• Title, Summary, Keyword: energy dissipation

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Investigation on energy dissipation and its mechanism of coal under dynamic loads

  • Feng, Junjun;Wang, Enyuan;Shen, Rongxi;Chen, Liang;Li, Xuelong;Xu, Zhaoyong
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.657-670
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    • 2016
  • The energy dissipation of coal under dynamic loads is a major issue in geomechanics and arising extensive concerns recently. In this study, dynamic loading tests of coal were conducted using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system, the characteristics of dynamic behavior and energy dissipation of coal were analyzed, and the mechanism of energy dissipation was discussed based on the fracture processes of coal under dynamic loads. Experimental results indicate that the energy dissipation of coal under dynamic loads has a positive linear correlation with both incident energy and dynamic compressive strength, and the correlation coefficients between incident energy, dynamic compressive strength and the energy dissipation rate are 0.74 and 0.98, respectively. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that higher level of stress leads to greater energy released during unstable crack propagation, thus resulting in larger energy dissipation rate of coal under dynamic loads. At last, a semi-empirical energy dissipation model is proposed for describing the positive relationship between dissipated energy and stress.

Flexural Pinching and Energy Dissipation Capacity (휨핀칭과 에너지 소산능력)

  • 박흥근;엄태성
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.275-285
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    • 2003
  • Pinching is an important property of reinforced concrete member which characterizes its cyclic behavior. In the present study, numerical studies were performed to investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of pinching behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of flexure-dominated reinforced concrete members. By analyzing existing experimental studies and numerical results, it was found that energy dissipation capacity of a member is directly related to energy dissipated by re-bars rather than concrete that is a brittle material, and that it is not related to magnitude of axial compressive force applied to the member. Therefore, for a member with specific arrangement and amount of re-bars, the energy dissipation capacity remains uniform regardless of the flexural strength that is changed by the magnitude of axial force applied. Due to the uniformness of energy dissipation capacity pinching appears in axial compression member. The flexural pinching that is not related to shear force becomes conspicuous as the flexural strength increases relatively to the uniform energy dissipation capacity. Based on the findings, a practical method for estimating energy dissipation capacity and damping modification factor was developed and verified with existing experiments.

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Input energy spectra and energy characteristics of the hysteretic nonlinear structure with an inerter system

  • Wang, Yanchao;Chen, Qingjun;Zhao, Zhipeng;Hu, Xiuyan
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.76 no.6
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    • pp.709-724
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    • 2020
  • The typical inerter system, the tuned viscous mass damper (TVMD), has been proven to be efficient. It is characterized by an energy-dissipation-enhancement effect, whereby the dashpot deformation of TVMD can be amplified for enhanced energy dissipation efficiency. However, existing studies related to TVMD have mainly been performed on elastic structures, so the working mechanism remains unclear for nonlinear structures. To deal with this, an energy-spectrum analysis framework is developed systematically for classic bilinear hysteretic structures with TVMD. Considering the soil effect, typical bedrock records are propagated through the soil deposit, for which the designed input energy spectra are proposed by considering the TVMD parameters and structural nonlinear properties. Furthermore, the energy-dissipation-enhancement effect of TVMD is quantitatively evaluated for bilinear hysteretic structures. The results show that the established designed input energy spectra can be employed to evaluate the total energy-dissipation burden for a nonlinear TVMD structure. Particularly, the stiffness of TVMD is the dominant factor in adjusting the total input energy. Compared with the case of elastic structures, the energy-dissipation-enhancement effect of TVMD for nonlinear structures is weakened so that the expected energy-dissipation effect of TVMD is replaced by the accumulated energy dissipation of the primary structure.

Design principles for stiffness-tandem energy dissipation coupling beam

  • Sun, Baitao;Wang, Mingzhen;Gao, Lin
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2017
  • Reinforced concrete shear wall is one of the most common structural forms for high-rise buildings, and seismic energy dissipation techniques, which are effective means to control structural vibration response, are being increasingly used in engineering. Reinforced concrete-mild steel damper stiffness-tandem energy dissipation coupling beams are a new technology being gradually adopted by more construction projects since being proposed. Research on this technology is somewhat deficient, and this paper investigates design principles and methods for two types of mild steel dampers commonly used for energy dissipation coupling beams. Based on the conception design of R.C. shear wall structure and mechanics principle, the basic design theories and analytic expressions for the related optimization parameters of dampers at elastic stage, yield stage, and limit state are derived. The outcomes provide technical support and reference for application and promotion of reinforced concrete-mild steel damper stiffness-tandem energy dissipation coupling beam in engineering practice.

The rock fragmentation mechanism and plastic energy dissipation analysis of rock indentation

  • Zhu, Xiaohua;Liu, Weiji
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.195-204
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    • 2018
  • Based on theories of rock mechanics, rock fragmentation, mechanics of elasto-plasticity, and energy dissipation etc., a method is presented for evaluating the rock fragmentation efficiency by using plastic energy dissipation ratio as an index. Using the presented method, the fragmentation efficiency of rocks with different strengths (corresponding to soft, intermediately hard and hard ones) under indentation is analyzed and compared. The theoretical and numerical simulation analyses are then combined with experimental results to systematically reveal the fragmentation mechanism of rocks under indentation of indenter. The results indicate that the fragmentation efficiency of rocks is higher when the plastic energy dissipation ratio is lower, and hence the drilling efficiency is higher. For the rocks with higher hardness and brittleness, the plastic energy dissipation ratio of the rocks at crush is lower. For rocks with lower hardness and brittleness (such as sandstone), most of the work done by the indenter to the rocks is transferred to the elastic and plastic energy of the rocks. However, most of such work is transferred to the elastic energy when the hardness and the brittleness of the rocks are higher. The plastic deformation is small and little energy is dissipated for brittle crush, and the elastic energy is mainly transferred to the kinetic energy of the rock fragment. The plastic energy ratio is proved to produce more accurate assessment on the fragmentation efficiency of rocks, and the presented method can provide a theoretical basis for the optimization of drill bit and selection of well drilling as well as for the selection of the rock fragmentation ways.

Control-Gain Estimation of Energy Dissipation Control Algorithms (에너지소산 제어 알고리듬의 제어이득 산정)

  • 이상현;민경원;강상훈
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.431-438
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    • 2004
  • This study is on control-gain estimation of energy dissipation control algorithms. Velocity feedback, bang-bang, and energy dissipation control algorithms are proposed based on the Lyapunov stability theory and their performances are evaluated and compared. Saturation problem is considered in the design of the velocity feedback and energy dissipation control algorithms, and chattering problem in bang-bang control is solved by using boundary layer. Numerical results show that the proposed control algorithms can dissipate the structural energy induced by wind loads efficiently, and thus provide good control performance.

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Heat Transfer Model and Energy Dissipation Rate in Bubble Columns with Continuous Operation (연속조작 기포탑에서 열전달 모델 및 에너지 소멸 속도)

  • Jang, Ji Hwa;Seo, Myung Jae;Lim, Dae Ho;Kang, Yong;Jung, Heon;Lee, Ho Tae
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.587-592
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    • 2009
  • Heat transfer model and energy dissipation rate were investigated to examine the heat transfer mechanism in bubble columns with continuous operation. The energy dissipation rate($E_D$) obtained from the unsteady state heat transfer model based on the surface renewal theory was significantly small, comparing with the hydrodynamic energy dissipation rate($P_v$) calculated from the overall hydrodynamic energy balance based on the behaviors and holdups of gas and liquid phases in the column. It was found from these results that the energy dissipation rate based on the surface renewal theory is independent of the hydrodynamic energy dissipation rate obtained from the overall hydrodynamic energy balance in the bubble column, in considering their mechanism. The different two energy dissipation rates were correlated in terms of operating variables within this experimental conditions, respectively.

Dissipation of energy in steel frames with PR connections

  • Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo;Haldar, Achintya
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.241-256
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    • 2000
  • The major sources of energy dissipation in steel frames with partially restrained (PR) connections are evaluated. Available experimental results are used to verify the mathematical model used in this study. The verified model is then used to quantify the energy dissipation in PR connections due to hysteretic behavior, due to viscous damping and at plastic hinges if they are formed. Observations are made for two load conditions: a sinusoidal load applied at the top of the frame, and a sinusoidal ground acceleration applied at the base of the frame representing a seismic loading condition. This analytical study confirms the general behavior, observed during experimental investigations, that PR connections reduce the overall stiffness of frames, but add a major source of energy dissipation. As the connections become stiffer, the contribution of PR connections in dissipating energy becomes less significant. A connection with a T ratio (representing its stiffness) of at least 0.9 should not be considered as fully restrained as is commonly assumed, since the energy dissipation characteristics are different. The flexibility of PR connections alters the fundamental frequency of the frame. Depending on the situation, it may bring the frame closer to or further from the resonance condition. If the frame approaches the resonance condition, the effect of damping is expected to be very important. However, if the frame moves away from the resonance condition, the energy dissipation at the PR connections is expected to be significant with an increase in the deformation of the frame, particularly for low damping values. For low damping values, the dissipation of energy at plastic hinges is comparable to that due to viscous damping, and increases as the frame approaches failure. For the range of parameters considered in this study, the energy dissipations at the PR connections and at the plastic hinges are of the same order of magnitude. The study quantitatively confirms the general observations made in experimental investigations for steel frames with PR connections; however, proper consideration of the stiffness of PR connections and other dynamic properties is essential in predicting the dynamic behavior.

Energy dissipation response of brick masonry under cyclic compressive loading

  • Senthivel, R.;Sinha, S.N.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.405-422
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    • 2003
  • Scaled brick masonry panels were tested under cyclic unialxial compression loading to evaluate its deformation characteristics. An envelope stress - strain curves, a common point curves and stability point curves were obtained for various cyclic test conditions. Loops of the stress-strain hysteresis were used to determine the energy dissipation for each cycle. Empirical expressions were proposed for the relations between energy dissipation and envelope and residual strains. These relations indicated that the decay of masonry strength starts at about two-third of peak stress.

Energy Dissipation and Transfer among Wave Components during Directional Breaking Processes (다방향 쇄파 발생 전후의 파랑 성분간 에너지 전이 및 소산)

  • 홍기용;에스똘히오메자
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2003
  • Wave energy dissipation and energy transfer between wave components, during the directional wave breakings, are investigated. Directional incipient and plunging breakers were generated by focusing the multi-frequency and multi-directional wave components at a designed location, based on a constant wave amplitude and a constant wave steepness frequency spectrum. The time series of surface wave elevation was measured at 9 different locations around the wave focusing point, using a wave gauge array. In order to examine the variation of the directional spreading function, the horizontal velocity of fluid motion was also measured. By comparing energy spectrums, before and after the breaking, the characteristics of energy dissipation and energy transfer, caused by wave breaking, are investigated. Their dependencies on directionality, as well as frequency, are analyzed. The breakings significantly dissipate wave energy, through energy transfer, in the upper region of the peak-frequency band, while enhancing wave energy in the low-frequency band.