egg production and egg quality in laying hens.In total, 90 Hy-line Brown laying hens were divided into two treatment groups (control and 1% microbial-fermented molasses)with three replicates of 15 birds each. During the experimental period, supplementation of hen diets with 1% microbial-fermented molassesdid not influence egg weight, hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio (p > 0.05), except for feed intake. Regarding egg quality, diets containing 1% microbial-fermented molasses significantly affected eggshell thickness, Haugh unit, and albumen height (p < 0.05). However, there were no remarkable differences between control and 1% microbial-fermented molasses in eggshell color and egg yolk color (p > 0.05). These results indicate that supplementing 1% microbial-fermented molasses to the diet of laying hens improved egg quality parameters such as eggshell thickness, Haugh unit, and albumen height rather than egg production.

Engineering Characteristics of Cemented Sand with Microorganism Using Eggshell as Calcium Source (달걀껍질을 칼슘원으로 사용한 미생물 고결 모래의 공학적 특성)

  • Choi, Sun-Gyu;Park, Sung-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2016
  • A calcium source is necessary for calcite precipitation within soil particles by microbial decomposition of urea and a calcium chloride is usually used. The harmful environmental impact of calcium chloride on road, ground and plants is severe. In this study, an eggshell with vinegar is investigated for an environmental-friendly calcium source. Urea-decomposing microorganism and eggshell or calcium chloride as a calcium source are mixed with Ottawa sand to precipitate calcite. Then, the cemented sand with calcite is tested for calcite precipitation, permeability and unconfined compressive strength. A specimen is prepared by loose Ottawa sand in a size of 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in height. A urea solution with Sporosarcina pasteurii and two different calcium sources is injected into the specimen once a day for 30 days. Calcite precipitated at average of 7.2% on the specimen with eggshell as a calcium source, which was 1.2 times more than that with calcium chloride. The permeability of a specimen with eggshell was at average of 3.82E-5 cm/s, which was 7.7 times lower than that with calcium chloride. Unconfined compressive strength of a specimen with eggshell was at average of 387 kPa, which was 1.2 times higher than that with calcium chloride. As more calcite precipitated, the strength increased while the permeability decreased, regardless of calcium sources.

Assembling Synthesis of Barium Chromate Nano-superstructures Using Eggshell Membrane as Template

  • Liu, Jin-Ku;Wu, Qing-Sheng;Ding, Ya-Ping;Yi, Yu
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1775-1778
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    • 2004
  • The branch-like, feather-like $BaCrO_4$ nano-superstructures were synthesized with bioactive eggshell membrane as directing and assembly template. Studies on the two products revealed that they formed through the self-assembly of nanoparticles, and that the optical properties of the products were different from $BaCrO_4$ bulk materials.