• Title/Summary/Keyword: enzyme-resistant starch

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The Influence of the Annealing of Corn Starch on the formation and Characteristics of Enzyme-resistant Starch

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 1999
  • The Physical properties of corn starch were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry during the formation of enzyme-resistant starch(RS). Samples were studied in their native states and after annealing at 50, 55, 60 and 65℃ in excess water(starch : water=1:3) for 48hr. Starch granules became smaller and more rounded after annealing than in their native state. Annealing did not change the X-ray profile of native corn starch. After autoclaving-cooling cycles, native starch lost most of its crystallinity but annealed ones showed some of their crystallinity left as diffuse or poor B-type, which didn't relate to increasing Rs yields. During formation of RS, however, both native and annealed starches changed their X-ray profile from A-type to poor B-type of retrograded amylose. Annealing caused an increase in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy, but a narrowing of gelatinization temperature range. Only starch annealed at 65℃, however, showed a decrease in enthalpy even though its gelatinization temperature increased, which appeared to be due to the partial gelatinization in the amorphous region during annealing. Peak height index(PHI), the ratio of ΔH to Ti-To, increased by annealing. PHI values, therefore, showed the possibility as an indicator to predict RS yield which cannot be differentiated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction data.

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Effect of Cooking Methods and Degree of Milling on the Enzyme-Resistant Starch Content of Nonwaxy and Waxy Rice (취반 방법과 도정정도에 따른 멥쌀과 찹쌀의 난소화성 전분 함량 변화)

  • 이영은
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2003
  • The effects of cooking methods on the total dietary fiber(TDF) and enzyme-resistant starch(RS) contents of nonwaxy and waxy milled and brown rices were investigated. The TDF contents of raw rices were 3.77% for nonwaxy brown, 3.41% for waxy brown, 1.37% for nonwaxy milled and 1.14% for waxy milled rices. The TDF contents were higher in brown rices than milled ones and slightly higher in nonwaxy than waxy ones. However, there were no significant differences among raw and cooked rices with. automatic electric cooker and automatic pressure cooker. The TDF contents of cooked rices did not show any increase, but that of waxy milled ones rather slightly decreased by cooking. The RS contents analysed were not significantly different between automatic electric cooking and automatic pressure cooking. The RS contents of cooked rices were 0.05∼0.06% for nonwaxy milled, 0.09∼0.12% for nonwaxy brown, 0.07∼0.08% for waxy milled, 0.11∼0.13% for waxy brown, which showed higher RS content in brown than milled ones, and in waxy than nonwaxy ones. The ratios of RS/TDF were 4.1∼4.2% for nonwaxy milled, 2.8% for nonwaxy brown, 7.5∼8.9% for waxy milled, 3.6∼3.7% for waxy brown, which showed that the higher the TDF contents, the less the contribution of RS to the TDF.

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Enzyme-Resistant Starch Formation from Mild Acid-Treated Maize Starches (약산처리 옥수수전분으로 호소저항전분의 생성)

  • Lee, Shin-Kyung;Mun, Sae-Hun;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1309-1315
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    • 1997
  • Yields of enzyme-resistant starch (RS) from three kinds of maize starches (Amioca, normal starch and Amylomaize VII) which were treated with 1 N HCl for 24 hr and physicochemical characteristics were investigated. Hydrolysis rate of maize starches decreased with increasing amylose content. Maximum wavelength $({\lambda}_{max})$ and iodine affinity were decreased by the acid treatment. The yields of RS increased with acid treatment up to 12 hr and then decreased. The yield of for 12 hr acid-treated Amioca increased 8 times more than untreated sample, but those of normal starch and Amylomaize VII slightly increased. Using SEM, acid-treated and autoclaved maize starches showed gel like structure, but RS had round and rod shape small particles. X-ray diffraction patterns of autoclaved starches showed amorphous structure in Amioca and B-type in normal starch and Amylomaize VII, and those of RS showed all completely crystalline structure.

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Effect of Addition of Enzyme-Resistent Starch on Texture Characterstics of Corn Bread (효소 저항성 전분의 첨가가 옥수수빵의 텍스쳐 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 조아라;안승요
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 1996
  • Effects of replacement of corn starch with Amylomaize Vll starch and addition of enzyme-resistant starch on texture characteristics of com bread (CON) were investigated. Amylomaize-substituted corn bread (AMZ) was made by replacing corn starch with Amylomaize Vll starch. 15% (RSl5) and 30% (RS30) of butter, was replaced with enzyme-resistant starch (RS) from Amylomaife Vll starch, respectively. Textu,e describing terms were classified according to their physical properties. Result of sensory evaluation characteristics showed that the size of air cells increased as butter replacement level decreased and that hardness increased but springiness decreased as com starch was replaced with Amylomaize Vll starch. The results of Texture Profile Analysis with deformation of 30% and 50% showed that hardness inclosed but cohesiveness decreased as cooling time increased.

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Enzyme-Resistant Starch Content, Physical and Sensory Properties of Tarakjuk (Milk-Rice Porridge) with Different Amylose Content (아밀로즈 함량별 타락죽의 효소저항전분 함량, 물리적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Lee, Gui-Chu;Kim, Jung-Eun;Kim, Yoon-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2006
  • Tarakjuk with different amylose content was made up using roasted rice flours that consisted of the highest enzyme-resistant starch (RS), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also utilized to measure the gelatinization temperature of these roasted rice flours in order to establish cooking temperature of tarakjuk. The following qualities of tarakjuk with different amylose content were studied: color, viscosity, spreadability, starch fractions involving total starch (TS), rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and RS, in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) and sensory properties. During experimentation, it was found that as the amylose content of the rice flour decreased, the L value of tarakjuk decreased, whereas a value increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, while viscosity showed to increase significantly (p<0.05), on the opposite end, the property of spreadability decreased. TS ranged from $15.95{\sim}17.31%$, RDS $9.36{\sim}10.16%$, SDS $5.46{\sim}6.91%$ and RS $0.33{\sim}1.07%$, on a dry basis. Although the amylose content of rice flours decreased, IVSD increased, however showing no significant difference. When testing the sensory properties of tarakjuk, color and viscosity increased, whereas clumpiness decreased. Ilpum tarakjuk showed the highest score for nutty taste and overall acceptance levels. In fact a high correlation was shown between nutty taste and overall acceptance level (p<0.01), which leads one to believe that nutty taste is a prime factor that greatly influences overall acceptance. Furthermore, viscosity was positively correlated with both a and b values, however negatively correlated with L value (p<0.05). Moreover, roasted nutty taste and overall acceptance were positively correlated with a value (p<0.05), respectively. In conclusion, the above results suggest that tarakjuk could be made by choosing the appropriate rice flour based on the nutritional or sensory purpose.

Influence of Amylose Content on Formation and Characteristics of Enzyme-resistant Starch

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 1998
  • Influence of amylose content on formation and characteristics of enzyme-resistant starch (RS) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. RS yield increased up to 36.1 % as the amylose content of corn starch increased. Starch granules of Amyulomaize V and Ⅶ were more rounded and smaller than those of regular corn ; some were elongated and had appendages. After autoclaving -cooling cycles, the granular structure disappeared and a continous spongy-like porous network was visible in regular corn starch ; the granular structure was stillevident in parts in Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches. In all isolated RS residues , the porous structures were no longer visible and more compact formations predominated. While regular corn starch showed an A-type X-ray profile, Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches exhibited a combination of B- and V-types. Regular corn starch lost most of its crystallinity during autoclaving , but the crystallinity was still left in Amylomaize starches as diffuse or poor B-types. All RS residues showed the presence of poor B-type regardless of amylose contents. Transition temperatures and enthalypy of native starches were a little higher in Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches than those of regular corn starch . Regardless of amylose contents, all RS residues exhibited an endothermic transition over a similar temperature range (135 $^{\circ}C$~169$^{\circ}C$), with a mean peak temperature of ~154$^{\circ}C$, which is generally foud for retrograded amylose crystallities. Higher transition temperature, enthalypy, and RS yield of AMylomaize V and Ⅶ starches were related granular stability shown by the microscopic and crystallographic studies.

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Effect of Addition of Enzyme-Resistant Rice RS3 on Quality and Textural Characteristics of Madeleine (효소저항성 쌀전분의 첨가가 마들렌의 품질 및 텍스처 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Wan-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.191-201
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    • 2010
  • This study attempted to examine the application of retrograded starch (RS3) isolated from rice flour into Madeleine which is easy to make, supply enough energy and micro nutrients with adequate drinks, and prevent an adult disease. This could be a popular food to anyone regardless of age and gender who avoid rice and become high value-added, processed rice foods. For this, control Madeleine was made from wheat flour and an experimental one was made from 5 or 10% rice RS3 addition as well as wheat flour. Four different types of rice were produced from Premium Ho-Pyong Rice, that is, dry milled rice flour(RFD), soaked for 8 hours and milled, followed by air-dried rice flour(RFW), rice starch(RST), and retrograded rice starch or enzyme-resistant starch(RS3). The results found were as follows: Proximate compositions were decreased with soaking to make RFW, RST and RS3, compared to RFD. RS3 had the highest L, +a and ${\Delta}E$ with the lowest +b, changing it to a dark color, explaining the need for heat control during processing. At $80^{\circ}C$, the swelling power was shown in the order of RST>RFW>RFD>RS3 and the solubility of RS3 was the highest. There were significant differences in viscosities of peak, trough, cold, breakdown and total setback of all rice samples using RVA (p<0.001). Due to the pH of RS3, the Madeleine batter became acidic (p<.01) and expanded, resulting in more air cells and open texture. With an increasing RS3 level in Madeleine, several textural attributes among 'fresh' and 'stored at room temperature' Madeleine samples were significantly different by using Texture Analyzer. While the addition of RS3 in Madeleine did not significantly affect the sensory evaluation, indicating RS3 isolated from rice as a beneficial ingredient for processed rice products.

Effects of Amylose Content on Properties of Lintnerized Maize Starches and Yield of Resistant Starch (아밀로오스 함량이 산처리 옥수수전분의 특성 및 저항전분수율에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Shin-Kyung;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.395-399
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    • 1997
  • Lintnerization properties and yield of enzyme-resistant starch in maize starches with different amylose content were investigated. Hydrolytic patterns of starches showed two distinct stages. With decreasing the amylose content, hydrolysis extents of starch increased. X-ray diffraction patterns of Amloca, PFP and commercial maize starch were the A crystalline type, and those of Amaizo 5 and Amylomaize VII were the B crystalline type. As acid hydrolysis time increased, the relative crystallinity of starches increased. After heating-cooling treatment was repeated up to 4 times, the yield of RS increased with increasing the amylose content. The yields of RS in lintnerzed maize starches decreased with acid treatment.

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Effect of the Cooking Condition on Enzyme-resistant Starch Content and in vitro Starch and Protein Digestibility of Tarakjuk (Milk-rice Porridge) (타락죽의 효소저항전분 함량과 in vitro 전분 및 단백질 분해율에 대한 가열조건의 영향)

  • Lee, Gui-Chu;Lim, Seung-Taik;Yoon, Hyun-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.765-772
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    • 2004
  • Cooking condition of Tarakjuk (milk-rice porridge) was established based on gelatinization temperature using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of roasted Ilpum rice flour, which has highest enzyme-resistant starch (RS) content. Effect of cooking temperature and time on DSC characteristics, crystallity with X ray diffractogram, RS content, in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD), amino acid composition, and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of Tarakjuk were determined. Tarakjuk was cooked at 50, 56.5, 64, and $69^{\circ}C$ for various durations. Rice flour ingredient used was Ilpum, previously roasted at $185^{\circ}C$ for 25 min. Tarakjuk cooked at 50 and $56.5^{\circ}C$ showed two thermal transitions between $63.7-125.2^{\circ}C$ as determined by DSC, corresponding to endotherms of starch gelatinization $(63.7-73.8^{\circ}C)$ and melting of amylose-lipid complex (AM-lipid complex, $97.7-125.2^{\circ}C$), whereas that cooked at 64 and $69^{\circ}C$ showed only AM-lipid complex melting transition between $96.9-127.6^{\circ}C$. As cooking temperature increased, RS content of Tarakjuk decreased, whereas IVSD increased. Total amino acid content was between 11,558-15,601mg/100g, depending on cooking condition used. Compared with conventionally made control, contents of essential amino acids, such as lysine and tryptophane, were higher at 50 and $56.5^{\circ}C$, and IVPD showed higher increase. Results reveal degree of gelatinization in Tarakjuk with high RS content as well as low IVSD and high IVPD, which are important from physiological and nutritional point of view, can be produced by controlling cooking condition.

Formation of Enzyme Resistant Starch by Extrusion Cooking of High Amylose Corn Starch (고아밀로즈 옥수수전분의 압출성형에 의한 난소화성화)

  • Kim, Ji-Yong;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.1128-1133
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    • 1998
  • Extrusion cooking treatment was compared with autoclaving/cooling treatment for formation of enzyme resistant starch of high amylose corn starch (HACS). Effects of barrel temperature $(100^{\circ}C,\;120^{\circ}C,\;140^{\circ}C)$ and feed moisture content (25%, 35%, 45%) on extrusion processing in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder under fixed screw speed (100 rpm) were investigated by measuring enzyme resistant starch (RS) yield. RS yield were estimated by in-vitro pancreatin digestion method and enzymatic-gravimetric method using termamyl. Barrel temperature and yield of RS were negatively correlated and feed moisture content and yield of RS was positively correlated as determined by in-vitro pancreatin method. The highest yield (38.4%) of RS was obtained from HACS extrudate processed at the barrel temperature of $100^{\circ}C$ and the feed moisture content of 45%, while the yield of RS by 5 times of autoclaving/cooling was 25%. The yield of RS by in vitro pancreatin digestion method was 20.7% with high amylose corn starch and 8.2% with ordinary corn starch (CS), respectively, under the same extrusion condition (barrel temperature $120^{\circ}C$, feed moisture content 35%). At the same condition, the yields of RS by enzyme-gravimetric method were 14.6% with HACS and 6.8% with CS, respectively. The yield of RS increased during the storage at $4^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks and the highest yield (60%) was obtained by the storage of HACS extrudates extruded at $100^{\circ}C$ and 45% feed moisture content.

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