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Cytotoxicity of Particulate Matter in Various Human Cells Lines (미세먼지가 다양한 사람 세포주에 미치는 세포 독성)

  • Lee, Ji-Hyeon;Lee, Joo-Yeong;Kim, Mi-Jeong;Kim, Hyeon-Ji;Lee, Sung-Ho;Jeon, Byeong-Gyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.724-734
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    • 2019
  • The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of particulate matter (PM) derived from car air filter (outdoor PM) and home cleaner filter (indoor PM) in the various human cell lines. Each outdoor and indoor PM were harvested by ethanol extraction method, subsequently sieved with 10 um filter paper, sterilized with autoclave and added to culture media. The half maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50}$) values was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the outdoor PM, compared with indoor PM, and the significantly (p<0.05) higher $IC_{50}$ values were observed in the cancer cell lines (A-549 lung adenocarcinoma and AGS stomach adenocarcinoma), than those of normal MRC-5 fibroblasts and dental papilla tissue derived-mesenchymal stem cells (DSC). After being exposed to $100{\mu}g/ml$ outdoor PM for 7 days, the population doubling time (PDT) was significantly (p<0.05) increased in especially MRC-5 and DSC cell lines, compared with untreated cell lines. Further, the expression of senescence-associated ${\beta}$-galactosidase activity was up-regulated in all the cells exposed to outdoor PM than those of untreated control. Besides, the expression level of inflammation-associated genes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) increased in the outdoor PM-treated cell lines than those of untreated cell lines. Our results showed that PM induces the cytotoxicity via arrest of cell growth, cell damage and inflammation response.

Enhancement of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Fermented by Achyranthes japonica on Extraction Solvents (추출 용매에 따른 Lactobacillus plantarum 발효 우슬의 항염증 효과 증진)

  • Jo, Eun Sol;Woo, Young Min;Kim, Ok Ju;Jo, Min Young;Ahn, Mee Young;Lee, Jae-Hwa;Ha, Jong-Myung;Kim, Andre
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.145-150
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we used extracts obtained from five different solvents (water, ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol) of Achyranthes japonica (AJ) and also AJ fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) to confirm effects on the anti-inflammatory activity in RAW264.7 cells. Experiments of measuring nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production were performed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells, and the expression of both cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was observed by a western blot method. The cytotoxicity of RAW264.7 was confirmed by the cell counting kit (CCK) assay at a concentration of $100{\mu}g/mL$, which has no toxicity. As a result of the inhibition of NO production, the inhibition rate of AJ-LP extracted with ethanol samples was about 74% higher than that of using the control group. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), and Interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$), which are inflammatory cytokines, also showed an excellent efficacy with inhibition rates of about 57, 70, and 74%, respectively. Comparing to the results of COX-2 and iNOS expression in the AJ group, the inhibition rate of 20-hydroxyecdysone was the highest than others. On the other hand, the COX-2 expression level of AJ-LP group decreased about 16% compared to that of the control group, and the iNOS expression level was also decreased about 7%. These results suggest that the extract of AJ fermented from L. plantarum can be used as an anti-inflammatory natural material.

Development of Samgyetang Broth from Air-dried and Oven-roasted Chicken Feet (열풍건조 및 오븐구이 닭발로부터 추출한 삼계탕 육수 제조)

  • Kim, Juntae;Utama, Dicky Tri;Jeong, Hae Seong;Heidar, Barido Farouq;Jang, Aera;Pak, Jae In;Kim, Yeong Jong;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.137-154
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to develop and compare Samgyetang broth from extract of pre-treated chicken feet. Chicken feet were subjected to non-heating (control), heating at $70^{\circ}C$ for 12 h in a hot air dryer, and heating at $180^{\circ}C$ for 1 h in an oven. The heat-treated chicken feet were extracted at $121^{\circ}C$ for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The extract was placed in a pouch with whole chicken carcass ($470{\pm}10g$). The sealed Samgyetang retort was made according to the industrial method. The pH of the extract from preheated chicken feet was lower than that extracted from fresh chicken feet. The Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) value of the preheated chicken feet extract was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of fresh chicken feet extract, but there were no significant differences among the broths. As the extraction time increased, the pH and TBARS value decreased in the extract (P<0.05) but increased in the broth (P<0.05). According to the sensory evaluation test, the extract from 1 h hot air heating and drying was significantly better in appearance, aroma, and overall preference than the other treatments (P<0.05). The GC-MS results showed that benzaldehyde and benzothiazole, which are widely known to give meat and nuts flavor, were detected in those treatments (P<0.05). The Samgyetang broths prepared from 1 h hot air heating and drying extract were significantly higher in the overall acceptability according to the sensory test (P<0.05). In summary, the quality of retort Samgyetang broth can be improved by adding chicken feet extract which is subjected to heating and drying for 1 h.

The Neutralization Treatment of Waste Mortar and Recycled Aggregate by Using the scCO2-Water-Aggregate Reaction (초임계이산화탄소-물-골재 반응을 이용한 폐모르타르와 순환골재의 중성화 처리)

  • Kim, Taehyoung;Lee, Jinkyun;Chung, Chul-woo;Kim, Jihyun;Lee, Minhee;Kim, Seon-ok
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.359-370
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    • 2018
  • The batch and column experiments were performed to overcome the limitation of the neutralization process using the $scCO_2$-water-recycled aggregate, reducing its treatment time to 3 hour. The waste cement mortar and two kinds of recycled aggregate were used for the experiment. In the extraction batch experiment, three different types of waste mortar were reacted with water and $scCO_2$ for 1 ~ 24 hour and the pH of extracted solution from the treated waste mortar was measured to determine the minimum reaction time maintaining below 9.8 of pH. The continuous column experiment was also performed to identify the pH reduction effect of the neutralization process for the massive recycled aggregate, considering the non-equilibrium reaction in the field. Thirty five gram of waste mortar was mixed with 70 mL of distilled water in a high pressurized stainless steel cell at 100 bar and $50^{\circ}C$ for 1 ~ 24 hour as the neutralization process. The dried waste mortar was mixed with water at 150 rpm for 10 min. and the pH of water was measured for 15 days. The XRD and TG/DTA analyses for the waste mortar before and after the reaction were performed to identify the mineralogical change during the neutralization process. The acryl column (16 cm in diameter, 1 m in length) was packed with 3 hour treated (or untreated) recycled aggregate and 220 liter of distilled water was flushed down into the column. The pH and $Ca^{2+}$ concentration of the effluent from the column were measured at the certain time interval. The pH of extracted water from 3 hour treated waste mortar (10 ~ 13 mm in diameter) maintained below 9.8 (the legal limit). From XRD and TG/DTA analyses, the amount of portlandite in the waste mortar decreased after the neutralization process but the calcite was created as the secondary mineral. From the column experiment, the pH of the effluent from the column packed with 3 hour treated recycled aggregate kept below 9.8 regardless of their sizes, identifying that the recycled aggregate with 3 hour $scCO_2$ treatment can be reused in real construction sites.

Combination of Hydrophobic Filtration and Enrichment Methods for Detecting Bacillus cereus in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

  • Lee, Sujung;Choi, Yukyung;Lee, Heeyoung;Kim, Sejeong;Lee, Jeeyeon;Ha, Jimyeong;Oh, Hyemin;Lee, Yewon;Kim, Yujin;Yoon, Yohan;Lee, Soomin
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.325-329
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    • 2018
  • This study developed a rapid detection method for Bacillus cereus in fresh-cut cabbages. Fresh-cut cabbage samples were inoculated at 1-, 2- and 3-Log CFU/g, and pathogens were enriched in tryptic soy broth containing 0.15% polymyxin B at $30^{\circ}C$, $37^{\circ}C$, and $42^{\circ}C$ to determine the detection limit and appropriate enrichment temperature for multiplex PCR detection. Enriched bacterial cells in enrichment broth were collected in a hydrophobic filter prior to DNA extraction for multiplex PCR. Filters were resuspended in distilled water, and DNA was extracted from the suspension. DNA samples were further analyzed by multiplex PCR. Detection limit of multiplex PCR was 5-Log CFU/mL. B. cereus cell counts were higher (P < 0.05) at $42^{\circ}C$ than other temperatures. Detection rate of 1-, 2-, and 3-Log CFU/g inoculated samples were 60%, 80%, and 100% after enrichment respectively. However, when enriched samples were filtered with hydrophobic membrane filter, detection rates became 100%, regardless of inoculation level. Results indicate a combination of enrichment with hydrophobic filtration improves rapid detection efficiency of B. cereus in fresh-cut cabbage by multiplex PCR.

Development of Cosmetic Ingredient by Fermented Paprika Juice (파프리카 발효즙의 화장품 소재개발 연구)

  • Bae, Soo Jung;Song, Min Hyeon;Oh, Jung Young;Bae, Jun Tae;Kim, Jin Hwa;Lee, Geun Soo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 2018
  • In this study, cosmetic materials were developed using a new method of making juice through the fermentation of raw natural materials with microorganisms in order to supplement the advantages and disadvantages of an organic solvent extraction method and a microbial fermentation method. The natural products were selected from two colors (red, green) of paprika known to be rich in various colors and vitamins. The microorganisms used for fermentation were fermented by inoculating paprika with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum) having sugar-hydrolyzed ability. First, we investigated the changes of physiologically active substances of two kinds of paprika juice and two kinds of fermented paprika juice. Total phenols content and total flavonoids content were higher in the fermented paprika juice than in the paprika juice, and especially in the fermented red paprika juice. Free radical scavenging effect and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect were also showed an excellent antioxidative effect on paprika fermented juice, among which the effect of red paprika fermentation juice was the highest. The expression of MMP-1 in fermented red paprika juice with high antioxidant activity was inhibited by concentration-dependent expression of MMP-1 mRNA and MMP-1 protein. In the glycation experiments with aging, the anti-glycation effect of fermented paprika juice was highly inhibited by the production of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which was closely related to the antioxidant effect. In addition, the activity of senescence-associated ${\beta}$-galactosidase (SA-${\beta}$-gal), an indicator of cell senescence, was measured using human dermal fibroblast (HDF). The results showed that the cell senescence was inhibited when the cells were treated with fermented paprika juice. In conclusion, fermented paprika juice using lactic acid bacteria showed better antioxidative and anti-aging effects than paprika juice. Among them, fermented red paprika juice has the best antioxidant and anti-aging effect and can be applied as natural new material of antioxidant and anti-aging.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Korean Propolis Extracts on Raw264.7 Macrophage Cells (Raw264.7 대식세포에서 국산 프로폴리스 추출물에 의한 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Sung-Kuk;Woo, SoonOk;Han, Sangmi;Kim, Se Gun;Bang, Kyung Won;Jang, Hye Ri;Moon, Hyo Jung;Kim, Hyun Ji
    • Journal of Apiculture
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 2018
  • We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of propolis collected from Korea on Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Propolis extract was prepared by ethanol extraction method, the yield of the extract was about 39%. The cell cytotoxicity evaluation of propolis was determined by EZ-cytox cell viability assay. When the cells were treated with propolis concentration of 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and $1,000{\mu}g/ml$ for cytotoxicity evaluation, the optimal concentration without cell death was $25{\mu}g/ml$. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of propolis by nitric oxide (NO) production. To investigate the effect of propolis on the production of NO, a typical inflammatory reaction factor, propolis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were treated before, after, and simultaneously, as a result, increased NO production by LPS was shown to be reduced by propolis. The results also showed that the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-1 ($IL-1{\beta}$,) expressed by Western blotting were also consistent. It was confirmed that the expression level of iNOS, $IL-1{\beta}$, increased by LPS was inhibited by propolis and was regulated at the intracellular level. This results show that propolis is controlled at the molecular level in the relief and prevention of the inflammatory reaction, this suggests that propolis is an excellent functional substance in the treatment and prevention of inflammation, also it may be related to the immunomodulation of LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells.

Physicochemical properties of deposited particles on surface of pine leaves as biomarker for air pollution (솔잎가지 표면에 침착된 입자상 물질의 물리화학적 특성 및 대기오염 지표로서의 가능성 고찰)

  • Chung, David;Choi, Jeong-Heui;Lee, Jang-Ho;Lee, Soo-Yong;Lee, Ha-Eun;Park, Ki-Wan;Shim, Kyu-Young;Lee, Jong-Chun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.247-258
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the degree of air pollution can be evaluated via examination of local plants. Selected sites included two parks in an industrial area, as well as two parks in an urban area. Selected plant samples comprised one-year-old pine shoot leaves. Leaves growing over 2 m from the ground were collected from over 10 pine trees. Leaf surface was analyzed for deposition of 14 trace elements and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including particle size and mass, surface imaging, precipitation-mediated particle removal rate, and concentration. Particle size ranged from 0.4 to $200{\mu}m$, and the volume percentage of particles ${\leq}10$ was 20 %. Deposited particle mass ranged from 0.450-0.825 mg, and precipitation-mediated removal rate ranged from 10.0-27.6 %. Trace element concentration, as measured by ICP/MS after microwave acid digestion, was 18.8-26.3 mg/kg As, 0.08-0.13 mg/kg Be, 0.06-0.08 mg/kg Cd, 4.91-17.8 mg/kg Cr, 5.26-405 mg/kg Cu, 1,930-2,670 mg/kg Fe, 3.03-28.1 mg/kg Pb, 26.9-42.8 mg/kg Mn, 2.66-10.4 mg/kg Ni, 4,560-8,730 mg/kg Al, 2,500-6,120 mg/kg Ba, 5.27-17.8 mg/kg Rb, 40.9-95.3 mg/kg Sr, and 4,030-8,260 mg/kg Zn. Concentration of PAHs, as analyzed by GC/MS/MS after liquid-liquid extraction and purification of deposited particles, ranged from 1.17 to 12.378 mg/kg for ${\Sigma}PAH_{16}$ and from 1.17 to 12.378 mg/kg for ${\Sigma}PAH_7$.

The Effect of Intraoperative Factors on Intraocular Pressure Reduction after Phacoemulsification in Open-angle Glaucoma (개방각녹내장 환자에서 수정체유화술 시 안압하강에 영향을 미치는 인자 분석)

  • Park, Yuli;Moon, Jung Il;Cho, Kyong Jin
    • Journal of The Korean Ophthalmological Society
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    • v.59 no.10
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    • pp.930-937
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To identify independent predictors of long-term postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after phacoemulsification in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: This was a retrospective review of 145 eyes with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) who were followed up for more than 3 years after uncomplicated phacoemulsification cataract surgeries. Demographic, clinical, biometric, and intraoperative variables such as IOP, refractive errors, anterior chamber depth, axial length, relative lens position (RLP), and phacoemulsification parameters such as phaco time, cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and balanced salt solution volume were evaluated at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to analyze the relationship between these variables and the postoperative IOP. Results: There was a statistically significant average postoperative IOP reduction at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of $-1.9{\pm}2.9$, $-1.6{\pm}2.8$, $-1.4{\pm}3.1$, and $-1.2{\pm}2.7mmHg$, respectively (p < 0.01). Higher preoperative IOP (p < 0.001), a more relative anterior lens position (p < 0.001), shorter phaco time (p < 0.05), and higher CDE (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with a greater postoperative decrease in IOP using univariate analyses. Using multivariate analyses, preoperative IOP (p < 0.01), lens position (p = 0.04), and phaco time (p = 0.04) were associated with greater postoperative IOP reduction at 3 years. Conclusions: Higher preoperative IOP was associated with a greater IOP-lowering effect after phacoemulsification in OAG patients. Phaco time and anterior RLP were independently associated with IOP reduction after adjusting for age and preoperative IOP. These findings have important implications when considering combined cataract extraction and filtration surgery for POAG patients.

Establishment of Choline Analysis in Infant Formulas and Follow-up Formulas by Ion Chromatograph (이온크로마토그래프를 이용한 조제유류 및 영아용·성장기용 조제식 중 콜린 함량 분석법 연구)

  • Hwang, Kyung Mi;Ham, Hyeon Suk;Lee, Hwa Jung;Kang, Yoon Jung;Yoon, Hae Seong;Hong, Jin Hwan;Lee, Hyoun Young;Kim, Cheon Hoe;Oh, Keum Soon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.411-417
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to establish the analysis method for the contents of choline in infant formulas and follow-up formulas by ion chromatograph (IC). To optimize the method, we compared several conditions for extraction, purification and instrumental measurement using spiked samples and certified reference material (CRM; NIST SRM 1849a) as test materials. IC method for choline was established using Ion Pac CG column and 18 mM $H_2SO_4$ mobile phase. The parameters of validation were specificity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, recovery, accuracy, precision and repeatability. The specificity was confirmed by the retention time and the linearity, $R_2$ was over 0.999 in range of 0.5~10 mg/L. The detection limit and quantification limit were 0.14, 0.43 mg/L. The accuracy and precision of this method using CRM were 95%, 2.1% respectively. Optimized methods were applied in sample analysis to verify the reliability. All the tested products were acceptable contents of choline compared with component specification for nutrition labeling. The standard operating procedures were prepared for choline to provide experimental information and to strengthen the management of nutrient in infant formula and follow-up formula.