• Title, Summary, Keyword: extraction

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Polyphenol Contents of Rumex crispus Root Extract with Hot Water and its Antioxidative Effect (소리쟁이 뿌리 열수 추출물의 폴리페놀 함량 및 추출물의 항산화 효과)

  • Yun, Young-Sim;Jeong, Kap-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.1265-1274
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the extraction characteristics including total polyphenol compound content (TPC) and the antioxidative effect of Rumex crispus root extract on commercial corn oil. Extraction yield was increased with extraction temperature but decreased with extraction ratio. No significant differences in aromatics content were found among the extracts prepared with various extraction conditions; extraction ratio, extraction temperature, extraction pH and composition of extractant. Total flavonoid content of the extract was increased with extraction temperature and extraction pH, and highest value of it was found when extractant composition of ethanol in water was 75%. Total polyphenol compound content (TPC) of the extract with 10 fold extraction ratio showed the highest value, but no significant difference in TPC was found with extraction temperature. Reducing power and DPPH (${\alpha}$,${\alpha}$-diphenyl-${\beta}$-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability (RSA) of the extract in spectrophotometric absorbance were decreased with extraction ratio but increased with extraction temperature and showed 63.1%~98.4% and 67.6%~86.7% of those of ascorbic acid in reducing power and DPPH RSA, respectively. The antioxidative effects of the extract on corn oil were 84.8~93.0% of that of commercial butylated hydroxytoluene, the antioxidant index value was highest when the ethanol composition to water in extractant was equal ratio.

Process Development for Production of Antioxidants from Lipid Extracted Microalgae Using Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction (탈지미세조류로부터 초음파추출을 이용한 항산화 물질 생산 공정 최적화)

  • Jo, Jaemin;Shin, Suelgl;Jung, Hyunjin;Min, Bora;Kim, Seungki;Kim, Jinwoo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.542-547
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    • 2017
  • Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has attracted growing interest, as it is an effective method for the rapid extraction of bioactive compounds from plants with a high extraction efficiency comparable to the conventional extraction. In this study, UAE was used for the extraction of polyphenols from lipid extracted microalgae (Tetraselmis KCTC 12236BP) and the effects of five extraction variables on the total phenolic compounds (TPC) were studied. For the optimization of extraction parameters, particle size, solid-to-liquid (L/S) ratio, ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time have been examined as independent variables. All variables exhibited the significant effects on the extraction of TPC and extraction temperature showed the most significant effect among five variables. The optimal extraction conditions were the extraction using mixed particle, S/L ratio of 10%, ethanol concentration of 60%, extraction temperature of $100^{\circ}C$ and extraction time of 30 min, which gave the 8.7 mg GAE/g DW for TPC. Compared with conventional hot-water extraction, TPC extraction under UAE was increased by up to 1.8 fold with same extraction condition. This study showed that UAE under low temperature and short extraction time was proven to be an effective extraction process for TPC production from LEA compared to conventional hot-water extraction process.

Comparison of Extraction Procedures for the Determination of Capsaicinoids in Peppers

  • Jeon, Geonuk;Lee, Jun-Soo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1515-1518
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to compare 3 extraction methods including, solid phase extraction (SPE), acetonitrile extraction, and methanol extraction, for their usefulness as extraction methods to determine capsaicinoids. The determination of capsaicinoids in the extracts was carried out on a reverse-phased high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a fluorescence detector. Three extraction methods, i.e., SPE, acetonitrile extraction, and methanol extraction were compared for the quantification of capsaicinoids using raw peppers and pepper powder. The highest analytical values were observed using methanol extraction and the lowest values using SPE. Also, the analytical method validation parameters such as accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and specificity were calculated to ensure the method's validity. This method provides a fast and accurate approach for the determination of capsaicinoids in peppers.

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Oil from Chlorella vulgaris (초임계 이산화탄소를 이용한 Chlorella vulgaris의 오일 추출)

  • Ryu, Jong-Hoon;Park, Mi-Ran;Lim, Gio-Bin
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.453-458
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    • 2011
  • In this study, two different extraction techniques, organic solvent extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide ($SCCO_2$) extraction, were employed to evaluate the extraction efficiency of oil from Chlorella vulgaris. In the organic solvent extraction, the effects of various organic solvent on the extraction yield were investigated. The $SCCO_2$ extraction was carried out while varying such operating parameters as temperature, pressure, $SCCO_2$ flow rate, and cosolvent. About 4.9 wt% of oil was extracted from ground Chrollera vulgaris for 18 h when dichloromethane/methanol (2:1, v/v) was used as an extraction solvent. The oil yield of the $SCCO_2$ extraction was found to be very low (0.53 wt%) and to increase up to about 0.86 wt% with the addition of cosolvent.

Characteristics of Heavy Metal Extraction by Benzamidoxime (Benzamidoxime에 의한 중금속의 추출특성)

  • 이상훈;윤영삼
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.371-377
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    • 1999
  • The effects of benzamidoxime concentration, solvents and temperature on the degree of metal extraction were investigated to apply benzamidoxime to heavy metal extraction as chelating agent. Benzamidoxime was synthesized from benzonitrile with hydroxylamine. The chemical structure of benzamidoxime was identified. The degree of heavy metal extraction was increased with increasing the concentration of benzamidoxime and decreasing the extraction temperature. Benzamidoxime was found to be an concentration of benzamidoxime and decreasing the extraction temperature. Benzamidoxime was found to be an effective extractant for Cu-extraction by benzene or chloroform. The relationship between the thermodynamic overall equilibrium constant and absolute temperature was expressed as log K = -5.56 + $855T^{-1}$. Heat of extraction, $$\Delta$H^0$ were calculated from overall equilibrium constants at various temperature and the extraction reactionby benzamidoxime was found to be exthothermic.

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A Study on the Extraction of Soluble Colorants of the Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (수용성 치자 색소의 추출에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kwang Soo;Kim, Yeon Joong
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 1997
  • The study was performed to obtain the optimum extraction conditions for crocin from gardenia fructus. Generally crocin is unstable on heat, light, acid and base solution. The extraction efficiency of crocin from gardenia depended upon the extraction time, extraction temperature, pH in the extraction bath and the optimum conditions of crocin extraction were determined as 60 minutes of extraction time, 4$0^{\circ}C$ of extraction temperature, pH 7 of extraction bath. The molar extinction coefficient of crocin was 12,515 and the color yield of purified crocin was about six times higher than that of non-purified crocin. The heat-stability at extraction temperature and lightstability in irradiation with xenon lamp for one hour of the purified crocin were higher than those of non-purified crocin. Intensity of &{\lambda}_{max}&of crocin was decreased by irradiation for one hour but UV-Vis. spectra of crocin was not changed. The colors of purified and non-purified crocin dissolved wit methanol was evaluated by means of CIE L* a* b* system.

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Analytical Method for Dioxin and Organo-Chlorinated Compounds: (Ⅱ) Comparison and Extraction Methods of Dioxins from XAD-2 Adsorbent

  • 양정수;이성광;박영훈;이대운
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.689-695
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    • 1999
  • Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasonic extraction (USE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were compared with the well known Soxhlet extraction for the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins(PCDDs) from the XAD-2 resin which was used to adsorb PCDDs in the atmosphere. XAD-2 resin spiked with five PCDDs was chosen as a sample. The optimum conditions for the extraction of PCDDs by SFE were turned out to be the use of CO2 modified with 10% toluene at 100 ℃ and 350 atm, with 5 min static extraction followed by 20 min dynamic extraction. SFE gave a good extraction rate with good reproducibility for PCDDs ranging from 68 to 98%. The ultrasonic extraction of PCDDs from XAD-2 was investigated and compared with other extractions. A probe type method was compared with a bath type. Two extraction solvents, toluene and acetone were compared with their mixture. The use of their mixture in probe type, with 9 minutes of extraction time, was found to be the optimum condition. The average recovery of the five PCDDs for USE was 82-93%. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with a liquid solvent, a new technique for sample preparation, was performed under elevated temperatures and pressures. The effect of tem-perature on the efficiency of ASE was investigated. The extraction time for a 10 g sample was less than 15 min, when the organic solvent was n-hexaneacetone mixture (1 : 1, v/v). Using ASE, the average recoveries of five PCDDs ranged from 90 to 103%. SFE, USE, and ASE were faster and less laborious than Soxhlet extraction. The former three methods required less solvent than Soxhlet extraction. SFE required no concentration of the solvent extracts. SFE and ASE failed to perform simultaneous parallel extractions because of instrumental limitations.

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Comparison Studies between Conventional Hot Water and Cellulase Extraction for Safflower Dyestuff (홍화색소의 일반추출과 셀룰라아제추출의 비교연구)

  • 신인수;홍경옥;오태광
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 2001
  • Natural red and yellow dyestuff was extracted from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Linnaeus) by a new process of cellulase extraction compared with the conventional hot water extraction. Dyestuffs were extracted from safflower easily and repeatedly by means of cellulose as safflower cell wall destroyer. It means that new dyestuff extraction by cellulase improves not only yields of dyestuff from safflower successfully but also the rate of repetition of extraction. From the above experiments, the conclusions of this study were summarized as follows. 1. The optimum conditions of dyestuff extraction from safflower by general extraction method were that the solvent was the water of pH 6.0 on yellow dyestuff and 3% $K_2CO_3$ solution on red dyestuff, extraction temperature was $55^{\circ}C$, and extraction time was 30 min. 2. Among various cellulase, the NOVO cellulase was the best cell wall destroyer of safflower and finally produced the largest amount of dyestuff from safflower by cellulase extraction method. 3. The optimum conditions of dyestuff extraction by cellulase extraction method were conducted on 10 unit of cellulase per gram of safflower at $100m{\ell}$ water of pH 5.0 at $50^{\circ}C$ for 30 min.

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STUDY ON THE ERUPTION OF THE LOWER THIRD MOLAR IN THE CASES OF NON-EXTRACTION AND THE EXTRACTION OF FIRST PREMOLAR (제 1 소구치 발치 증례와 비발치 증례에서의 하악 제 3 대구치 맹출에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Kyu-Rhim;Lee, Jeong-Min
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 1993
  • This study was designed to recognize the factors which can affect the normal eruption of the lower third molar and the eruption rate of the lower third molar in the cases of non-extraction and the extraction of first premolar. The sample consisted of 214 cases of extraction of first premolar and 119 cases of non-extraction, and all of these cases were divided into erupted and impacted lower third molar groups and were analized according to the pantomogram. The results of the study were as follows : 1. The eruption rate of the touter third molar was $54.67\%$ in the group of extraction of the first premolar and $35.29\%$ in the non-extraction group. 2. The early inclination of the erupting lower third molar has significant effect in the eruption of it. 3. In the orthodontic treatment, the extraction of first premolar is one of the factors infuencing the nomal eruption of lower third molar. 4. The available space for the normal enruption of lower third molar was greater in first premolar extraction case than in non-extraction case.

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The Influence of Pressure and Time on the Preparation of Gumiganghwal-tang Decoctions

  • Kim, Jung-Hoon;Kim, Seong-Sil;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo;Seo, Chang-Seob
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.12-20
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: This study compared Gumiganghwal-tang (GGT) decoctions produced using different pressure levels for various extraction times to determine the optimal extraction conditions through hydrogen ion concentration (pH), total soluble solids content (TSSC), extraction yield, and content of chemical compounds. Methods: Decoctions were prepared by the pressure levels of 0 or $1kgf/cm^2$ for 30-180 min. The pH and TSSC were measured, the extraction yield was calculated, and the amounts of the chemical compounds were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The higher pressure and longer extraction time decreased the pH value, while those conditions increased TSSC and extraction yield: the decoction produced in 180 min by pressurized method showed the minimum value of pH, but maximum values of TSSC and extraction yield. The chemical compounds showed higher amounts in decoctions produced by non-pressurized methods than pressurized methods and their amounts were decreased over the peak extraction time in both pressurized and non-pressurized methods. The results of regression analysis confirmed the correlative influences of the pressure and extraction time on pH, TSSC, and extraction yield. Conclusions: This study suggests that pressure and extraction time influence the compositional constituents in GGT decoctions, and the non-pressurized method for 120 min should be chosen as the optimal extraction condition for the preparation of GGT decoction.