• Title, Summary, Keyword: gamma-irradiation

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Characterization of Salt Tolerant Rice Mutant Lines Derived from Azetidine-2-Carboxylic Acid Resistant Cell Lines Induced by Gamma Ray Irradiation (AZCA 저항성 돌연변이 세포주로부터 선발 육성만 내염성 벼 돌연변이 계통의 특성 검정)

  • Song, Jae-Young;Kim, Dong-Sub;Lee, Geung-Joo;Lee, In-Sok;Kang, Kwon-Kyoo;Yun, Song-Joong;Kang, Si-Yong
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2007
  • To develop rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to be planted on salt-affected sites, cell lines with enhanced proline content and resistance to growth inhibition by Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZCA), a proline analogue, were screened out among calli irradiated with gamma ray of 50, 70, 90, and 120 Gy. The calli had been derived from embryo culture of the cultivar Donganbyeo. Selected AZCA resistant lines that had high proline accumulation were used as sources for selection of NaCl resistant lines. To determine an optimum concentration for selection of NaCl resistant lines, Donganbyeo seeds were initially cultured on the media containing various NaCl concentrations (0 to 2.5%) for 40 days, and 1.5% NaCl concentration was determined as the optimum concentration. One hundred sixteen salt-tolerant (ST) lines were selected from bulked 20,000 seeds of the AZCA resistant $M_{3}$ seeds in the medium containing 1.5% NaCl. The putative 33 lines ($M_{4}$ generation) considered with salt-tolerance were further analyzed for salt tolerance, amino acid and ion contents, and expression patterns of the salt tolerance-related genes. Out of the 33 lines, 7 lines were confirmed to have superior salt tolerance. Based on growth comparison of the entries, the selected mutant lines exhibited greater shoot length with average 1.5 times, root length with 1.3 times, root numbers with 1.1 times, and fresh weight with 1.5 times than control. Proline contents were increased maximum 20%, 100% and 20% in the leaf, seed and callus, respectively, of the selected lines. Compared to control, amino acid contents of the mutants were 24 to 29%, 49 to 143%, 32 to 60% higher in the leaf, seed and callus, respectively. The ratio of $Na^{+}/K^{+}$ for most of the ST-lines were lower than that of control, ranging from 1.0 to 3.8 for the leaf and 11.5 to 28.5 for the root, while the control had 3.5 and 32.9 in the leaf and root, respectively. The transcription patterns for the P5CS and NHXI genes observed by RT-PCR analysis indicated that these genes were actively expressed under salt stress. The selected mutants will be useful for the development of rice cultivar resistant to salt stress.

Studies on the Applications of PSL, TL and ESR Methods for The Detection of Irradiated Foods not Allowed to be Irradiated in Korea (광자극발광법, 열발광법 및 전자스핀공명법을 이용한 국내 방사선 조사 허용 외 식품에 대한 검지법 적용 연구)

  • Kim, Kyu-Heon;Choi, Eun-Jin;Chang, Ho-Won;Shin, Choon-Shik;Kim, Moon-Young;Hwang, Cho-Rong;Kim, Eun-Jeong;Jo, Tae-Yong;Park, Geon-Sang;Kang, Myung-Hee;Kim, Jae-I;Kim, Jin-Sook;Park, Sue-Nie;Seong, Rack-Seon;Jang, Young-Mi;Yoon, Hae-Sung;Han, Sang-Bae
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.233-246
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we investigated the applicability of the photostimulated luminescence(PSL), thermoluminescence(TL) and electron spin resonance(ESR) methods for various foods which are not allowed to be irradiated in Korea. All 15 foods including sesame, almond, peanut, cocoa powder etc. were analyzed. Samples were irradiated at 1~10 kGy using a $^{60}Co$ gamma-ray irradiator. In PSL study, the photon counts of all the unirradiated samples showed negative(lower than 700). The photon counts irradiated(1 kGy) dried shrimp, roasted peanut and seasoned peanut showed positive(higher than 5,000) and the other samples were negative or intermediate(> 700 and < 5,000). In TL analysis, results showed that it is possible to apply TL method to all foods containing minerals. In ESR measurements, the ESR signal(single-line) intensity of irradiated foods was higher than non-irradiated foods. In particular, the specific ESR signals of irradiation-induced crystalline sugar, cellulose and bone radical were detected in dried plum, raisin, dried cherry, mango(dried, frozen), rambutan, cocoa(powder), cinnamon, parsley, carrot, broccoli, dried arrow squid, dried pollack and dried shrimp. According to the results, PSL, TL and ESR methods were successfully applied to detect the irradiated foods because TL method is not able to detect the irradiated foods rarely composed of minerals. ESR is also a difficult method to detect the changes of ESR signal patterns of food. It is concluded that TL analysis or ESR assay is suitable for detection of irradiated samples and a combined method is recommendable for enhancing the reliability of detection results.

Detection Characteristics of Gamma-Irradiated Seeds by using PSL, TL, ESR and GC/MS (PSL, TL, ESR 및 GC/MS 분석을 통한 감마선 조사된 유지종실류의 검지 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Kyu-Heon;Son, Jin-Hyok;Kang, Yoon-Jung;Park, Hye-Young;Kwak, Ji-Young;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Park, Yong-Chjun;Jo, Tae-Yong;Kim, Jae-I;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Sang-Jae;Han, Sang-Bae
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.130-137
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we investigated the applicability of the photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods for 5 seeds which are not allowed to be irradiated in Korea. All 5 seeds including evening primrose seed, safflower seed, rape seed, sunflower seed and flax seed were analyzed. Samples were irradiated at 1~10 kGy using a $^{60}Co$ gamma-ray irradiator. In PSL study, the photon counts of all the unirradiated samples showed negative (lower than 700). The photon counts of irradiated (1, 5, 10 kGy) samples showed positive (higher than 5,000). In TL analysis, results showed that it is possible to apply TL method to all foods containing minerals. In ESR measurements, the ESR signal (single-line) intensity of irradiated foods was higher than non-irradiated foods. The hydrocarbons 1,7-hexadecadiene ($C_{16:2}$) and 8-heptadecene ($C_{17:1}$) from oleic acid were detected only in the irradiated samples before and after the treatment at doses ${\geq}$ 1 kGy, but they were not detected in non-irradiated samples before and after treatment. These two hydrocarbons could be used as markers to identify irradiated safflower seed, rape seed, Sunflower seed and flax seed. And then, the hydrocarbons 1,7,10-hexadecatriene ($C_{16:3}$) and 6,9-heptadecadiene ($C_{17:2}$) from linoleic acid were detected in the evening primrose seed, safflower seed and sunflower seed. According to the results, PSL, TL and GC/MS methods were successfully applied to detect the irradiated foods. It is concluded that PSL, TL and GC/MS methods are suitable for detection of irradiated samples and a combined method is recommendable for enhancing the reliability of detection results.

Evaluation of the Usefulness of MapPHAN for the Verification of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Planning (용적세기조절회전치료 치료계획 확인에 사용되는 MapPHAN의 유용성 평가)

  • Woo, Heon;Park, Jang Pil;Min, Jae Soon;Lee, Jae Hee;Yoo, Suk Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Latest linear accelerator and the introduction of new measurement equipment to the agency that the introduction of this equipment in the future, by analyzing the process of confirming the usefulness of the preparation process for applying it in the clinical causes some problems, should be helpful. Materials and Methods: All measurements TrueBEAM STX (Varian, USA) was used, and a file specific to each energy, irradiation conditions, the dose distribution was calculated using a computerized treatment planning equipment (Eclipse ver 10.0.39, Varian, USA). Measuring performance and cause errors in MapCHECK 2 were analyzed and measured against. In order to verify the performance of the MapCHECK 2, 6X, 6X-FFF, 10X, 10X-FFF, 15X field size $10{\times}10$ cm, gantry $0^{\circ}$, $180^{\circ}$ direction was measured by the energy. IGRT couch of the CT values affect the measurements in order to confirm, CT number values : -800 (Carbon) & -950 (COUCH in the air), -100 & 6X-950 in the state for FFF, 15X of the energy field sizes $10{\times}10$, gantry $180^{\circ}$, $135^{\circ}$, $275^{\circ}$ directionwas measured at, MapPHAN allocated to confirm the value of HU were compared, using the treatment planning computer for, Measurement error problem by the sharp edges MapPHAN Learn gantry direction MapPHAN of dependence was measured in three ways. GANTRY $90^{\circ}$, $270^{\circ}$ in the direction of the vertically erected settings 6X-FFF, 15X respectively, and Setting the state established as a horizontal field sizes $10{\times}10$, $90^{\circ}$, $45^{\circ}$, $315^{\circ}$, $270^{\circ}$ of in the direction of the energy-6X-FFF, 15X, respectively, were measured. Without intensity modulated beam of the third open arc were investigated. Results: Of basic performance MapCHECK confirm the attenuation measured by Couch, measured from the measured HU values that are assigned to the MAP-PHAN, check for calculation accuracy for the angled edge of the MapPHAN all come in a range of valid measurement errors do not affect the could see. three ways for the Gantry direction dependence, the first of the meter built into the value of the Gantry $270^{\circ}$ (relative $0^{\circ}$), $90^{\circ}$ (relative $180^{\circ}$), 6X-FFF, 15X from each -1.51, 0.83% and -0.63, -0.22% was not affected by the AP/PA direction represented. Setting the meter horizontally Gantry $90^{\circ}$, $270^{\circ}$ from the couch, Energy 6X-FFF 4.37, 2.84%, 15X, -9.63, -13.32% the difference. By-side direction measurements MapPHAN in value is not within the valid range can not, because that could be confirmed as gamma pass rate 3% of the value is greater than the value shown. You can check the Open Arc 6X-FFF, 15X energy, field size $10{\times}10$ cm $360^{\circ}$ rotation of the dose distribution in the state to look at nearly 90% pass rate to emerge. Conclusion: Based on the above results, the MapPHAN gantry direction dependence by side in the direction of the beam relative dose distribution suitable for measuring the gamma value, but accurate measurement of the absolute dose can not be considered is. this paper, a more accurate treatment plan in order to confirm, Reduce the tolerance for VMAT, such as lateral rotation investigation in order to measure accurate absolute isodose using a combination of IMF (Isocentric Mounting Fixture) MapCHEK 2, will be able to minimize the impact due to the angular dependence.

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Radiation Adaptive Response Induced by I-131 Therapy in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (분화 갑상선암 환자에서 I-131 치료에 의해 유도되는 방사선적응반응)

  • Li, Ming-Hao;Bom, Hee-Seung
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether radiation adaptive response could be induced by high dose I-131 therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods: Lymphocytes from 21 patients (7 males, 14 females, mean age $55{\pm}12$ years) were collected before and after administration of 5,550 MBq (150 mCi) I-131. They were exposed to a challenge dose of 1 Gy gamma rays using a Cs-137 cell irradiator. The number of ring-form (R) and dicentric (D) chromosomes was counted under the light microscope, and used to calculate the frequency of chromosomal aberration. Ydr, which was defined as the sum of R and D divided by the total number of counted lymphocytes. Results: Ydr in patients before I-131 therapy ($0.09{\pm}0.01$) was not different from that of controls ($0.08{\pm}0.01$). Ydr was significantly increased to $0.13{\pm}0.02$ (p<0.0001) after I-131 therapy. Increase of Ydr after the challenge irradiation of 1 Gy was significantly lower in patients after I-131 therapy than before I-131 therapy ($0.17{\pm}0.03\;vs\;0.21{\pm}0.02$, p<0.0001). Cycloheximide (CHM), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, abolished this effect. Ydr after CHM ($0.20{\pm}0.01$) was significantly higher than Ydr after I-131 therapy ($0.17{\pm}0.03$, p<0.0001), but was not different from Ydr before I-131 therapy ($0.21{\pm}0.02$).Conclusion: High dose I-131 therapy induces an adaptive response in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, which is associated with protein synthesis.

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Cytogenetic Radiation Adaptive Response Assessed by Metaphase Analysis and Micronuclei Test in Human Lymphocytes and Mouse Bone Marrow Cells (인체말초혈액 림프구와 마우스골수세포에서 중기염색체 분석법과 미소핵검사법을 이용한 방사선적응반응 평가)

  • Min, Jung-Jun;Bom, Hee-Seung;Lee, Seung-Yeon;Choi, Keun-Hee;Jeong, Hwan-Jeong;Song, Ho-Cheon;Kim, Ji-Yeul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.525-533
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    • 1998
  • Purpose: Radiation adaptive response in human peripheral lymphocytes and mouse bone marrow cells was investigated using both metaphase analysis and micronucleus assay. We assessed the correlation between both tests. Materials and Methods: Two groups of the human peripheral lymphocytes and mouse bone marrow cells were exposed to low dose (conditioning dose, 0,18 Gy) or high dose (challenging dose, 2 Gy) ${\gamma}$-rays. The other 4 groups were exposed to low dose followed by high dose after several time intervals (4, 7, 12, and 24 hours, respectively). The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in metaphase analysis and micronuclei in micronucleus assay were counted. Results: Chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei of preexposed group were lower than those of the group only exposed to high dose radiation. Maximal reduction in frequencies of chromosomal aberrations were observed in the group to which challenging dose was given at 7 hour after a conditioning dose (p<0.001). Metaphase analysis and micronucleus assay revealed very good correlation in both human lymphocytes and mouse bone marrow cells (r=0.98, p<0.001 ; r=0.99, p=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Radiation adaptive response could be induced by low dose irradiation in both human lymphocytes and mouse bone marrow cells. There was a significant correlation between metaphase analysis and micronucleus assay.

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Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains with High RNA Content (리보핵산을 다량으로 함유하는 Saccharomyces cerevisiae 균주의 개발)

  • Kim, Jae-Sik;Kim, Jin-Wook;Shim, Won;Min, Byoung-Cheol;Kim, Jung-Wan;Park, Kwan-Hwa;Pek, Un-Hua
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.465-474
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    • 1999
  • RNase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 7754 was investigated to obtain strains with high ribonucleic acid (RNA) content. The yeast strain contained two RNase activities; an acidic RNase with a optima of pH $3{\sim}4$ and an alkaline RNase with a optima pH 9. The acidic RNase activity was inhibited by $0.08\;M\;HgCl_{2}$ most drastically. The alkaline RNase activity was inhibited by 2.0 M NaCl or KCl, while enhanced by addition of $0.05\;M\;CaCl_{2},\;0.02\;M\;ZnSO_{4},\;or\;0.008\;M\;HgCl_{2}$. Various mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 7754 were isolated by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) treatment or $\gamma$-ray/ultra violet irradiation. Among the mutants that were sensitive to high concentration of KCl which inhibits alkaline RNase, B24 was selected for high RNA content per culture volume. Growth characteristics of the mutant were comparable to those of the mother strain with optimum growth at pH $4.5{\sim}5.5$. The mutant accumulated higher content of RNA than the mother strain when glucose was used as the carbon source. However, both growth rate and total RNA content of the mutant were higher in molasses medium than in glucose medium. RNA content of the mutant increased rapidly during the early stage of growth, and then decreased gradually until the culture reached stationary phase by a fed-batch culture in a 5 L jar fermenter. Maximal cell harvest and the final RNA content using the mutant B24 were 69.6 g/L culture broth and 19.8 g/100 g of the dry cell while those using the mother strain were 68 g/L culture broth and 16.1 g/100 g of dry cell, respectively.

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Effect on Identification of Irradiated Wheat and Soybean by the Full-overlapped Gravitational Field Energy(FGFE) Treatment (중첩중력에너지가 방사선 조사된 밀과 대두의 판별특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Sang-Lyong;Ahn, Jae-Jun;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Kim, Hak-Je
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.294-301
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    • 2011
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in identification markers of irradiated foods after treatment of the full-overlapped gravitational field energy (FGFE). Wheat and soybean samples were irradiated at 0-5 kGy of Co-60 gamma energy, and analyzed for photostimulated and thermo luminescence characteristics (PSL and TL) and sprouting rate at 0 and 6th month after FGFE treatment. As a screening method for irradiated samples, PSL photon counts (PCs) for the non-irradiated samples appeared negative (<700 PCs), while irradiated samples gave positive (>5,000 PCs). But FGFE-treated irradiated samples appeared intermediate (700-5,000 PCs), showing decreased PCs during storage. The TL analysis on irradiated samples exhibited glow curve peaks in range of $150-200^{\circ}C$ and TL ratio ($TL_1/TL_2$) was also >0.1. Therefore, identification of irradiated samples was possible using thermoluminescence. But the glow curve range of FGFE-treated irradiated samples shifted from $150-200^{\circ}C$ to $180-230^{\circ}C$ and TL intensity was decreased 37-60% resulting from FGFE treatment. After 6 months of storage, all the samples showed a decrease in TL intensity, but identification was still possible. The sprouting rate of irradiated samples decreased by about 72%, whereas that of FGFE-treated irradiated samples showed by about 85%, as compared to non-irradiated samples. More detailed study is required to investigate sprouting phenomena for FGFE-treated samples.

Morphological, Physiological andd Biochemical Characteristics of Early Senescence Mutant in Rice (Oryza sativa L) (벼의 조기노화 변이체의 형태, 생리 및 생화학적 특성)

  • 이숙영
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.325-334
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    • 1995
  • The early senescence mutant induced from Gihobyeo by $\gamma-ray$ irradiation was determined. The mutated gene expression was identified with comparing the characteristic of original cultivar. The mutant had so similar the morphological characteristics to original cultivar that it couldn't be distinguished until senescence occurred at about 20 days after heading. Suddenly yellow leaves were observed within a few days due to great decreases in total chlorophyll and various carotenoid contents. Transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of starch granules, distortion of fine structure of leaf cell organelles, especially grana structures, and the decrease in grain filled after senescence occurred. But banding patterns of total proteins and isozymes have not show any differences, The early senescence mutant will be very useful for study material not only on physiological and biochemical properties of plant senescence but also on gene expression regulating senescence which gives great influence on yield potential and its stability.

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Activation Analysis of Dual-purpose Metal Cask After the End of Design Lifetime for Decommission (설계수명 이후 해체를 위한 금속 겸용용기의 방사화 특성 평가)

  • Kim, Tae-Man;Ku, Ji-Young;Dho, Ho-Seog;Cho, Chun-Hyung;Ko, Jae-Hun
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.343-356
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    • 2016
  • The Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) has developed a dual-purpose metal cask for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel that has been generated by domestic light-water reactors. The metal cask was designed in compliance with international and domestic technology standards, and safety was the most important consideration in developing the design. It was designed to maintain its integrity for 50 years in terms of major safety factors. The metal cask ensures the minimization of waste generated by maintenance activities during the storage period as well as the safe management of the waste. An activation evaluation of the main body, which includes internal and external components of metal casks whose design lifetime has expired, provides quantitative data on their radioactive inventory. The radioactive inventory of the main body and the components of the metal cask were calculated by applying the MCNP5 ORIGEN-2 evaluation system and by considering each component's chemical composition, neutron flux distribution, and reaction rate, as well as the duration of neutron irradiation during the storage period. The evaluation results revealed that 10 years after the end of the cask's design life, $^{60}Co$ had greater radioactivity than other nuclides among the metal materials. In the case of the neutron shield, nuclides that emit high-energy gamma rays such as $^{28}Al$ and $^{24}Na$ had greater radioactivity immediately after the design lifetime. However, their radioactivity level became negligible after six months due to their short half-life. The surface exposure dose rates of the canister and the main body of the metal cask from which the spent nuclear fuel had been removed with expiration of the design lifetime were determined to be at very low levels, and the radiation exposure doses to which radiation workers were subjected during the decommissioning process appeared to be at insignificant levels. The evaluations of this study strongly suggest that the nuclide inventory of a spent nuclear fuel metal cask can be utilized as basic data when decommissioning of a metal cask is planned, for example, for the development of a decommissioning plan, the determination of a decommissioning method, the estimation of radiation exposure to workers engaged in decommissioning operations, the management/reuse of radioactive wastes, etc.