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Extraction and separation of glabridin from licorice by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography

  • Choi, Du Young;Row, Kyung Ho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.455-459
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    • 2006
  • The extraction and separation of glabridin from licorice root by HPLC was performed in this work. First, by investigating the different extraction solvents, extraction methods and extraction times, a one-hour ultrasonic extraction procedure with ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent was optimized. Then the ethyl acetate extraction was applied to RP-HPLC for separation of glabridin. The column efficiencies and resolutions were experimentally investigated with different mobile phase compositions. Baseline separation of glabridin was obtained under the mobile phase composition of 50/50 vol.% (ACN/water). The retention time of glabridin was 20.3 min. The peak of glabridin was collected from the HPLC elution for several times and identified by LC/MS. Under the optimum extraction and HPLC separation methods, 1.26 g of glabridin per kg licorice root could be extracted.

Extraction Yields and Functional Properties of Garlic Extracts by Response Surface Methodology

  • Lim, Tae-Soo;Do, Jeong-Ryong;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Ku
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.379-383
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    • 2008
  • Extraction characteristics of garlic and functional properties of corresponding extract were monitored by response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum extraction yield of 26.41% was obtained at microwave power of 146.29 W, ethanol concentration of 63.31 %, and extraction time of 5.88 min. At microwave power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time of 114.84 W, 58.83%, and 1.42 min, respectively, maximum electron-donating ability (EDA) was 72.86%. Maximum nitrite-scavenging ability was 94.62% at microwave power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time of 81.83 W, 2.65%, and 3.83 min, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed maximum pseudo-activity of 49.12% at microwave power of 34.23 W, ethanol concentration of 33.11 %, and extraction time of 4.40 min. Based on superimposition of 4-dimensional RSM with respect to extraction yield, electron-donating ability, nitrite-scavenging ability, and pseudo-activity of SOD, optimum ranges of extraction conditions were microwave power of 0-100 W, ethanol concentration of 40-70%, and extraction time of 2-8 min.

Preliminary Study: Comparison of Kinetic Models of Oil Extraction from Vetiver (Vetiveria Zizanioides) by Microwave Hydrodistillation

  • Kusuma, Heri Septya;Rohadi, Taufik Imam;Daniswara, Edwin Fatah;Altway, Ali;Mahfud, Mahfud
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.574-577
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    • 2017
  • In Indonesia, vetiver oil is one commodity that plays an important role in the country's foreign exchange earnings. Currently, the extraction of essential oil from vetiver still uses conventional methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to know and verify the kinetics and mechanism of microwave hydrodistillation of vetiver based on two models. In this study, microwave hydrodistillation was used to extract essential oils from vetiver. The extraction was carried out in nine extraction cycles of 20 min to 3 hours. The rate constant, the equilibrium extraction capacity, and the initial extraction rate were calculated using the two models. Kinetics of oil extraction from vetiver by microwave hydrodistillation proved that the extraction process was based on the second-order extraction model. The second-order model was satisfactorily applied, with high coefficients of correlation ($R^2=0.9427$), showing that it well described the process.

Extraction Methods of Organic Components from Rubber Composites and Analysis of the Extract Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

  • Chae, Eunji;Choi, Sung-Seen
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.188-200
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    • 2019
  • Rubber articles contain various organic additives such as antidegradants, curing agents, and processing aids. It is important to extract and analyze these organic additives. In this paper, various extraction methods of organic additives present in rubber composites were introduced (solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, headspace extraction, and solid-phase microextraction), and the extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Solvent and Soxhlet extractions are easy-to-perform and commonly used methods. Efficiency of solvent extraction varies according to the type of solvent used and the extraction conditions. Soxhlet extraction requires a large volume of solvent. Headspace sampling is suitable for extracting volatile organic compounds, while solid-phase extraction is suitable for extracting specific chemicals. GC/MS is generally used for characterizing the extract of a rubber composite because most components of the extract are volatile and have low molecular weights. Identification methods of chemical structures of the components separated by GC column were also introduced.

TAKES: Two-step Approach for Knowledge Extraction in Biomedical Digital Libraries

  • Song, Min
    • Journal of Information Science Theory and Practice
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.6-21
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    • 2014
  • This paper proposes a novel knowledge extraction system, TAKES (Two-step Approach for Knowledge Extraction System), which integrates advanced techniques from Information Retrieval (IR), Information Extraction (IE), and Natural Language Processing (NLP). In particular, TAKES adopts a novel keyphrase extraction-based query expansion technique to collect promising documents. It also uses a Conditional Random Field-based machine learning technique to extract important biological entities and relations. TAKES is applied to biological knowledge extraction, particularly retrieving promising documents that contain Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) and extracting PPI pairs. TAKES consists of two major components: DocSpotter, which is used to query and retrieve promising documents for extraction, and a Conditional Random Field (CRF)-based entity extraction component known as FCRF. The present paper investigated research problems addressing the issues with a knowledge extraction system and conducted a series of experiments to test our hypotheses. The findings from the experiments are as follows: First, the author verified, using three different test collections to measure the performance of our query expansion technique, that DocSpotter is robust and highly accurate when compared to Okapi BM25 and SLIPPER. Second, the author verified that our relation extraction algorithm, FCRF, is highly accurate in terms of F-Measure compared to four other competitive extraction algorithms: Support Vector Machine, Maximum Entropy, Single POS HMM, and Rapier.

Preparation of High Quality Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed Extract by High-Pressure Extraction Process

  • Seo, Il-Ho;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.373-377
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    • 2009
  • Safflower seed extract was prepared by a high-pressure extraction technology and its quality characteristics were compared to that of other conventional extraction techniques, such ultrasonic and reflux extractions. Safflower seeds were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol by three above extraction methods, and further fractionated with Diaion HP-20 column chromatography to obtain a partially purified safflower seed extract (PPSSE). Among the three extraction techniques examined, the reflux extraction showed the higher yields of EtOH extract and PPE than the ultrasonic and high-pressure extractions. Levels of most phenolic compounds in the EtOH extract of safflower seed are higher in reflux and ultrasonic extractions than the high pressure extraction, but levels of two serotonin aglycones, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin (CS) and N-feruloylserotonin (FS), in PPSSE were higher in the high pressure extraction than the reflux and ultrasonic extractions. In addition, color values (L and a) of the PPSSE were higher in the high-pressure extraction than the reflux and ultrasonic extractions, although there were no significant differences in pH and UV maxima absorption spectra among three extraction techniques. These results indicate that the high-pressure extraction technology is a simple and effective extraction for preparation of a high quality of safflower seed extract containing CS and FS with anti-wrinkle activity.

Determination of the Conditions for Anthocyanin Extraction from Purple-Flashed Sweet Potato (자색고구마 Anthocyanin 색소의 추출조건 결정)

  • 이장욱;이향희;임종환;조재선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.790-795
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    • 2000
  • To establish the optimum conditions for the extraction of anthocyanin pigment from purple-fleshed sweet potato, a suitable extraction solvent with the optimum citric acid concentration for acidification of the solvent, and the optimum extraction time and temperature were determined. Twenty percent ethanol solution acidified with citric acid was found to be a good solvent for the extraction of the pigment from purple-fleshed sweet potato. About 10 hour extraction at room temperature was appropriate for the extraction. pH of the extract was below 3 when more than 0.7% citric acid was added. The higher the concentration of citric acid added was, the higher the total optical density (TOD) of the extract was. However, the increase in TOD of the extract was insignificant when more than 1% of citric acid was added. Therefore, addition of 1% citric acid was determined for acidification of the extracting solvent. Though the initial rate of the pigment extraction increased as the extracting temperature increased, extraction at higher temperatures of 60 or 8$0^{\circ}C$ for an extended time caused a decrease in the extraction yield due to degradation of the pigment. The optimum extraction temperature for the anthocyanin pigment from purple-fleshed sweet potato with the solvent used was determined as 4$0^{\circ}C$.

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Extraction and Concentration Method of Red Ginseng by Vacuum Impulse System (진공력적방식(Vacuum Impulse Stem)을 이용한 홍삼의 추출 방법)

  • Kim Cheon-Suk;Chang Gap-Moon
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.88-92
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    • 1999
  • Hydrolysis properties of ginseng saponins in processing of extraction with vacuum impulse system extraction method were compared with multi-stage extraction methods. Crude saponin content of the extract produced by vacuum impulse system extraction method was $11.5\%,$ compared with multi-stage extraction method (about $8.13\%).$ Also the yield of the extract increased about $6.7\%.$ The flavor and aroma of ginseng extract with vacuum impulse system extraction method are stronger than multi-stage extraction methods and people have a tendency to like more. The color was similar to existing extraction items and the liquidity ratio was high. Vacuum impulse system extraction method could save human resources because of short extraction time and automatic operation of processing. With HPLC pattern, We could ascertain the truth that hydrolysis properties of ginseng saponin was restrained in the extraction processing, vacuum impulse system extraction method.

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Effects of Ethanol Addition on the Efficiency of Subcritical Water Extraction of Proteins and Amino Acids from Porcine Placenta

  • Park, Sung Hee;Kim, Jae-Hyeong;Min, Sang-Gi;Jo, Yeon-Ji;Chun, Ji-Yeon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.265-271
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    • 2015
  • In a previous study, hydrolysates of porcine placenta were obtained and the extraction efficiency for proteins and amino acids was compared between sub- and super-critical water extraction systems; optimum efficiency was found to be achieved using subcritical water ($170^{\circ}C$, 10 bar). In this study, the effects of adding ethanol to the subcritical water system were investigated. The lowest-molecular-weight extraction product detected weighed 434 Da, and the efficiency of extraction for low-molecular-weight products was increased when either the concentration of ethanol was decreased, or the extraction time was lengthened from 10 min to 30 min. The highest concentration of free amino acids (approximately 8 mM) was observed following 30 min extraction using pure distilled water. The concentration of free amino acids was significantly lower when ethanol was added or a shorter extraction time was used (p<0.05). Color change of the solution following extraction was measured. There were no significant differences in color between lysates produced with different extraction times when using distilled water (p>0.05); however, using different extraction times produced significant differences in color when using 20% or 50% ethanol solution for subcritical extraction (p<0.05). The range of pH for the hydrolysate solutions was 6.4-7.5. In conclusion, the investigated extraction system was successful in the extraction of $\leq$ 500 Da hydrolysates from porcine placenta, but addition of ethanol did not yield higher production of low-molecular-weight hydrolysates than that achieved by DW alone.

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Dried Egg Yolk (초임계 이산화탄소에 의한 난황분의 추출)

  • 임상빈;좌미경;고영환;유익종
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.860-865
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    • 1997
  • Investigations were performed on the effects of extraction temperature, pressure, time on solubility and selectivity of egg yolk lipid and cholesterol, and color and fatty acid composition of the residue in supercritical carbon dioxide(SC-Co$_2$) extraction. Lipid and cholesterol solubility increased as the increase of Co$_2$ density and was found to strongly depend on the extraction pressure rather than the extraction temperature. The relative concentration of cholesterol in the extract increased with an increase in temperature and decreased with an increase in pressure and extraction time. extraction of dried eg yolk for 3hr at 4$0^{\circ}C$/276 bar removed 46.1% of cholesterol from the residual egg yolk with a yield of 63.2%. SC-Co$_2$ extraction produced a lighter color egg yolk with less redness and yellowness. As the extraction time increased, the resultant residual egg yolk became more saturated with fatty acids. SC-$CO_2$ extraction offers a safe, natural method for removing cholesterol from dried egg yolk.

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