• Title, Summary, Keyword: functional property

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Microbiological and Physicochemical Changes of Vegetable Juices (Angelica keiskei and Brassica loeracea var. acephala) Treated by UV Irradiation (UV 조사 신립초 및 케일 녹즙의 저장기간에 따른 미생물 및 이화학적 변화)

  • Kwon, Sang-Chul;Choi, Goo-Hee;Yu, Kwang-Won;Lee, Kyung-Haeng
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.1030-1037
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    • 2010
  • A fresh juice has become a new functional food available for dieting and health. However, the shelf-life of vegetable juice is very short because of the absence of heat pasteurization process. To elongate the shelf-life of vegetable juices, such as Angelica keiskei and Brassica loeracea var. acephala, the changes of microbiological, chemical and sensory property by UV irradiation were investigated. The total aerobic bacterial numbers of A. keiskei and B. loeracea var. acephala vegetable juices were $3.2{\times}10^5$ and $7.0{\times}10^4\;CFU/mL$, respectively, after wring process. However, the numbers were $3.6{\times}10^3{\sim}9.7{\times}10^3$ and $3.7{\times}10^3{\sim}2.7{\times}10^4\;CFU/mL$ after UV treatment on wring juice, and this lower microbial number was maintained during storage. The number of coliform bacteria also reduced significantly by UV treatment, and the bactericidal effect was higher when the flow rate is slower. The increase of lightness and yellowness, and decrease of redness were observed after treatment of UV on both vegetable juices, but the differences were not significant between flow rates. The ascorbic acid contents of vegetable juices were reduced by UV irradiation regardless of flow rate, and storage. Overall acceptance in sensory analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the control and vegetable juice irradiated UV at 0 days, but sample with UV treatment showed higher score at 3 days. Therefore, UV treatment on vegetable juice can elongate the shelf-life without any problems in flavor and color.

Effect of gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri) extract against high glucose- and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells (PC12 신경세포에서 고당 및 과산화수소로 유도된 산화적 스트레스에 대한 곰취 추출물의 효과)

  • Park, Sang Hyun;Park, Seon Kyeong;Ha, Jeong Su;Lee, Du Sang;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.508-514
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    • 2016
  • Effects of the ethyl acetate fraction from gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri) extract against high $glucose/H_2O_2-induced$ oxidative stress and in vitro neurodegeneration were investigated to confirm the physiological property of the extract. The ethyl acetate fraction of gomchwi extract showed the highest total phenolic contents than the other solvent fractions. An anti-hyperglycemic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using the ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50}$) value for ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ was found to be $727.64{\mu}g/mL$. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction showed excellent 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of malondialdehyde production. The ethyl acetate fraction also decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, whereas neuronal cell viability against high glucose/$H_2O_2$-induced cytotoxicity was found to be increased. Finally, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid as a main phenolic compound in the ethyl acetate fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that gomchwi might be a good natural source of functional materials to prevent diabetic neurodegeneration.

IPC Multi-label Classification based on Functional Characteristics of Fields in Patent Documents (특허문서 필드의 기능적 특성을 활용한 IPC 다중 레이블 분류)

  • Lim, Sora;Kwon, YongJin
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2017
  • Recently, with the advent of knowledge based society where information and knowledge make values, patents which are the representative form of intellectual property have become important, and the number of the patents follows growing trends. Thus, it needs to classify the patents depending on the technological topic of the invention appropriately in order to use a vast amount of the patent information effectively. IPC (International Patent Classification) is widely used for this situation. Researches about IPC automatic classification have been studied using data mining and machine learning algorithms to improve current IPC classification task which categorizes patent documents by hand. However, most of the previous researches have focused on applying various existing machine learning methods to the patent documents rather than considering on the characteristics of the data or the structure of patent documents. In this paper, therefore, we propose to use two structural fields, technical field and background, considered as having impacts on the patent classification, where the two field are selected by applying of the characteristics of patent documents and the role of the structural fields. We also construct multi-label classification model to reflect what a patent document could have multiple IPCs. Furthermore, we propose a method to classify patent documents at the IPC subclass level comprised of 630 categories so that we investigate the possibility of applying the IPC multi-label classification model into the real field. The effect of structural fields of patent documents are examined using 564,793 registered patents in Korea, and 87.2% precision is obtained in the case of using title, abstract, claims, technical field and background. From this sequence, we verify that the technical field and background have an important role in improving the precision of IPC multi-label classification in IPC subclass level.

Biochemical and Physiological Properties of Fermented Skate (홍어 숙성과 기능성)

  • 최명락;유은정;임현수;박재원
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.675-683
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the physiological properties of various parts of skate body after fermentation by measuring compositional properties including pH and $NH_4^+$. Other functional properties, such as antibacterial activities, antioxidative activities and anticancer activities were measured. Effects of fermentation temperature (4, 10, $20^{\circ}C$) did not affect compositional properties of fermented skate. The pH of fermented skate extract at 4$^{\circ}C$ did not increase as much as that at 10 and $20^{\circ}C$, Particularly at $10^{\circ}C$, the pH increased rapidly after Day 1 and remained unchanged until another increase at Day 5. At 2$0^{\circ}C$, the pH increased rather rapidly at early stage of fermentation and reached 8.9 at Day 4. The pattern of $NH_4^+$ concentration of fermented skate extract was similar to that of pH. Particularly at $4^{\circ}C$ fermentation, $NH_4^+$ concentration was not affected by fermentation time. The concentration of $NH_4^+$. reached approximately $10.2\mug/mL$at $10^{\circ}C$ for Day 5 and $20^{\circ}C$ for Day 4-5, indicating the early stage of fermentation. According to physiological activities of hot water extracts of skate fillet and viscera as affected by fermentation time, antibacterial activity of 2% viscera extract concentration was 43.3% at Day 8, while there was no antibacterial activity from fillet extract. As for the antioxidative activity, fillet extract and viscera extract both at 2% concentration at Day 0 showed 61.2% and 54.4%, respectively. Anticancer activities were highest (52.7% for fillet extract and 58.3% for viscera extract) at $1,000 \mug/mL$ concentration at Day 8. Antibacterial activities and anticancer effects were relatively high as fermentation was progressed, while antioxidative activities were highest before fermentation started. As for the physiological activities of hot water extract from brain and cartilage, antibacterial activities were observed at 41.0% when 2% brain extract was added at 4 hours of incubation, while 35.8% with 2% cartilage extract at 14 hours of incubation. Antioxidative activities were not found in brain extract, but cartilage extract at 2% showed 25.0% of antioxidative activity, which was lower than fillet and viscera extract.

Physicochemical Properties and Protective Effects of Corni fructus Treated with Pressurized-Steam against H2O2-Induced Cytotoxicity on L132 Cells (가압증숙공정에 의한 산수유의 이화학적 특성 및 과산화수소에 의해 유도된 산화적 L132 세포 사멸에 대한 보호 효과)

  • Park, Hye-Mi;Hong, Joo-Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.9
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    • pp.1061-1070
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    • 2017
  • This study examined the physicochemical properties and protective effects of Corni fructus treated with pressurized-steam (through $121^{\circ}C$, $1.2kgf/cm^2$, 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h) against $H_2O_2$-induced cytotoxicity on L132 cells. The color values of the untreated Corni fructus powder were higher than those of Corni fructus after the pressurized-steam treatment (PSC), and those of PSC improved with a decrease in treatment time. At the observation by pressurized-steam treatment for more than 2 h, the color was changed to black, and its gloss was lost. The major constituents in PSC (2 hours) were the total sugar (468.53 mg/g), reducing sugar (385.55 mg/g), and total phenol (37.32 mg/g), respectively. The main components in the free sugars of PSC (2 h) were fructose, glucose, and sucrose, at 207.72 mg/g, 219.40 mg/g, and 4.31 mg/g, respectively. The gallic acid in the phenol compounds and 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural in the furan compounds of PSC (2 h) improved with increasing treatment time. The main components in iridoid glycoside of PSC (2 h) were morroniside, loganin, and lognic acid, which improved with decreasing treatment time. The L132 cell growth inhibition activities of all the extracts were significantly higher than that of the control. The protective effects against the $H_2O_2$-induced cytotoxicity on L132 cells of PSC (2 h) was 102.82% (at $1,000{\mu}g/mL$) higher than those of the other extracts. This suggests that Corni fructus by PSC is useful for functional food materials in the food industry.

Properties of Baechu Kimchi treated with Black Rice Water Extract (흑미를 첨가하여 항산화성이 강화된 배추김치의 개발 및 품질 특성)

  • Mo, Eun-Kyoung;Kim, Seung-Mi;Yang, Sun-A;JeGal, Sung-A;Choi, Young-Sim;Ly, Sun-Yung;Sung, Chang-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 2010
  • To develop a new functional kimchi with antioxidative properties, salted baechu was soaked in black rice water extract for 6 h at room temperature. The antioxidative property of the water extract was $78.75{\pm}1.18%$ that of the control (0.1% [w/v] alpha-tocopherol). The black rice gel was added to the baechu kimchi preparation. The color of baechu kimchi treated with black rice water extract changed to dark violet and/or black. Control kimchi and black rice water-treated kimchi were stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 30 days. No significant differences were detected between the control and the black rice water-treated group in the early stages of fermentation. As fermentation time increased, pH decreased and titratable acidity increased rapidly in control kimchi. However, such marked changes were not evident in test kimchi. The hardness value of black rice water-treated kimchi was higher than that of control kimchi after the midpoint of the fermentation period. The storage life of baechu kimchi treated with black rice water extract was prolonged by up to 5 days compared with control samples, owing to a decline in lactic acid bacteria and yeast levels during the final fermentation period in black rice water-treated kimchi. The total phenolic levels and the antioxidative capacity of black rice water-treated kimchi (83%) were approximately 1.5-fold higher than in control kimchi (57%). In sensory evaluation, black rice water-treated kimchi scored higher than did control kimchi using a blind test protocol.

Development of Transgenic Crops and Research Projects for Biotechnology Application (유전자 전환작물 개발 연구 현황과 과제)

  • 정태영
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.289-296
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    • 2001
  • The main objective of this topic is to establish strategies and to plan biotechnology researches which are related to the agricultural improvements especially focusing on the crop breeding in Korea. From 1960's to 1980's government policy had been emphasized to develope high yielding cultivars for the self sufficient supply of the staple food crops. As a result, considerable increase of rice production has been made with accumulating technology and man's powers. Recently genetically modified crops harboring useful characteristics have been developed using biotechnology and released in the developed countries. National research institutes and private companies have been developed biotechnology researches to establish competitive capabilities, however they have not been successfully used in commercialization. Therefore it is necessary to promote the practical. application by connecting molecular technology with conventional breeding. Proposed research projects are; (1) basic researches including plant genome studies, (2) developing new cultivars through gene transformation, (3) screening and producing antioxidants, secondary metabolite substances and edible vaccines. To set a government policy, both domestic and international research trends were reviewed and possibility of success based on the economic view point were discussed. The intellectual property and preservation of environment play a key role to decide the research priority. It is also necessary for us to make one step system for the distribution of research resources such as microorganisms, genes cloned, plant seeds and research informations for promoting research activities.

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Screening for Fittest Miscellaneous Cereals for Reclaimed Land and Functionality Improvement of Sorghum bicolor Cultivated in Reclaimed Land (간척지 적응성 잡곡 선발 및 간척지 재배 수수의 기능성 향상 효과)

  • Kang, Chan Ho;Lee, In Sok;Kwon, Suk Ju
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.64 no.2
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    • pp.109-126
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    • 2019
  • Genetic resources of 84 species of Setaria italica BEAUVOIS, Sorghum bicolor, and Panicum miliaceum were collected to select the adaptable miscellaneous cereals in Saemangeum reclaimed land. The adaptability of Sorghum bicolor in reclaimed land was the highest among the three cereals cultivated on reclaimed land. The ratio of the average height of Sorghum bicolor plants cultivated in reclaimed land/normal field was 0.82, that of Panicum miliaceum was 0.61, and that of Setaria italica BEAUVOIS was 0.51. Three species of Sorghum bicolor, Satangdajuk, Kkamansusu, and Nampungcharl, were selected as potential genetic resources as they had excellent adaptability to reclaimed land. The yield of Satandaejuk on reclaimed land was 229.4 kg/10a, and the yield ratio of reclaimed land/normal field was 89.3%. The yield of Kkamansusu was 227.4 kg/10a, with reclaimed land/normal field ratio of 87.8%, and yield of Nampungcharl was 239.6 kg/10a, and reclaimed land/normal field ratio of 86%. In order to study the salt tolerance of selected genetic resources, we conducted salinity test. Salinity tolerance of Sorghum bicolor species-Satangdajuk, Kkamansusu, Nampungcharl was excellent compared to that of the other cereals. Among these, Satandaejuk had to highest salt tolerance level. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and detoxification of free radical were also studied. The anti-diabetic property of the cereals was also analyzed by ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity. We confirmed that the functionality of 3 lines in reclaimed land had improved in all the functional analysis categories when compared to that with yield in the normal field. Polyphenol, an antioxidant, increased in the range of 2~26% when cultivated in reclaimed land and the flavonoid content also increased from 8.5 to 55.6%. DPPH elimination capability, the ability to scavenge harmful reactive oxygen, also increased from 16.7 to 47% when cultivated in reclaimed land. The anti-diabetic activity and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity of selected Sorghum bicolor species-Satangdajuk, Kkamansusu, Nampungcharl also increased from 18.4 to 19.9% when cultivated on reclaimed land.

Functional Expression of an Anti-GFP Camel Heavy Chain Antibody Fused to Streptavidin (Streptavidin이 융합된 GFP항원 특이적인 VHH 항체의 기능적 발현)

  • Han, Seung Hee;Kim, Jin-Kyoo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.1416-1423
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    • 2018
  • With strong biotin binding affinity ($K_D=10^{-14}M$), the tetrameric feature of streptavidin could be used to increase the antigen binding activity of a camel heavy chain (VHH) antibody through their fusion, here stained with biotinylated horseradish peroxidase and subsequent immunoassays ELISA and Western blot analysis. For this application, we cloned the streptavidin gene amplified from the Streptomyces avidinii chromosome by PCR, and this was fused to the gene of the 8B9 VHH antibody which is specific to green fluorescent protein (GFP) antigens. To express a soluble fusion protein in Escherichia coli, we used the pUC119 plasmid-based expression system which uses the lacZ promoter for induction by IPTG, the pelB leader sequence at the N-terminus for secretion into the periplasmic space, and six polyhistidine tags at the C-terminus for purification of the expressed proteins using an $Ni^+$-NTA-agarose column. Although streptavidin is toxic to E. coli because of its strong biotin binding property, this soluble fusion protein was expressed successfully. In SDS-PAGE, the size of the purified fusion protein was 122.4 kDa in its native condition and 30.6 kDa once denatured by boiling, suggesting the tetramerization of the monomeric subunit by non-covalent association through the streptavidin moiety fusing to the 8B9 VHH antibody. In addition, this fusion protein showed biotin binding activity similar to streptavidin as well as GFP antigen binding activity through both ELISA and Western blot analysis. In conclusion, the protein resulting from the fusion of an 8B9 VHH antibody with streptavidin was successfully expressed and purified as a soluble tetramer in E. coli; it showed both biotin and GFP antigen binding activity suggesting the possible production of a tetrameric and bifunctional VHH antibody.

Physiological Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Condensed Prunus mume Juice Prepared with Pectinase (Pectinase처리를 한 매실 농축액의 이화학적 특성 및 생리활성)

  • Kim, Jeong-Ho;Cho, Hyun-Dong;Won, Yeong-Seon;Park, Wool-Lim;Lee, Kwan-Woo;Kim, Hyuk-Joo;Seo, Kwon-Il
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1369-1378
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    • 2018
  • Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc., a member of the Rosaceae family (called Maesil in Korea), has been widely distributed in East Asia, e.g. Korea, Japan and China, and its fruit has been used as a traditional drug and health food. In this study, we evaluated physicochemical properties and physiological activities of condensed Prunus mume juice treated with pectinase (PJ). The values of total acidity, pH, sugar contents, turbidity moisture content of the PJ were 35.81%, 2.73, $54.36^{\circ}Brix$, 2.75 and 51.32%, respectively. The PJ had effective DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power effect, $H_2O_2$ scavenging activity and ${\beta}$-carotene bleaching effect. DPPH radical scavenging activities of PJ was 46.31%; their reducing power ($OD_{700}$) was 1.80; $H_2O_2$ scavenging activity of PJ was 91.62%; and ${\beta}$-carotene bleaching effect of PJ was 73.02%. Also, PJ showed effective levels of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity. The cell viability was measured by SRB assay. The PJ significantly decreased the cell viability of mouse melanoma cells (B16) and human melanoma cells (SK-MEL-2 and SK-MEL-28) in a dose-dependent manner, however, there was no effect on human keratinocyte HaCaT. In morphological study, PJ-treated SK-MEL-2 cells showed distorted and shrunken cell masses. Total polyphenol contents and total flavonoid contents of PJ were 588.31 mg% (gallic acid equivalent) and 860.45 mg% (rutin equivalent). The antiproliferative effect of PJ seems to be associated with the antioxidant activity of its flavonoid and polyphenol contents. In conclusion, PJ may be beneficial in development of a functional food material.