• Title, Summary, Keyword: extraction

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Extraction of pesticide residues in medical herbs by microwave (Microwave를 이용한 한약재 중의 잔류농약 추출)

  • Kim, Taek-Kyum;Kim, Tang-Eok
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.60-67
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to elucidate extraction efficiency by microwave in comparison with Soxhlet for extraction of pesticide residues in dried medical herbs; red-ginseng, white-ginseng, Bupleuri Radix, Angelica gigas Nakai, Rehmannia glutinosa. The acetone extraction by microwave of tolclofos-methyl and quintozene in medical herbs was efficient. The extraction efficiency by microwave with power 45 to 150 watts, extraction time 1 to 5 minutes and solvent volume 30 ml was compared with that of Soxhlet with extraction time 7 hours and solvent volume 150 ml. The extraction efficiency by microwave with extraction time 3 to 5 minutes was similar with extraction time of 7 hours by Soxhlet. When medical herbs spiked with tolclofos-methyl and quintozene was analyzed to how the extraction efficiency of microwave by kind of medical herbs, the extraction efficiency by microwave with extraction time of 3 to 5 minutes was the same as Soxhlet extraction. The optimal condition for extraction of tolclofos-methyl and quintozene in medical herbs by microwave was 45 to 90 watts of power supply, 3 to 5 minutes of extraction time and acetone 30 ml of solvent volume.

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A Study on the Separation and Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water Sample by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (기체크로마토그래피/질량분석법에 의한 물시료 중 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons의 분리 및 추출에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Won;Hong, Jee-Eun;Park, Song-Ja;Pyo, Hee Soo;Kim, In-Whan
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.321-331
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    • 1998
  • The separation and sample extraction methods of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and some extraction methods involved liquid-liquid extraction, disk extraction and solid-phase extraction methods. The separation of 19 PAHs was possible by partial variation of oven temperature of GC/MS in temperature range $80{\sim}310^{\circ}C$. Extraction procedures of PAHs in water samples were somewhat modified and compared as extraction recoveries and the simplicity of methods. Extraction recoveries of PAHs were 71.3~109.5% by liquid-liquid extraction method. By using disk extraction, good extraction recoveries (80.7~94.9%) were obtained in case of $C_{18}$ disk extraction method by filtration. And extraction recoveries of PAHs by $C_{18}$ solid-phase were in the range of 51.8~77.9%. Method detection limits (S/N=5) of 19 PAHs were in the range of 0.25~6.25 ppb by liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction and 0.05~1.25 ppb by disk extraction methods.

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Effects of Heat Treatment and Extraction Method on Antioxidant Activity of Several Medicinal Plants (열처리와 추출방법에 따른 몇 가지 약초의 항산화 활성)

  • Jang, Gwi-Yeong;Kim, Hyun-Young;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kang, Yu-Ri;Hwang, In-Guk;Woo, Koan-Sik;Kang, Tae-Soo;Lee, Jun-Soo;Jeong, Heon-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.7
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    • pp.914-920
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    • 2012
  • We investigated the effects of heat treatment and extraction method on the antioxidant activities of five medicinal plants: Cyperus rotundus, Eucommia ulmoides, Bupleurum falcatum, Achyranthes japonica Nakai, and Akebia quinata. Extraction was performed with only ultrasound, ultrasound after heating at $130^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours, and reflux extraction with distilled water. The phenolic contents of reflux extraction and ultrasound extraction after heating were higher than only ultrasound extraction, and ultrasound extraction after heating samples was higher than reflux extraction except for Eucommia ulmoides and Cyperus rotundus. Total flavonoid content was higher in reflux and ultrasound extraction after heating samples than only ultrasound extraction, except for Cyperus rotundus. ABTS radical scavenging activity was higher in reflux extraction and ultrasound extraction after heating a sample, than only ultrasound extraction. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in reflux extraction except for Achyranthes japonica Nakai and Akebia quinata. The reducing power of ultrasound extraction after heating was higher with Achyranthes japonica Nakai. From the results of this study, we can expect to increase the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant extracts by applying suitable extraction and pretreatment conditions on the type of medicinal plant.

Effects of Extraction Condition on Extraction Efficiency of Rubiadin in Adventitious Roots of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) (추출조건이 노니 부정근에 함유된 rubiadin의 추출 효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Myong-Ki;Jeong, Cheol-Seung;Shin, Yong-Kook;Park, Kyong-Hee;Lee, Woon-Jang;Lee, Eun-Jung;Paek, Kee-Yoeup
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.685-690
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    • 2010
  • Rubiadin, a major compound of noni ($Morinda$ $citrifolia$) adventitious root, is highly valued in pharmaceutical industry due to hepatoprotective activity. To dissect rubiadin's effective extraction condition, extraction process of noni adventitious roots was performed with different solvent types, ratio of water to methanol (water, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of methanol), extraction time, and extraction method. In contrast, we also developed a reverse- phase HPLC assay method to determine rubiadin from noni adventitious roots. The HPLC assay of rubiadin was performed by C-18 column using a gradient solvent system of methanol and water with UV detector at 280 nm. The extraction efficiency of different types of solvents were increased in order of methanol (0.08%) > ethanol (0.05%) > acetonitrile (0.03%) > acetone (0.02%) and methylene chloride (0.02%). The results of rubiadin extraction using different solvents showed that 1 hour of ultrasonic extraction was effective in order of 60% methanol (0.21%) > 80% methanol (0.13%) > 100% methanol (0.07%), 40% methanol (0.07%) and 2 hours of reflux extraction was effective in order of 60% methanol (0.21%) > 40% methanol (0.17%) > 80% methanol (0.14%). To compare the extraction efficiency of rubiadin according to the extraction methods and time for high rubiadin content, the extracts of rubiadin in noni adventitious roots were isolated with the methods of ultrasonic extraction, shaking extraction and reflux extraction. Rubiadin extracted from the methods of ultrasonic waves and shaking displayed the highest contents at 8 and 24 hours, respectively.

The controversial points for the assessment of soil contamination related to the change of pH of extraction solution in using partial extraction in standard method in Korea (국내 토양오염 공정시험방법의 용출법 사용시 용출액의 pH의 변화가 토양 오염 평가에 미치는 문제점)

  • 오창환;유연희;이평구;이영엽
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.294-297
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    • 2000
  • Heavy metals are extracted from Chonju stream sediment, roadside soils and sediments along Honam expressway, soils and tailings from mining area using partial ectraction in Standard Method, partial ectraction method with maintaining 0.1N of extraction solution and acid digestion. In samples having buffer capacity against acid, 0.1N of extraction solution can not be maintained and pH of extraction solution increases up to 8.0 when partial extraction in Standard Method is used. The averages and ranges of (heavy metals extracted using partial extraction in standard method, HPE)/(heavy metals extracted using partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1N of extraction solution, HPEM) values are 0.506 and 0.145~1.126 in Cd, 0.534~ and 0.078~0.928 in Zn, 0.461 and 0.041~1.715 in Mn, 0.359 and 0.011~0.874 in Cu, 0.195 and 0.018~1.785 in Cr, 0.710 and 0.003~3.075 in Pb, and 0.088 and 1.73$\times$10$^{-5}$ ~0.303 in Fe. These data indicate that the difference between HPE and HPEM is big in the order of Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Cd, Zn and Pb. It is quite possible that the partial extraction method in Standard Method of soil in Korea is not adequate for an assessment of contamination in area where buffer capacity of soil will be decreased or lost after a long term exposure of soils to environmental damage.

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A Comparison of Data Extraction Techniques and an Implementation of Data Extraction Technique using Index DB -S Bank Case- (원천 시스템 환경을 고려한 데이터 추출 방식의 비교 및 Index DB를 이용한 추출 방식의 구현 -ㅅ 은행 사례를 중심으로-)

  • 김기운
    • Korean Management Science Review
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2003
  • Previous research on data extraction and integration for data warehousing has concentrated mainly on the relational DBMS or partly on the object-oriented DBMS. Mostly, it describes issues related with the change data (deltas) capture and the incremental update by using the triggering technique of active database systems. But, little attention has been paid to data extraction approaches from other types of source systems like hierarchical DBMS, etc. and from source systems without triggering capability. This paper argues, from the practical point of view, that we need to consider not only the types of information sources and capabilities of ETT tools but also other factors of source systems such as operational characteristics (i.e., whether they support DBMS log, user log or no log, timestamp), and DBMS characteristics (i.e., whether they have the triggering capability or not, etc), in order to find out appropriate data extraction techniques that could be applied to different source systems. Having applied several different data extraction techniques (e.g., DBMS log, user log, triggering, timestamp-based extraction, file comparison) to S bank's source systems (e.g., IMS, DB2, ORACLE, and SAM file), we discovered that data extraction techniques available in a commercial ETT tool do not completely support data extraction from the DBMS log of IMS system. For such IMS systems, a new date extraction technique is proposed which first creates Index database and then updates the data warehouse using the Index database. We illustrates this technique using an example application.

Studies on the Extraction of Fish Oils (어류의 추출에 관한 연구)

  • LEE Keun-Tai;KIM Sang-Moo;KIM Chang-Yang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 1985
  • The extraction rate of lipids from the chopped whole fish was studied with various solvents. Factors which can influence on the extraction rate such as temperature, moisture content, agitation speed and solvent were also examined. In the early stage of extraction, it is considered that the rapid extraction was attributed to cell destruction which occurs in chopping the whole fish and in the later stage, the extraction rate was increased linearly with extraction time. The effect of agitation on the extraction rate had a great influence on the early stage of extraction. In agitation speed of 100, 200, 300 and 500 r.p.m. the slopes of extraction curve were -0.075, -0.075, -0.069 and -0.064, respectively. Extractability between hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvent showed a great difference. It is suggested that extractability difference between acetone and isopropyl alcohol is due to acetone property which can not extract phospholipids in polar lipids. Extractability of lipids was increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing moisture content.

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Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice using response surface methodology

  • Jang, Seol;Lee, A. Yeong;Lee, A. Reum;Choi, Goya;Kim, Ho Kyoung
    • Integrative Medicine Research
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2017
  • Background: The present study optimized ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions to maximize extraction yields of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice. Methods: The optimal extraction temperature ($X_1$), extraction time ($X_2$), and methanol concentration ($X_3$) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was used for experimental design and analysis of the results to obtain the optimal processing parameters. Results: Statistical analyses revealed that three variables and the quadratic of $X_1$, $X_2$, and $X_3$ had significant effects on the yields and were followed by significant interaction effects between the variables of $X_2$ and $X_3$ (p<0.01). A 3D response surface plot and contour plots derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. The optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: extraction temperature, $69^{\circ}C$; extraction time, 34?min; and methanol concentration, 57%. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of glycyrrhizic acid was 3.414%, which agreed closely with the predicted value (3.406%). Conclusion: The experimental values agreed with those predicted by RSM models, thus indicating the suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions.

Optimization of Extraction Condition of Hesperidin in Citrus unshiu Peels using Response Surface Methodology

  • Lee, Jua;Park, Shinyoung;Jeong, Ji Yeon;Jo, Yang Hee;Lee, Mi Kyeong
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 2015
  • Hesperidin, which is the most abundant flavonoid of Citrus unshiu (Rutaceae), has been reported to possess diverse activities and widely used as functional foods and cosmetics. For the development of functional products, extraction procedure is indispensable. Extraction conditions affect the composition of extract as well as its biological activity. Therefore, we tried to optimize extraction conditions such as extraction solvent, extraction time and extraction temperature for maximum yield of hesperidin using response surface methodology with threelevel-three-factor Box-Behnken design (BBD). Regression analysis showed a good fit of the experimental data and the optimal condition was obtained as ethanol concentration, 59.0%; temperature $71.5^{\circ}C$ and extraction time, 12.4 h. The hesperidin yield under the optimal condition was found to be $287.8{\mu}g$ per 5 mg extract, which was well matched with the predicted value of 290.5 μg. These results provides optimized extraction condition for hesperidin and might be useful for the development of hesperidin as functional products like health supplements, cosmetics and medicinal products.

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Polysaccharide using Red Ginseng Marc (홍삼박을 이용한 다당체 추출조건 최적화)

  • Tark, Keun-Man;Cho, Kyung-Lae;Park, Keun-Hyoung;Son, Seok-Min;Chae, Hee-Jeong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.337-342
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    • 2009
  • The extraction conditions for the production of red ginseng polysaccharide were proposed. The crude fiber content of red ginseng marc (RGM) (15.3%) was much higher than that of white ginseng (WG) (2.1%) and red ginseng (RG) (0.5%). Thus, RGM was selected as the raw material for polysaccharide production. The correlation between the particle size of RGM and the polysaccharide extraction was investigated with a correlation analysis using the SPSS package. The two parameters were found to have a significant correlation (p<0.01). The polysaccharide extraction increased as the particle size of RGM decreased. The optimal concentration of RGM was 6.66% (w/v). The extraction yield increased as both the extraction temperature and the extraction time increased. Finally, the extraction temperature and time were selected as $85^{\circ}C$ and 5 hrs, respectively. Consequently, the extraction conditions for polysaccharide production were optimized and statistically confirmed.