• Title, Summary, Keyword: flapping wing

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A dragonfly inspired flapping wing actuated by electro active polymers

  • Mukherjee, Sujoy;Ganguli, Ranjan
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.6 no.7
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    • pp.867-887
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    • 2010
  • An energy-based variational approach is used for structural dynamic modeling of the IPMC (Ionic Polymer Metal Composites) flapping wing. Dynamic characteristics of the wing are analyzed using numerical simulations. Starting with the initial design, critical parameters which have influence on the performance of the wing are identified through parametric studies. An optimization study is performed to obtain improved flapping actuation of the IPMC wing. It is shown that the optimization algorithm leads to a flapping wing with dimensions similar to the dragonfly Aeshna Multicolor wing. An unsteady aerodynamic model based on modified strip theory is used to obtain the aerodynamic forces. It is found that the IPMC wing generates sufficient lift to support its own weight and carry a small payload. It is therefore a potential candidate for flapping wing of micro air vehicles.

The Effect of Folding Wing on Aerodynamics and Power Consumption of a Flapping Wing

  • Lee, Seunghee;Han, Cheolheui
    • International Journal of Aerospace System Engineering
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.26-30
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    • 2016
  • Experimental study on the unsteady aerodynamics analysis and power consumption of a folding wing is accomplished using a wind tunnel testing. A folding wing model is fabricated and actuated using servo motors. The flapping wing consists of an inboard main wing and an outboard folding wing. The aerodynamic forces and consumed powers of the flapping wing are measured by changing the flapping and folding wings inside a low-speed wind tunnel. In order to calculate the aerodynamic forces, the measured forces are modified using static test data. It was found that the effect of the folding wing on the flapping wing's total lift is small but the effect of the folding wing on the total thrust is larger than the main wing. The folding motion requires the extra use of the servo motor. Thus, the amount of the energy consumption increases when both the wings are actuated together. As the flight speed increases, the power consumption of the folding wing decreases which results in energy saving.

Lift Force Variation of Flapping Wing (날개짓 비행체의 양력 변위)

  • Hong, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 2007
  • Using the more common conventional chordwise aerodynamic approach, flapping a flat plate wing with zero degree chordwise pitch angle of attack and no relative wind should not produce lift. However, in hover, with no forward relative velocity and zero degree chordwise pitch angle of attack, flapping flat plate wings does in fact produce lift. In the experiments peformed for this paper, the flapping motion is considered pure(downstroke and upstroke) with no flapping stroke plane inclination angle. No changes in chordwise pitch angle are made. The total force is measured using a force transducer and the net aerodynamic force is determined from this measured total force by subtracting the experimentally determined inertial contribution. These experiments were repeated at various flapping frequencies and for various wing planform sizes for flat plate wings. The trends in the aerodynamic lift variation found using a force transducer have nearly identical shape for various flapping frequencies and wing planform sizes.

Demonstration of Stable Vertical Takeoff of an Insect-Mimicking Flapping-Wing System (곤충 모방 날갯짓 비행체의 안정적인 수직 이륙 비행 구현)

  • Phan, Hoang-Vu;Truong, Quang-Tri;Nguyen, Quoc-Viet;Park, Hoon-Cheol;Byun, Do-Young;Goo, Nam-Seo
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.76-80
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    • 2012
  • This paper demonstrates how to implement inherent pitching stability in an insect-mimicking flapping-wing system for vertical takeoff. Design and fabrication of the insect-mimicking flapping-wing system is briefly described focusing on the recent modification. Force produced by the flapping-wing systems is estimated using the UBET (Unsteady Blade Element Theory) developed in the previous work. The estimation shows that the wing twist placed in the modified system can improve thrust production for about 10 %. The estimated thrust is compared with the measured thrust, which proves that the UBET provides fairly good estimations for the thrust produced by the flapping-wing systems. The vertical takeoff test shows that inherent pitching stability can be implemented in an insect-mimicking flapping-wing system by aligning the aerodynamic force center and center of gravity.

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Rectangular Wing in Flapping with Lead-Lag Motion using Unsteady VLM (직사각형 평판날개의 리드래그 운동이 조합된 날개짓에 대한 비정상 VLM 공력 해석)

  • Kim, Woo-Jin;Kim, Hark-Bong
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2006
  • The unsteady vortex lattice method is used to model lead-lag in flapping motions of a rectangular flat plate wing. The results for plunging and pitching motions were compared with the limited experimental results available and other numerical methods. They show that the method is capable of simulating many of the features of complex flapping flight. The lift, thrust and propulsive efficiency of a rectangular flat plate wing have been calculated for various lead-lag motion and reduced frequency with an amplitude of flapping angle(20o). To describe a motion profile of wing tip such as elliptic, line and circle, the phase difference of flapping and lead-lag motion was changed. And the effects of the motion profile on the aerodynamic characteristics of the flapping wing are discussed by examination of their trends.

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Numerical Investigation on the Flapping Wing Sound (플래핑 날개의 음향 특성에 대한 수치 연구)

  • Bae, Young-Min;Moon, Young-J.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.3209-3214
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    • 2007
  • This study numerically investigates the unsteady flow and acoustic characteristics of a flapping wing using a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting method. The Reynolds number based on the maximum translation velocity of the wing is Re=8800 and Mach number is M=0.0485. The flow around the flapping wing is predicted by solving the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (INS) and the acoustic field is calculated by the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE), both solved in moving coordinates. Numerical results show that the hovering sound is largely generated by wing translation (transverse and tangential), which have different dipole sources with different mechanisms. As a distinctive feature of the flapping sound, it is also shown that the dominant frequency varies around the wing.

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A comparative study of dragonfly inspired flapping wings actuated by single crystal piezoceramic

  • Mukherjee, Sujoy;Ganguli, Ranjan
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.67-87
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    • 2012
  • A dragonfly inspired flapping wing is investigated in this paper. The flapping wing is actuated from the root by a PZT-5H and PZN-7%PT single crystal unimorph in the piezofan configuration. The non-linear governing equations of motion of the smart flapping wing are obtained using the Hamilton's principle. These equations are then discretized using the Galerkin method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Dynamic characteristics of smart flapping wings having the same size as the actual wings of three different dragonfly species Aeshna Multicolor, Anax Parthenope Julius and Sympetrum Frequens are analyzed using numerical simulations. An unsteady aerodynamic model is used to obtain the aerodynamic forces. Finally, a comparative study of performances of three piezoelectrically actuated flapping wings is performed. The numerical results in this paper show that use of PZN-7%PT single crystal piezoceramic can lead to considerable amount of wing weight reduction and increase of lift and thrust force compared to PZT-5H material. It is also shown that dragonfly inspired smart flapping wings actuated by single crystal piezoceramic are a viable contender for insect scale flapping wing micro air vehicles.

Longitudinal Flight Dynamic Modeling and Stability Analysis of Flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicles (날갯짓 비행 로봇의 세로방향 비행 동역학 모델링 및 안정성 해석)

  • Kim, Joong-Kwan;Han, Jong-Seob;Kim, Ho-Young;Han, Jae-Hung
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2015
  • This paper investigates the longitudinal flight dynamics and stability of flapping-wing micro air vehicles. Periodic external forces and moments due to the flapping motion characterize the dynamics of this system as NLTP (Non Linear Time Periodic). However, the averaging theorem can be applied to an NLTP system to obtain an NLTI (Non Linear Time Invariant) system which allows us to use a standard eigen value analysis to assess the stability of the system with linearization around a reference point. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics and stability of a hawkmoth-scale flapping-wing air vehicle by establishing an LTI (Linear Time Invariant) system model around a hovering condition. Also, a direct time integration of full nonlinear equations of motion of the flapping-wing micro air vehicle is conducted to see how the longitudinal flight dynamics appear in the time domain beyond the reference point, i.e. hovering condition. In the study, the flapping-wing air vehicle exhibited three distinct dynamic modes of motion in the longitudinal plane of motion: two stable subsidence modes and one unstable oscillatory mode. The unstable oscillatory mode is found to be a combination of a pitching velocity state and a forward/backward velocity state.

Design.Manufacture on X-wing type flapping vehicle (X-wing type 날개짓 비행체의 설계.개발)

  • Yoon, Kwang-Joon;Park, Joon-Hyuk
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.1437-1440
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    • 2008
  • This research describes about designing and manufacturing X-wing type flapping micro aerial vehicle which intends to improve the performance of one-pair wing flapping vehicle with innovated design. This design, X-wing as we call, was introduced for some time ago from many laboratories but still there hasn’t any reports dealing on its theoretical or numerical analysis. By manufacturing the X-wing with our own design and succeeding its flight test will give us the general idea on X-wing which may guide us to conduct the numerical and experimental analysis later on. We focused to design the X-wing and introduce some conceptual theories about its characteristics on this report.

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Controlled Flight of Tailless Insect-Like Flapping-Wing Flying-Robot (꼬리날개 없는 곤충모방 날갯짓 비행로봇의 제어비행)

  • Phan, Hoang Vu;Kang, Taesam;Park, HoonCheol
    • The Journal of Korea Robotics Society
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 2016
  • An insect-like flapping-wing flying-robot should be able to produce flight forces and control moments at the same time only by flapping wings, because there is no control surface at tail just like an insect. In this paper, design principles for the flapping mechanism and control moment generator are briefly explained, characteristics measured force and moment generations of the robot are presented, and finally controlled flight of the flying robot is demonstrated. The present insect-like robot comprises a lightweight flapping mechanism that can produce a flapping angle larger than $180^{\circ}$ and a control moment generator that produces pitch, roll, and yaw moments by adjusting location of the trailing edges at the wing roots. The measured force and moment data show that the control input angles less than $9^{\circ}$ would not significantly reduce the vertical force generation. It is also observed that the pitch, roll, and yaw control moments are produced only by the corresponding control input. The simple PID control theory is used for the controlled flight of the flying robot, controlling pitch, roll, and yaw motions. The flying robot successfully demonstrated controlled flight for about 40 seconds.