• Title, Summary, Keyword: gelatinization

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Microbial Hazard Analysis of Manufacturing Processes for Starch Noodle (당면의 제조공정별 미생물학적 위해요소 분석)

  • Cheon, Jin-Young;Yang, Ji Hye;Kim, Min Jeong;Lee, Su-Mi;Cha, Myeonghwa;Park, Ki-Hwan;Ryu, Kyung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.420-426
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to identify control points through microbiological hazard analysis in the manufacturing processes of starch noodles. Samples were collected from the ingredients, manufacturing processes, equipment and environment. Microbiological hazard assessments were performed using aerobic plate counts (APC), Enterobacteriaceae (EB), E. coli and five pathogens including B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and S. aureus. The APC levels in raw materials were from 2.12 to 3.83 log CFU/g. The contamination levels after kneading were 4.31 log CFU/g for APCs and 2.88 log CFU/g for EB counts. APCs decreased to 1.63 log CFU/g and EB were not detected after gelatinization, but their levels slightly increased upon cooling, cutting, ripening, freezing, thawing, and separating. The reuse of cooling and coating water would be a critical source of microbial increase after cooling. After drying, APCs and EB counts decreased to 5.05 log CFU/g and 2.74 log CFU/g, respectively, and the levels were maintained to final products. These results suggest that the cooling process is a critical control point for microbiological safety, and the cooling water should be treated and controlled to prevent cross contamination by pre-requisite program.

Changes of Physical Characteristics of Cooked Rice by Pressure Cooking (가압취반시(加壓炊飯時) 미반(米飯)의 물성변화(物性變化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Dong Woo;Chang, Kyu Seob
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.97-107
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    • 1981
  • This study was carried out in order to provide the basic data necessary to develop the effective and desirable cooking method on large scale for investigating the physical characteristics of cooked rices and studying optimum cooking conditions by pressure in kettle cooking rices. Milyang-15, local Japonica type and Milyang-23, high yielding Indica type major varieties cultivated in Korea were used as cooking sample after polishing 70% and 90% respectively, and the results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The average moisture content of cooked rice by open kettle and pressure kettle method in typical households were 65.17% and 64.52%, respectively. 2. In water absorption capacity of rice grain Milyang-23 was 4.5% higher than Milyang-15, and maximum water content after absorption in Milyang-23 was 29.14%. 3. The expansion volume of cooked rice was changed proportionally by water absorption, heating temperature and time, and maximum expansion volume of cooked rice was 3.2 times greater than rice grain. 4. The gelatinization degree of cooked rice intensively concerning in hardness of rice grain was increased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it was 0.44 in Milyang-23 and 0.64 in Milyang-15 under the optimum cooking conditions as 160% water-to-rice ratio, $0.2kg/cm^2$ cooking pressure and 25 minutes cooking time. 5. The hardness of cooked rice was decreased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it showed 2.35kg/wt in 90% polished Milyang-23 and 2.0kg/wt in 90 polished Milyang-15 under optimum cooking conditions. For maintaining the same level of hardness of cooking rice Milyang-23 required 25% much more water than Milyang-15. 6. The elasticity of cooked rice was changed proportionally by water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time, and it appeared 19.2mm and 15.7mm in 90% polished Milyang-15 and Milyang-23 respectively. 7. The gumminess of cooked rice was decreased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it showed 60 and 73 in 90% polished Milyang-23 and Milyang-15, respectively. 8. The optimum cooking time on differerent pressure in kettle took 25 minutes at $0.2kg/cm^2$, 20 minutes at $0.4kg/cm^2$, 15 minutes at $0.6kg/cm^2$, and 10 minutes at $0.8kg/cm^2$.

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