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Effect of Temperature on Seed Germination of Korean Native Viola Species

  • Lee, Cheol-Hee;Hwang, Ju-Kwang
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.700-705
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    • 2006
  • Present studies were performed to determine the physiology of seed germination in Viola species native to Korea. Twelve species, 1 variety and 1 form were collected, classified and used as materials: V. collina, V. blandaefomis, V. rosii, V. chaerophylloides, V. phalacrocarpa, V. patrinii, V. mandshurica, V. mandshurica for. albescence, V. seoulensis, V. yedoensis, V. keiskei, V. variegata, V. variegata var. chinensis, and V. verecunda. V. tricolor 'Helen Mount' was also used to compare wild with cultivated species. In order to investigate the effect of temperature on seed germination, seeds stored at $4{\pm}2^{\circ}C$ for 10 months or 4 years were incubated at 10, 15, 20, $25^{\circ}C$ under 16h illumination with 4 replicates per treatment. Seeds which had not germinated at $10^{\circ}C$ were transferred to $30^{\circ}C$ to assess the effect of temperature change in germination. Germination percent and the days of first, 40% and 80% germination were assessed. Capability of seed germination varied with taxon; Species belonging to subsection Patellares had high ability of germination, compared to species in the other subsections, and series Chinensis was the best among subsection Patellares. Species capable of high germination germinated in all temperatures with reasonably high germination rate, but the other species responded sensitively to temperature with different germination patterns. Higher the temperature, shorter the incubation time required for first, 40% and 80% of germination. Therefore, high temperature was effective in almost all species, not only for inducing high rate of germination but also the uniformity of germination. Temperature change from $10^{\circ}C\;to\;30^{\circ}C$ had a positive effect on seed germination.

Effect of NaCl on Germination of Artiplex gmelini and Pharagmites communis (갈대 및 가는갯능쟁이의 발아에 미치는 NaCl의 효과)

  • 김관수
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.253-259
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    • 1985
  • The results of the conducted experiment obtained basic data on seed germination for Phragmites communis and Atriplex gmelini were; Seed germination was not influenced till 0.5% NaCl, but at over 1.0% NaCl it dropped remarkably. The germination limit fro degree of NaCl was 2.0% in Phragmites communis. Atriplex gemelini was 2.5% and in accordance with the increase of the degree of NaCl. Germination speed showed a negative correlation being highly significant and the germination period lengthened. Compared with growing top plants, growth of roots was largely influenced by a high degree of NaCl. In accordance with the rise of temperature, the germination rate, and speed of both plants remarkably increased and the germination period was shortened. Ubride of Atriplex gmelini was germinated at the early days of picking but was not as the passing of the period. The seeds also did not germinated likewise Ubride. By a seedcoat breaking germination became 81%. During 20 min soaking treatment in conc H2SO4 seed germination possibility of 63% was known to be hard. Adequate soaking time in conc H2SO4 was 17.5 min.

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Ecophysiology of Seed Germination in Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.)

  • Shim, Sang-In;Kang, Byeung-Hoa
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2004
  • Germination and emergence habits of Chinese milk vetch (CMV) were examined to obtain the basic information for the effect of environmental conditions and cultural practices on the seedling density. Seed germination tests with different water potentials, temperatures, and soil and water depths showed the environmental effects on the characters related to seed germination in CMV. Imbibition under different temperatures reflects that initial velocity was rapid at higher temperature, however, the times to full imbibition were not different between 15 and $25^{\circ}$. The optimal germination temperature for CMV germination was ranged from 15 to 20 and the germination was highly affected by water potential of media at relatively high temperature above $20^{\circ}$. When the seeds were sown in flooded condition the germination was not proportionally affected by water depth. In addition, there was no correlation between water depth and oxygen concentration. The germination of seeds flooded by 2cm water depth were poorly germinated compared to other depths. Results indicated that the germination of submerged seeds was more highly influenced by flooding depth than the temperature, it was also affected more strongly at 10 than $20^{\circ}$. Emergence of CMV depending on the thickness of covered soil was poor when the soil layer was greater than 5cm. In the experiment with seeds collected between 22 days after flowering (OAF) and 52 DAF, the highest germination ability of CMV seeds was observed at 39 DAF and germinability was decreased subsequently as seeds became mature. The lower germinability may be due to the enhanced seed dormancy.

Seed Germination Response to Temperature, Cold Stratification Period, and Gibberellin Treatment in Spiraea fritschiana

  • Kim, Hyun Jin;Lee, Ki Cheol;Kim, Hyun Jin;Kim, Yoon Jin
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.557-563
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    • 2016
  • To improve the germination of Spiraea fritschiana seeds for mass propagation, we evaluated the effect of a range of temperatures, cold stratification periods, and gibberellic acid ($GA_3$) treatments on three germination characteristics. Final germination percentage (FGP) increased as the temperature for seed germination increased, up to $30^{\circ}C$, while the mean germination time (MGT) and the mean number of days to 30% germination ($T_{30}$) decreased when seeds were germinated at $25-30^{\circ}C$. The optimum germination temperature of S. fritschiana seeds is approximately $30^{\circ}C$ considering FGP, MGT, and $T_{30}$ together. FGP increased with the duration of cold stratification up to a period of 6 weeks, but declined after 8 weeks of cold stratification, as prolonged cold stratification can induce dormancy with a resultant decline in germination. Pretreatment with 6-8 weeks of cold stratification or soaking seeds in distilled water or $500mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ $GA_3$ for 24 h accelerated and increased the germination of S. fritschiana seeds, regardless of temperature. However, further study might be required to evaluate the effect of $GA_3$ concentrations lower than $500mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ on the promotion of germination in S. fritschiana seeds.

The Effects of Drying Conditions on the Germination Properties of Rapeseed (유채종자의 건조조건에 따른 발아특성)

  • Duc, Le Anh;Han, Jae-Woong
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to determine the effect of drying conditions on the germination properties of rapeseed after seeds were dried under different drying conditions: $40^{\circ}C$, $50^{\circ}C$, or $60^{\circ}C$ in combination with 30%, 45%, or 60% relative humidity. As analytic results, drying conditions had significant effects (P-value < 0.001) and drying temperature was considered as the main factor on the germination properties of rapeseed. When drying temperature increased or relative humidity decreased, the vigor rate and germination rate decreased, the median germination time increased. The maximum values of vigor rate and germination rate were 90% and 95.44%, and their minimum values were 60.17 and 75%, respectively. To ensure the standard germination rate of 85%. The appropriate drying zone was determined and the drying temperature should be less than $51.0^{\circ}C$, $54.5^{\circ}C$ and $58.7^{\circ}C$ at 30%, 45% and 60% RH, respectively. The values for median germination time varied from 2 to 4 days. The predicted models of germination rate, vigor rate, and median germination time were determined.

The Effect of Light, Temperature and GA Soaking Treatment on Seed Germination of Cool Season Turfgrasses (광, 온도 및 GA 침지처리가 한지형 잔디의 종자발아에 미치는 영향)

  • Hyeon, Sang-Min;Kang, Hoon;So, In-Sup;Kim, Dong-Il
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 1995
  • This study is aimed to understand the effects of temperature, light and GA soaking treatment on the seed germination of perennial ryegrass 'Dandy', creeping hentgrass 'Penlinks', tall fescue 'Arid' and Kentucky hluegrass 'Nasaw'. These experiments are carried in vitro, and their results obtained are summarized as the followings ; The optimum temperature for seed germination of perennial ryegrass 'Dandy' was found to he ranged at 20~30$^{\circ}C$, and the optimum temperature for germination of creeping bentgrass 'Penlinks', tall fescue 'Arid' and kentucky bluegrass 'Nasaw' seeds was found to be ranged at 20~25$^{\circ}C$, whereas the germination percentage under the below or above temperature of this range decreased. The germination of perennial ryegrass 'Dandy' and tall fescue 'Arid' seeds showed no effect on light, and while the germination percentage of creeping hentgrass 'Penlinks' increased more highly under the dark condition than under the light condition. The germination percentage decreased according to the higher temperature. The germination of Kentucky bluegrass 'Nasaw' seeds increased more highly under the dark condition than under the light condition at 20~25$^{\circ}C$, whereas the germination percentage under the dark condition at 15$^{\circ}C$ and 30$^{\circ}C$ decreased. In case of GA soaking treatment of seeds, all the cool season turfgrasses tested showed their own promoting effects on seed germination. The early germination of tall fescue 'Arid' was good without the soaking times. Creeping bentgrass 'Penlinks' and perennial ryegrass 'Dandy' had re-spectively the highest germination percentage at 10min and 1hr soaking treatment, and the longer the soaking time, the lesser the germination percentage. Kentucky bluegrass 'Nasaw' obtained the best results at 24has soaking treatment, and the longer the soaking time, the better the ger-mination percentage.

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Comparison of Seed Germinating Vigor, Germination Speed and Germination Peak in Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars under Different Germination Conditions (발아환경에 따른 켄터키 블루그래스의 종자 발아력, 발아세 및 발아피크 비교)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.23-38
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    • 2015
  • The study was initiated with Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis L.) to investigate germination and early establishment characteristics of new cultivars for a practical application to turfgrass establishment such as parks, athletic field and golf course etc. Fifteen cultivars were evaluated in different experiments. An alternative condition for a KB germination test required by International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) was applied in Experiment I, consisting of 8-hr light at $25^{\circ}C$ and 16-hr dark at $15^{\circ}C$ (ISTA conditions). Experiment II was conducted under a room temperature condition of 5 to $25^{\circ}C$ (natural conditions). Seed germinating vigor, germination speed and germination peak time were measured in both experiments. Significant differences were observed in seed germinating vigor, germination speed and germination peak time. Seed germinating vigor was variable with different environments and cultivars. It was 75.25 to 89.50% under ISTA conditions and 75.75 to 90.25% under natural conditions. There were considerable variations in early germination characteristics among KB cultivars according to different environments. Early germination characteristics showed that all cultivars were 3 to 5 days faster in germination under ISTA conditions, when compared with natural conditions. The germination speed, measured as days to seed germination of 50% to 80%, was much faster with 'Midnight II', 'Excursion' and 'Midnight' under ISTA conditions. But it was faster with 'Midnight II', 'Excursion' and 'Odyssey' under natural conditions. Differences was also observed in germination peak time with cultivars and growing conditions. It ranged 5.94 to 14.88 days under ISTA conditions and 4.71 to 13.06 days under natural conditions. Regardless of the environment conditions, the shortest cultivars were 'Odyssey' and 'Midnight II'. The longest ones were 'Nuglade' under ISTA condition and 'Moonlight' under natural conditions. Considering germinating vigor, germination speed and germination peak time, 'Midnight II', 'Excursion', 'Midnight', and 'Odyssey' were regarded as excellent cultivars under ISTA conditions in terms of early establishment characteristics, while 'Midnight II', 'Excursion', 'Odyssey', and 'Courtyard' under natural conditions. These results suggest that an intensive germination test be needed prior to planting, for investigating the early germinating vigor, germination speed and germination peak time. Also, a proper cultivar selection and comprehensive site analysis for the growing environmental conditions should be done before turfgrass establishment such as golf course construction.

Germination Percentages of Different Types of Sweet Corn in Relation to Harvesting Dates

  • Lee, Myoung-Hoon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.55-58
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    • 2000
  • Germination of sweet and super sweet corn is lower than normal corn due to the higher sugar and lower starch contents of kernels. Sweet corn seeds are easily deteriorated in the field under the unfavorable condition, therefore it is important to identify the optimal harvesting time for seed production. This trial was conducted to investigate the responses of germination percentage of shrunken-2(sh2), brittle(bt), sugary(su), and sugary enhancer(se) hybrids in relation to harvesting dates. Eight hybrids of four different gene sweet corns were harvested at 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 days after silking(DAS). Germination test was performed using paper towel method. Mean germination percentages across eight hybrids showed the highest value at 45 DAS. There were significant differences among genes and within gene for germination. Shrunken-2 hybrid Mecca was higher than su hybrids for germination, indicating that sh2 would not be poorer than su Late harvesting beyond the optimal harvesting date might not be desirable because of more lodging and ear rots. Theoretical optimal harvesting date estimated from the regression equation was 40.9 DAS, however, practical date for harvesting would be a few days later than the estimated date if seedling vigor might be considered. Kernel dry weight per ear showed similar response to germination. Regression equation showed the highest kernel dry weight at 40.7 DAS. Significant correlations between kernel dry weight and germination were observed, impling that kernel dry matter accumulation would be an important factor for germination.

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Total Sugars, $\alpha$-amylase Activity, and Germination after Priming of Normal and Aged Rice Seeds

  • Lee, Suk-Soon;Kim, Jae-Hyeun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.108-111
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    • 2000
  • Osmoconditioning and hardening effects for the seed germination of normal and naturally aged rice seeds were studied through analyzing the total sugars and $\alpha$-amylase activity. The normal seeds which used to have high germination rate accelerated germination with the osmoconditioning at the suboptimal temperature of 17$^{\circ}C$. On the other hand, the aged seeds did not affect germination rate at $25^{\circ}C$, while increased germination rate and accelerated germination a little at 17$^{\circ}C$, Hardening of aged seeds increased germination rate by 10-15% compared with control seeds at both 17 and $25^{\circ}C$ and accelerated germination. Total sugar content and $\alpha$-amylase activity of normal seeds were higher than did aged seeds. The aged seeds with treatment of osmoconditioning and hardening increased total sugar content and $\alpha$--amylase activity, but hardening was more effective than osmoconditioning. The $\alpha$--amylase activity was positively correlated with the total sugar content and germination rate.

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Effect of chlorella culture solution using animal liquid manure on improving seed germination in perennial ryegrass

  • Lee, Jin Woong;Choi, Min Soo;Seo, Un Kab;Ryoo, Jong Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.212-212
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    • 2017
  • This experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of Chlorella culture solution on seed germination of perennial ryegrass seeds. Chlorella are known to contain different bioactive compounds. In present research work, Chlorella culture solution using liquid manure as medium have been used to study their effects on germination and root length. The study conducted a germination experiment in petri-dishes. Four treatments were compared: non-treated control treated with distilled water, Chlorella culture solution and Chlorella culture filtrate, and liquid manure. The germination percentage of perennial ryegrass seeds was highest in the Chlorella culture solution treatment. Days required for 50, 70% seed germination was the fast in Chlorella culture solution and the Chlorella culture filtrate treatment. Root length of perennial ryegrass seeds was long by 1~2cm in the Chlorella culture solution compared with no treated control. The germination index of perennial ryegrass seeds was high by 180~202% in the Chlorella culture solution treatment compared to no treatment. Chlorella culture solution and the Chlorella culture filtrate have shown stimulatory effects in germination and development of root. Use of Chlorella culture solution and the Chlorella culture filtrate can be recommended to farmers as a ecofriendly practice for better germination and growth. Present research work reveals that Chlorella contain certain growth promoting substances which enhances seed germination.

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