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Evaluation of Sodium Intake and Relationship between Sodium Intake and the Bone Mineral Density of Female University Students (중부 지역 여대생에서 음식섭취빈도조사지를 이용한 나트륨 섭취량 평가 및 나트륨 섭취와 골밀도와의 관련성 조사)

  • Bae, Yun-Jung;Yeon, Jee-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.625-636
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between bone health and sodium intake in female university students using a dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ 125), anthropometric checkups, food records for 3 days, and ultrasound measurement of calcaneus bone mineral density. Subjects were divided into two groups: normal (n=196) and osteopenia (n=52). There were no significant differences in age or height between the two groups. The average weight, body mass index, and body fat in the normal group were significantly higher than in the osteopenia group. The sodium intake of DFQ was positively correlated with the sodium intake of 3 days of dietary records (p=0.0003). There were no significant differences in the sodium intake between the two groups from DFQ. The dishes were ranked by sodium intake: kimchies were 17.68%, noodles and mandu were 16.36%, stews were 13.69%, main dishes such as meat, egg, and beans were 11.47%, and fish and shellfish were 11.07%. The frequency of eating noodles and mandu (p=0.0116), stews (p=0.0008), kimchies (p=0.0482), fish and shellfish (p=0.0362), vegetables (p=0.0064) and seasoning (p=0.0347) were negatively associated with bone mineral density. Bone health was not significantly different with increasing quartiles of sodium intake. As excessive sodium intakes may indirectly affect bone mineral density, these results suggest that to prevent osteoporosis, university students needed to be more educated about diets containing less sodium through nutrition education programs.

Relation between Health Status and Intake of Soy Isoflavone among Adult Women in Seoul (서울 거주 성인 여성의 대두 이소플라본 섭취와 건강과의 관련성)

  • Lee, Min-June;Sohn, Chun-Young;Park, Ok-Jin
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.218-230
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to survey isoflavone intake among adult women in menopause with diseases such as metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis and to analyze the relationship between each of these chronic diseases followed by isoflavone intake and the related health risk index. The average age of the subjects was 49.97 years old, while that of the pre-menopausal subjects was 45.14 years, and the post-menopausal subjects was 55.99 years. The average body mass index (BMI), waist-hip circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid content of the post-menopausal subjects were higher in significant difference than those of the pre-menopausal subjects. The bone density of the hip and spine in post-menopausal subjects was lower in significant difference than that of the pre-menopausal subjects. After menopause, the subjects had a lower ratio of individuals at risk of anemia when compared with the subjects before menopause, but had higher health risk ratio related to each type of chronic disease, including obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol and osteoporosis than the subjects before menopause. The intake frequency of each soybean food was similar among subjects before/after menopause. The most common soybean based foods consumed by the subjects were soybean, soybean curd and soybean paste. The average daily intake level of isoflavone among subjects before menopause was 25.48 mg, while that of subjects after menopause was 32.25 mg. Evaluation of the distribution of the isoflavone level revealed that the pre-menopausal subjects consumed 3.29~78.36 mg and the post-menopausal subjects consumed 3.18~116.59 mg. The intake level by each individual varied greatly. The pre-menopausal subjects had a low BMI index and systolic blood pressure as much as their isoflavone intake level was high. Additionally, the post-menopausal subjects had a low menarche age and high menopause age when their isoflavone intake level was high, the BMI index and waist-hip circumference ratio was highest among individuals with lowest isoflavone intake level. This study showed that there was a possible relationship between soybean isoflavone intake and health problems such as obesity, high cholesterol, and osteoporosis in women after menopause with diseases such as metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis, even if this relationship was not great.

Metabolic risk and nutritional state according to breakfast energy level of Korean adults: Using the 2007~2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (한국 성인의 아침식사 에너지 수준에 따른 대사적 위험과 영양상태: 2007~2009년 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용)

  • Jang, So-Hyoun;Suh, Yoon Suk;Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine an appropriate energy level of breakfast with less risk of chronic disease for Korean adults. Methods: Using data from the 2007~2009 Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey, from a total of 12,238 adults aged 19~64, the final 7,769 subjects were analyzed except subjects who were undergoing treatment for cancer or metabolic disorder. According to the percent of breakfast energy intake versus their estimated energy requirement (EER), the subjects were divided into four groups: < 10% (very low, VL), 10~20% (low, L), 20~30% (moderate, M), ${\geq}30%$ (sufficient, S). All data were analyzed on the metabolic risk and nutritional state after application of weighted value and adjustment of sex, age, residential area, income, education, job or jobless, and energy intake using a general linear model or logistic regression. Results: The subjects of group S were 16.9% of total subjects, group M 39.2%, group L 37.6%, and group VL 6.3%. The VL group included more male subjects, younger-aged (19 to 40 years), urban residents, higher income, higher education, and fewer breakfasts eaters together with family members. Among the 4 groups, the VL group showed the highest waist circumference, while the S group showed the lowest waist circumference, body mass index, and serum total cholesterol. The groups of VL and L with lower intake of breakfast energy showed high percent of energy from protein and fat, and low percent of energy from carbohydrate. With the increase of breakfast energy level, intake of energy, most nutrients and food groups increased, and the percentage of subjects consuming nutrients below EAR decreased. The VL group showed relatively higher intake of snacks, sugar, meat and eggs, oil, and seasonings, and the lowest intake of vegetable. Risk of obesity by waist circumference was highest in the VL group by 1.90 times of the S group and the same trend was shown in obesity by BMI. Risk of dyslipidemia by serum total cholesterol was 1.84 times higher in the VL group compared to the S group. Risk of diabetes by Glu-FBS (fasting blood sugar) was 1.57 times higher in the VL group compared to the S group. Conclusion: The results indicate that higher breakfast energy level is positively related to lower metabolic risk and more desirable nutritional state in Korean adults. Therefore, breakfast energy intake more than 30% of their own EER would be highly recommended for Korean adults.

A study on dietary habits, nutrient intakes and dietary quality in adults of a health screening and promotion center according to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (건강증진센터 고객의 비알콜성 지방간 유무에 따른 식습관 및 영양섭취, 식사의 질에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Ji Ho;Lee, Hye Seung;Kang, Eun Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.330-341
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary habits, food intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet quality of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a health screening and promotion center. Methods: The total number of study subjects was 10,111 adults, where 3087 subjects (30.5%) were diagnosed as NAFLD. The dietary intakes were obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. They were then compared with the dietary reference intakes could be used in the future for development of diet and nutrition guidelines s (KDRIs). Results: Mean age of subjects in the normal group was $52.9{\pm}10.3yrs$ and body mass index (BMI) was $22.4{\pm}2.6kg/m^2$, and those of the NAFLD group were $55.1{\pm}9.2yrs$ and $25.4{\pm}2.9kg/m^2$. BMI, blood pressure of the NAFLD group were significantly higher than those of the normal group. The rates of skipping breakfast, overeating, and eating out were significantly could be used in the future for development of diet and nutrition guidelines er in the NAFLD group (p < 0.05, p < 0.000, p < 0.000 respectively). The speed of eating was fast in the NAFLD group (p < 0.000). The NAFLD group consumed significantly higher amounts of grains, meats, fish, seaweeds, kimchies, sugars, sweets, coffee, teas, and oils compared to the normal group (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, intakes of starch products, fruits, milk, and milk products were significantly lower in the NAFLD group compared with those of the normal group (p < 0.05). Riboflavin, calcium, and dietary fiber nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) of the NAFLD group were significantly lower than those of the normal group. The Korean's dietary diversity score (KDDS) of the NAFLD group was lower than that of the normal group. Conclusion: In conclusion, we suggest that diet guidelines, such as increasing the intake of calcium and dietary fiber, reducing the intake of energy, fat, and simple carbohydrates, are necessary to improvement of NAFLD. The results could be used in the future for development of diet and nutrition guidelines for NAFLD.

A Study on Serum Lipid Levels in Elderly People in Wando Area - Based on Age, BMI, WHR - (완도지역 성인 및 노인의 혈청지질 수준에 관한 연구(I) - 연령, 신체 계측치를 중심으로 -)

  • Cha, Bok-Kyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.68-77
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    • 2006
  • This study was peformed to document the association between nutrient intakes, body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR), and a major risk factor for chronic diseases. A three-day dietary intake survey, using a 24 hour recall method, was obtained from 187 subjects aged 46 to 84 (mean age 65.3) living in Wando island area. The average daily mean energy intakes were 1869.0 kcal for male and 1943.9 kcal for female, respectively. Daily intakes of protein for male and female were 28.0 and 30.4 g, and those of fat were 31.5 and 28.51 g, respectively Carbohydrate dependency was decreased with age. Protein dependency was increased with age. The mean intakes of energy, protein, Vit. A, Vit. D, Vit. E, Ca, Zn did not meet Korean RDA for elderly. The level of serum triglyceride was higher in males than in females and showed the tendency to increase with age in both sexes, whereas HDL-cholesterol tended to decrease with age in both sexes. The levels of serum total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in males than in females, particularly in the age of $46\~59$ (p<0.05). The level of atherogenic index (AI) was significantly higher in females than in males, particularly in the age of 80 and over (p<0.05) Based on these results, it is evident that people in island area did not consume enough nutrient. Specially, dietary intake of protein was not adequate. This study implies that triglyceride, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, AI were increased with increasing age, BMI and WHR.