• Title/Summary/Keyword: geopolymer concrete

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Feasibility study of ambient cured geopolymer concrete -A review

  • Jindal, Bharat Bhushan
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.387-405
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    • 2018
  • Geopolymer concrete is a fastest developing field of research for utilizing industrial and agro waste materials as an alternative for Portland cement based concrete. Geopolymers are formed by the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates rich materials termed as geopolymerization. The process of geopolymerization requires elevated temperature curing which restricts its application to precast industry. This review summarizes the work carried out on developing the geopolymer concrete with the addition of various mineral admixtures at ambient curing temperature conditions. An overview of studies promoting the geopolymer concrete in general building construction is presented. Literature study revealed that geopolymer concrete with the addition of admixtures can exhibit desirable properties at ambient temperature conditions.

An Experiment on Bond Behaviours of Reinforcements Embedded in Geopolymer Concrete Using Direct Pull-out Test (직접 인발 시험을 이용한 지오폴리머 콘크리트의 부착 특성 실험)

  • Kim, Jee-Sang;Park, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.454-462
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    • 2016
  • Geopolymer concrete is a new class of construction materials that has emerged as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement concrete to reduce the emission of $CO_2$ in the production of concrete. Many researches have been carried out on material developments of geopolymer concrete, however a few studies have been reported on the structural use of them. This paper presents an experiment on the bond behaviors of reinforcements embedded in fly ash based geopolymer concrete. The development lengths of reinforcement for various compressive strength levels of geopolymer concrete, 20, 30 and 40 MPa, and reinforcement diameters, 10, 16 and 25 mm, are investigated. Total 27 specimens were manufactured and pull-out test according to EN 10080 was applied to measure the bond strength and slips between concrete and reinforcements. As the compressive strength levels of geopolymer concrete increase, the bond strength between geopolymer concrete and reinforcement increase. The bond strengths decrease as the diameters of reinforcements increase, which is similar in normal concrete. Also, an estimation equation for the basic development length of reinforcement embedded in geopolymer concrete is proposed based on the experimental results in this study.

Strength and permeation properties of alccofine activated low calcium fly ash geopolymer concrete

  • Jindal, Bharat Bhushan;Singhal, Dhirendra;Sharma, Sanjay;Yadav, Aniket;Shekhar, Shubham;Anand, Abhishek
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.683-688
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    • 2017
  • This paper presents the experimental investigations on the compressive strength and permeation properties of geopolymer concrete prepared with low calcium fly ash as the primary binder activated with different percentage of Alccofine. The durability aspect was investigated by performing permeable voids and water absorption tests since permeability directly influences the durability properties. The test results show that Alccofine significantly improves the compressive strength and reduces the water permeability thus enhances the durability of geopolymer concrete at ambient curing regime which encourages the use of geopolymer concrete at ambient curing condition thus promising its use in general construction also.

Prediction of the compressive strength of fly ash geopolymer concrete using gene expression programming

  • Alkroosh, Iyad S.;Sarker, Prabir K.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.295-302
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    • 2019
  • Evolutionary algorithms based on conventional statistical methods such as regression and classification have been widely used in data mining applications. This work involves application of gene expression programming (GEP) for predicting compressive strength of fly ash geopolymer concrete, which is gaining increasing interest as an environmentally friendly alternative of Portland cement concrete. Based on 56 test results from the existing literature, a model was obtained relating the compressive strength of fly ash geopolymer concrete with the significantly influencing mix design parameters. The predictions of the model in training and validation were evaluated. The coefficient of determination ($R^2$), mean (${\mu}$) and standard deviation (${\sigma}$) were 0.89, 1.0 and 0.12 respectively, for the training set, and 0.89, 0.99 and 0.13 respectively, for the validation set. The error of prediction by the model was also evaluated and found to be very low. This indicates that the predictions of GEP model are in close agreement with the experimental results suggesting this as a promising method for compressive strength prediction of fly ash geopolymer concrete.

Experimental study on geopolymer concrete prepared using high-silica RHA incorporating alccofine

  • Parveen, Parveen;Singhal, Dhirendra;Jindal, Bharat Bhushan
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.345-358
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    • 2017
  • This paper describes the experimental investigation carried out to develop geopolymer concrete using rice husk ash (RHA) along with alccofine. The study reports the fresh and hardened properties of the geopolymer concrete (GPC) activated using alkaline solution. GPC were prepared using different RHA content (350, 375 and $400kg/m^3$), the molarity of the NaOH (8, 12 and 16M). The specimens were cured at $27^{\circ}C$ and $90^{\circ}C$. GPC was activated using NaOH, $Na_2SiO_3$, and alccofine. Prepared GPC samples were tested for compressive and splitting tensile strengths after 3, 7 and 28 days. RHA was suitable to produce geopolymer concrete. Results indicate that behavior of GPC prepared with RHA is similar to fly ash based GPC. Workability and strength can be improved by incorporating the alccofine. Further, alccofine and heat curing improve the early age properties of the GPC. Heat curing is responsible for the initial polymerization of GPC which leads to high workability and improved mechanical properties of the GPC. High strength can be achieved by using the high concentration alkaline solution in terms of molarity and at elevated heat curing. Further, RHA based geopolymer concrete has tremendous potential as a substitute for ordinary concrete.

Improving compressive strength of low calcium fly ash geopolymer concrete with alccofine

  • Jindal, Bharat Bhushan;Singhal, Dhirendra;Sharma, Sanjay K.;Ashish, Deepankar K.;Parveen, Parveen
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.17-29
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    • 2017
  • Geopolymer concrete is environmentally friendly and could be considered as a construction material to promote the sustainable development. In this paper fly ash based geopolymer concretes with different percentages of alccofine were made by mixing sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate as an alkaline activator and cured at ambient as well as heat environment in an electric oven at $90^{\circ}C$. Effects of various parameters such as the percentage of alccofine, curing temperature, a period of curing, fly ash content, was studied on compressive strength as well as workability of geopolymer concrete. The study concludes that the presence of alccofine improves the properties of geopolymer concrete during a fresh and hardened state of concrete. Geopolymer concrete in the presence of alccofine can be used for the general purpose of concrete as required compressive strength can be achieved even at ambient temperature. The 28 days compressive strength of 73 MPa, when cured at 90-degree Celsius, confirmed that it is also very suitable for precast concrete components.

Compressive Behaviour of Geopolymer Concrete-Filled Steel Columns at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

  • Tao, Zhong;Cao, Yi-Fang;Pan, Zhu;Hassan, Md Kamrul
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.327-342
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    • 2018
  • Geopolymer concrete (GPC), which is recognised as an environmentally friendly alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete, has been reported to possess high fire resistance. However, very limited research has been conducted to investigate the behaviour of geopolymer concrete-filled steel tubular (GCFST) columns at either ambient or elevated temperatures. This paper presents the compressive test results of a total of 15 circular concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) stub columns, including 5 specimens tested at room temperature, 5 specimens tested at elevated temperatures and the remaining 5 specimens tested for residual strength after exposure to elevated temperatures. The main variables in the test program include: (a) concrete type; (b) concrete strength; and (c) curing condition of geopolymer concrete. The test results demonstrate that GCFST columns have similar ambient temperature behaviour compared with the conventional CFST counterparts. However, GCFST columns exhibit better fire resistance than the conventional CFST columns. Meanwhile, it is found that the GCFST column made with heat cured GPC has lower strength loss than other columns after exposure to elevated temperatures. The research results highlight the possibility of using geopolymer concrete to improve the fire resistance of CFST columns.

Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash Geopolymer Concrete Incorporating Bamboo Ash (대나무 재를 혼합한 플라이에쉬 지오폴리머 콘크리트의 물리적 특성에 대한연구)

  • Ishak, Shafiq;Lee, Han-Seung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • 2019.11a
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    • pp.33-34
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    • 2019
  • Malaysia, as a tropical rainforest country, enjoys an abundance of bamboo plant that proliferate throughout the country. The application of geopolymer technology has become a trend and preserve the environment from harm. Fly ash geopolymer concrete has low early strength and requires 24 hours for the concrete to harden. Thus, the presence of calcium and potassium content in bamboo ash could remedy this problem. Besides, there is no research regarding the use of bamboo ash as a binder in geopolymer concrete. Therefore, the presence of bamboo ash could improve the research field with the use of agriculture waste in a building construction. This research aim is to use bamboo ash in the production of fly ash geopolymer concrete. The specimens were casted in $100mm{\times}100mm{\times}100mm$ cubes and sodium based activator were used as the alkaline solutions. The binders are formulated with different binder ratio. All test specimens were cured at ambient temperature ($23^{\circ}C-25^{\circ}C$) and 100% fly ash was chosen as control specimen. To determine the mechanical properties of fly sh geopolymer concrete with the presence of bamboo ash, compressive strength test was conducted. The test results depicted that as the percentage of bamboo ash decreases, compressive strength increases. Also, the addition of 5% of bamboo ash into fly ash geopolymer concrete could improve the early strength in 7 days. The results were proven with the result explained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Therefore, it can be concluded that the addition of bamboo ash improved the properties of fly ash geopolymer concrete at early ages.

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Mechanical and fracture properties of glass fiber reinforced geopolymer concrete

  • Midhuna, M.S.;Gunneswara Rao, T.D.;Chaitanya Srikrishna, T.
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.29-45
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    • 2018
  • This paper investigates the effect of inclusion of glass fibers on mechanical and fracture properties of binary blend geopolymer concrete produced by using fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag. To study the effect of glass fibers, the mix design parameters like binder content, alkaline solution/binder ratio, sodium hydroxide concentration and aggregate grading were kept constant. Four different volume fractions (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4%) and two different lengths (6 mm, 13 mm) of glass fibers were considered in the present study. Three different notch-depth ratios (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) were considered for determining the fracture properties. The test results indicated that the addition of glass fibers improved the flexural strength, split tensile strength, fracture energy, critical stress intensity factor and critical crack mouth opening displacement of geopolymer concrete. 13 mm fibers are found to be more effective than 6 mm fibers and the optimum dosage of glass fibers was found to be 0.3% (by volume of concrete). The study shows the enormous potential of glass fiber reinforced geopolymer concrete in structural applications.

Development of eco-friendly concrete produced with Rice Husk Ash (RHA) based geopolymer

  • Annadurai, Shalini;Rathinam, Kumutha;Kanagarajan, Vijai
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 2020
  • This paper reports the effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) in geopolymer concrete on strength, durability and microstructural properties under ambient curing at a room temperature of 25℃ and 65±5% relative humidity. Rice husk was incinerated at 800℃ in a hot air oven. and ground in a ball mill to achieve the required fineness. RHA was partially added in 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 percentages to fly ash with 10% of GGBS to produce geopolymer concrete. Test results exhibit that the substitution of RHA in geopolymer concrete resulted in reduced strength properties during initial curing. In the initial stage, workability of GPC mixes was affected by RHA particles due to the presence of dormant particles in it. It is evident from the microstructural study that the presence of RHA particles densifies the matrix reducing porosity in concrete. This is due to the presence of RHA in geopolymer concrete, which affects the ratio of silica and alumina, resulting in polycondensation reactions products. This study suggests that incorporation of rice husk ash in geopolymer concrete is the solution for effective utilization of waste materials and prevention of environmental pollution due to the dumping of industrial waste and to produce eco-friendly concrete.