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The Comparative Study on Decoctions of Yukmijihwang-tang (Liuweidihuang-tang) Extracted by Different Extraction Method and Extraction Time (전탕 방법 및 전탕 시간에 따른 육미지황탕 전탕액 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Hoon;Seo, Chang-Seob;Jeon, Woo-Young;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : This study was performed to compare the differences between decoctions extracted by different extraction method and extraction time. Methods : Decoctions were prepared with pressed or non-pressed extraction conditions for 60, 120 and 180min. The yields of extracts, sugar contents, hydrogen ion concentrations(pH), the contents of reference compounds in Yukmijihwang-tang(Liuweidihuang-tang) were investigated. Results : The yields and the dissolved solid content containing sugar content of decoctions were more in pressed extraction method than unpressed extraction method, and they tended to be increased as extraction time increased. The pH values of decoctions methods did not show significant differences between pressed and unpressed extraction methods or extraction times. Most of reference compounds showed higher contents in pressed extraction method than unpressed extraction method and their contents were augmented according to increase of extraction time. The content of paeonol was decreased when extracted in more than 120min with pressed extraction method and tended to be decreased as extraction time increased in unpressed extraction method. Conclusions : The pressed extraction with long extraction time could be useful for decoction of Yukmijihwang-tang(Liuweidihuang-tang). However, another ingredients possible to decrease in such condition need to be considered to determine suitable extraction condition.

Effects of Extraction Conditions on the Componential Extraction of Brown Seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida)

  • Park, Nan-Young;Kim, In-Sun;Jeong, Yong-Jin
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.321-326
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    • 2008
  • In order to improve the market competitiveness of the processed products of Undaria pinnatifida, various extraction conditions of Undaria pinnatifida were examined to determine the optimal conditions for the extraction of its valuable components. The highest level of alginic acid content was detected after 90 min of typical extraction or after 20 min of pressure extraction, after which the levels decreased slightly. The concentrations of reducing sugar and crude protein were also high after 90 min of typical extraction. Both alginic acid and reducing sugar were extracted in greater amounts using pressure extraction. The reducing sugar content was $2.8{\sim}3.2$ times higher using pressure extraction rather than typical extraction. Furthermore, the extraction results were superior with the, pressure extraction method. The appropriate temperature and duration of extraction were found to be $120^{\circ}C$ for 20 min. The use of a single enzyme yielded better results during extraction compared to the use of a mixture of enzymes. 20 min of pressure extraction followed by the addition of 0.1% pectinase and 2 hr of further extraction at $50^{\circ}C$ yielded high contents of alginic acid and reducing sugar from Undaria pinnatifida.

Effect of Extraction Condition on the Content of EGCG and Caffeine of Green Tea: Comparison with the Inhibitory Activity on Pancreatic Lipase

  • Lee, Eun Song;Lee, Mi Kyeong
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2013
  • Caffeine and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are major constituents of green tea, the leaves of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae). Although EGCG is well known for diverse beneficial effect, caffeine is sometimes harmful with adverse effects. Therefore, the extraction efficiency was investigated using different extraction method such as extraction solvent, extraction time, extraction method, and repeated extraction. The content of EGCG and caffeine in green tea extract was quantitated by HPLC analysis. The extraction condition exerted difference on the extraction yield. The content of EGCG was also affected by different extraction condition. Especially, the extraction solvent greatly affected the content of EGCG in the extract. However, the content of caffeine was less affected compared to that of EGCG. The inhibitory effect of green tea extract on pancreatic lipase was almost similar regardless of extraction condition. Taken together, optimization of extraction condition will provide best efficacy for further development of green tea as anti-obesity therapeutics.

The influences of extraction time and pressure on the chemical characteristics of Gyejibokryeong-hwan decoctions

  • Kim, Jung-Hoon;Lee, Nari;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo;Seo, Chang-Seob
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : This study was aimed to compare Gyejibokryeong-hwan (GBH) decoctions produced using different pressure levels for various extraction times to find the optimal extraction conditions through extraction yield, total soluble solids content (TSSC), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), and the contents of chemical compounds. Methods : Decoctions of GBH were prepared under the pressure levels of 0 or $1kgf/cm^2$ for 30-180 min using water as extraction solvent. The extraction yield, TSSC, and pH were measured, and the amounts of the chemical compounds were determined using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector. Results : The higher pressure and longer extraction time increased the values of TSSC and extraction yield, while decreased the pH value. The decoctions produced in 180 min by pressurized method and produced in 150 min by non-pressurized method showed maximum values of extraction yield and TSSC with minimum value of pH. The amounts of chemical compounds showed variations in pressurized and non-pressurized decoction during overall extraction times. The influences of pressure and extraction time on extraction yield, TSSC, pH, and the contents of chemical compounds were confirmed by regression analysis, which showed that all extraction values were significantly affected by at least one of two extraction factors, pressure and extraction time. Conclusions : This study suggests that the pressure and extraction time can significantly affect the extraction efficiency of components from GBH decoctions. However, optimal extraction conditions could not be chosen due to the variation of the amounts of chemical compounds.

Effect of Korean Red Ginseng extraction conditions on antioxidant activity, extraction yield, and ginsenoside Rg1 and phenolic content: optimization using response surface methodology

  • Lee, Jin Woo;Mo, Eun Jin;Choi, Ji Eun;Jo, Yang Hee;Jang, Hari;Jeong, Ji Yeon;Jin, Qinghao;Chung, Hee Nam;Hwang, Bang Yeon;Lee, Mi Kyeong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.229-236
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    • 2016
  • Background: Extraction conditions greatly affect composition, as well as biological activity. Therefore, optimization is essential for maximum efficacy. Methods: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) was extracted under different conditions and antioxidant activity, extraction yield, and ginsenoside Rg1 and phenolic content evaluated. Optimized extraction conditions were suggested using response surface methodology for maximum antioxidant activity and extraction yield. Results: Analysis of KRG extraction conditions using response surface methodology showed a good fit of experimental data as demonstrated by regression analysis. Among extraction factors, such as extraction solvent and extraction time and temperature, ethanol concentration greatly affected antioxidant activity, extraction yield, and ginsenoside Rg1 and phenolic content. The optimal conditions for maximum antioxidant activity and extraction yield were an ethanol concentration of 48.8%, an extraction time 73.3 min, and an extraction temperature of $90^{\circ}C$. The antioxidant activity and extraction yield under optimal conditions were 43.7% and 23.2% of dried KRG, respectively. Conclusion: Ethanol concentration is an important extraction factor for KRG antioxidant activity and extraction yield. Optimized extraction conditions provide useful economic advantages in KRG development for functional products.

Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods

  • Lee, Myung-Hee;Kim, Sung-Soo;Cho, Chang-Won;Choi, Sang-Yoon;In, Gyo;Kim, Kyung-Tack
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.468-474
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    • 2013
  • Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and $65^{\circ}C$ was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at $200^{\circ}C$ for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that ${\beta}$-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g.

Optimal Extraction Conditions of Active Components from the Adventitious Roots of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) (노니 부정근으로부터 유효성분의 최적 추출조건)

  • Kim, Myong-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 2016
  • To determine the optimum condition for the extraction of active components, noni adventitious roots were extracted under various conditions employing various solvents including methanolic water at different ratio (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% water), extraction times and extraction methods. Anthraquinones, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids extraction using different solvents showed that 1 h of ultrasonic extraction was effective in 60-80% methanol, and 2 h of reflux extraction was effective in 80% methanol. To compare the extraction efficiency of active components according to different extraction methods and extraction times for noni adventitious roots, the active components were extracted by ultrasonic extraction, shaking extraction, reflux extraction, homogenizer extraction, high-pressure extraction, and soaking extraction. The highest phenolic contents were found in the extracted from ultrasonic extraction and anthraquinones and flavonoids contents were highest in the reflux extraction.

Extraction Characteristics of Soluble Solid from Rumex crispus(Curled Dock) Roots (소리쟁이(Rumex crispus) 뿌리로부터 가용성 고형분의 추출특성)

  • Jeong, Kap-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1265-1272
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    • 2011
  • In this study, the extraction characteristics of soluble solid from Rumex crispus(Curled dock) was studied from the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on extraction rate; extraction ratio, composition of extractants, extraction time and pH of extractant, etc. The proximate composition of Rumex crispus was 2.58% crude lipid, 5.59% crude protein, 7.39% crude ash, 6.13% moisture and 78.31% carbohydrate, respectively. Turbidity of extract by distilled water was higher and increased with extraction time and extraction temperature, where as the turbidity didn't increase by ethanol and methanol in 20 folds of extraction ratio. Turbidity was inversely proportional to the extraction ratio for the three extractants at 25$^{\circ}C$ and 1 hour extraction. But turbidity of extract was highest by composition of 50% methanol-water extractant than any other compositions of extractants. Eighteen and fifteen free aminoacids were detected in extracts with distilled water, methanol and ethanol extractant, respectively, and it's contents were order of glutamic acid>proline>aminobutyric acid>alanine. The extraction rate of soluble solid from Rumex crispus was order of distilled water>methanol>ethanol within experimental extraction ratio. In extraction with distilled water, the contents of soluble solid was inversely proportional to the pH of extractant.

Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Laminaria japonica Aresch Using Ionic Liquid as Extraction Solvent

  • Han, Dandan;Zhu, Tao;Row, Kyung-Ho
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.2212-2216
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    • 2011
  • An ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction method has been successfully applied to the effective extraction of phenolic compounds from Laminaria japonica Aresch. Three kinds of 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium with different cations and anions were evaluated for extraction efficiency. The results showed that both the characteristics of anions and cations have remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency. In addition, the ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction procedure was also optimized on some extraction parameters, such as ultrasonic power, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio. Compared with the conventional solvent, the optimum approach gained the highest extraction efficiency within the shortest extraction time. Average recoveries of phenolic compounds were from 75.5% to 88.3% at three concentration levels.

Extraction of Oil from Chlorella vulgaris Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Organic Solvent (초임계 이산화탄소와 유기용매를 이용한 Chlorella vulgaris 오일의 추출)

  • Ryu, Jong-Hoon;Park, Mi-Ran;Lim, Giobin
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 2014
  • Three different types of extraction processes, which used supercritical carbon dioxide ($SCCO_2$) and organic solvent, were attempted to improve the extraction yield of oil from Chlorella vulgaris: cosolvent-modified $SCCO_2$ extraction, $SCCO_2$ extraction with ultrasonic sample treatment in organic solvent, and static extraction with organic solvent followed by dynamic $SCCO_2$ extraction. Among these, the last $SCCO_2$ extraction process was found to be most effective in the extraction of oil. Compared with pure $SCCO_2$ extraction, the extraction yield of oil was observed to increase about 7 times.