• Title, Summary, Keyword: germination

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Phyto-toxicological Effects of PAHs on the Germination and Growth of Alfalfa, Barley, and Tall Fescue (종자 발아율 지표 및 초기 묘조 성장에 의한 다환방향족탄화수소의 식물 독성 측정)

  • Kim, Yong-Bum;Chung, Yong
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2002
  • The test of germination has been used as a good indicator to assess the toxicity of chemicals to plant. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of PAHs, anthracene and phenanthrene, on germination ratio, germination index and germination time of barley, tall fescue and alfafa. Anthracene and phenathrene induced to decrease the seedling length and increase the germination time of the experimental plants. But they did not affect the maximum germination ratio. While it was not correlated between seedling length and final germination ratio, it was shown a close relationship between seedling length and mean germination time of the plants. These results suggested that the mean of germination time and seedling growth could be useful to exmine the phyto -toxicological effect of PAHs. The mixture of anthracene and phenanthrene was examined to investigate the combined effect on seedling length; the mixture induced the reduction of seedling. This was meant that the mixture toxicity of PAHs might be not shown in the sum of each chemical toxicity.

Removal Effect of Biostone and Green Tea on the Heavy Metal Toxicity during Seed Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana (애기장대의 종자 발아에 미치는 맥반석과 녹차의 중금속 제거 효과)

  • 박종범
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.12
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    • pp.1303-1308
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper and lead) on the seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana, and examinated the removal effects of biostone and green tea on the heavy metal toxicity. Cadmium and chromium among the four heavy metals had no effect on the seed germination even in the concentration fifty times higher than in the official standard concentration of pollutant exhaust notified by the Ministry of Environment. However, seeds were not germinated in the concentration of copper ten times higher and in the concentration of lead fifty times higher than the official standard concentration. When seeds were sown in the solutions of lead (15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/L) and copper(15 and 20 mg/L), the seed germination rates were 0% and less than 10%, respectively. However, when biostone(3 g/30 $m\ell$) was added, the seed germination rate was 100% in all the concentrations. The germination rate was 100% in distilled water and copper solution (5 mg/L). However, green tea (0.2 g/30 $m\ell$) was added, the seed germination rate was 0% in both. The results show that cadmiun and chromium had no effect on the seed germination, but lead and copper decreased the rate of seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana, Biostone removed heavy metal toxicity, but green tea did not removed heavy metal toxicity during germination.

The impact of cardinal temperature variation on the germination of Haloxylon aphyllum L. seeds

  • Taghvaei, Mansour;Ghaedi, Masoumaeh
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.187-193
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    • 2010
  • Seed germination is a biological process that is affected by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. The cardinal temperature and thermal time are required for germination. The principal objective of this study was to identify and characterize variations in the base, optimum, and maximum germination temperatures of Haloxylon aphyllum L. from two seed sources, in order to establish models for use in predicting seeding dates. Mature H. aphyllum seeds were germinated at temperatures between 5 and $35^{\circ}C$. The germination behavior of H. aphyllum seeds to different temperature regimens in light was evaluated over a temperature range of $5-35^{\circ}C$ at intervals of $5^{\circ}C$. The rate of germination increased between base and optimum thermal conditions, and decreased between optimum and maximum thermal conditions; the germination rate varied in a linear fashion at both sub-optimal and supra-optimal temperatures. The linear regression fit the range of germination rates at $5^{\circ}C$ to $25^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$ to $30^{\circ}C$, and thus the base temperature, optimum temperature, and maximum temperature for the germination of H. aphyllum were measured to be $0.6^{\circ}C$, $25.69^{\circ}C$, $37.90^{\circ}C$, and $1.76^{\circ}C$, $21.56^{\circ}C$, $37.90^{\circ}C$ for Qom and the Fars dune desert respectively.

The Effects of Environmental Conditions and Chemical Treatments on Seed Germination in Astilboides tabularis (Hemsl.) Engl.

  • Cho, Ju Sung;Jeong, Jeong Hak;Lee, Cheol Hee
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.363-371
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    • 2016
  • Tabulis [Astilboides tabularis (Hemsl.) Engl.] has the potential for becoming a useful horticultural crop. This study was conducted to classify the seed dormancy types and to identify the germination conditions that improve the horticultural usefulness of this plant. We found that A. tabularis (Hemsl.) Engl. produced undifferentiated embryos and had a low germination rate of under 50%. In addition, water submersion led to moisture absorption. Therefore, A. tabularis seeds were designated as morphologically dormant. The germination rate was highest (86.3%) at $30^{\circ}C$ under light conditions. Higher temperatures generally led to an acceleration of the germination process, regardless of light condition. To improve the germination rate, seeds were submerged in various concentrations of growth regulators, such as $GA_3$ and kinetin, as well as minerals such as $KNO_3$ and KCl. An analysis of germination characteristics at $30^{\circ}C$ under light conditions revealed that treatment with 200 and $500mg{\cdot}L^{-1}GA_3$ led to an excellent germination rate of 97.0%. Treatment with $100mg{\cdot}L^{-1}GA_3$ led to a better germination rate than the control as well. However, treatment with kinetin, $KNO_3$, and KCl had no effect on germination, regardless of concentration.

Several factors affecting on seed germination of Dracocephalum argunense Fischer ex Link

  • Chang, Young-Deug;Lee, Cheol-Hee;Song, Jeong-Seob;Hwang, Ju-Kwang
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.236-241
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    • 2009
  • Dracocephalum argunense Fischer ex Link (Labiatae) is a perennial herbaceous plant used as valuable materials for ornamentals, honey production, and pharmaceutics. Since seed germination of this species was quite difficult, present studies were conducted to improve the germination rate by subjecting the seeds to various environmental conditions (temperature and light) and treatments (scarification, priming and seed coating). Optimum temperature for adequate germination was 20$^{\circ}C$ though it ranged from 15$^{\circ}C$ to 25$^{\circ}C$, and low temperature treatment improved germination rate. Light was required for higher germination rate in this species. The scarification of seeds resulted in much higher germination, especially by the physical treatment with sandpaper or chemical treatment with sulfuric acid for 30 seconds. Various primers with different concentrations were treated on the seeds and it was demonstrated that low temperature enhanced germination rate, regardless of kinds and concentrations of the primers. Three treatment combinations of the primers, 0.5 mM $GA_{3}$ treated for 48 hours, 0.5 mM IAA for 24 hours, and 1.0 mM IAA for 24 hours, increased the seed germination rate profoundly. Soaking treatment of inorganic salts, $KNO_{3}$ and $KH_{3}PO_{4}$, promoted germination when seeds were subjected to low temperature. Water soluble primers such as sucrose at 0.5 and 3% concentration and solid primer talc powder were effective in enhancing germination rate.

Physio-chemical impacts on efficient germination in Platycodon grandiflorum for. duplex pollen culture

  • Kwon, Soo Jeong;Hwang, Ha Nule;Moon, Young Ja;Cho, Gab Yeon;Woo, Sun Hee;Boo, Hee Ock;Koo, Jin-Woog;Kim, Hag Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.170-170
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    • 2017
  • The highly valued ornamental plant, Platycodon grandiflorum for. duplex was generated by petaloidy of a calyx of Platycodon grandiflorum. The present investigation was executed to explore the several factors having effects on the germination of pollens with a view to acquire the underlying data for the artificial crossing to cultivate the species of Platycodon grandiflorum for. duplex. Both low and high temperature impaired the germination of Platycodon grandiflorum for. duplex pollens. The good germination rate was observed at the temperature of $25^{\circ}C$. The types and concentrations of carbon sources induced the differences in germination rate. The germination rate increased with the increasing concentration of sucrose and glucose except for fructose. Sucrose and glucose showed the highest results at the concentration of 20%. While fructose demonstrated the similar tendency to sucrose and glucose, it reduced the germination rate at the concentration of 20%. The highest germination rate was observed at the concentration of 15%. The appropriate carbon course for germination of pollens of Platycodon grandiflorum for. duplex was glucose of which germination rate was twice as high as that of sucrose and fructose. The germination rate was reduced substantially when the pH was close to alkali, and the potential germination rate was obtained at pH 6. Boric acid enhanced the germination rate at a lower concentration than the higher concentration.

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Days to Germination and Effect of Growth Regulator on Rhizome Growth in Cymbidium goeringii Hybrid

  • Kang, Tae-Jin;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.144-148
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    • 2003
  • Germination efficiency, such as days to germination and conditions for the hybrid seeds, was tested after hybrid seeds were sown on the medium. Seeds were germinated from 67 to 126 days after seeding in all cross combinations, and germination condition was different among hybrid combinations. There was big difference on days to germination based on the different media, that is, days to germination in the hyponex medium was shorter than that in the Knudson C medium. Mutants such as MMS and NaN$_3$ were used to cause mutation. Germination occurred with 0.1 % NaN$_3$ and MMS. However, even though germination occurred in other treatments (0.01 % and 0.2% of NaN$_3$ and MMS), brownish phenomenon was intense, or did not proceed and got worse after 4-5 months of seeding. In addition, it was performed to choose appropriate medium for the growth of Cymbidium rhizome whose media adaptability is more different than other orchids. Different concentration of NAA and Kinetin was used. As a result, C. goeringii hybrid showed difference for the concentration of NAA and Kinetin combination.

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Studies on Establishment of Oversown Pasture Seed I. Effects of coating materials and minerals on germination (겉뿌린 목초종자의 정착에 관한 연구 I. 각종 증량재 및 미량광물질의 종자피복이 발아에 미치는 영향)

  • 이효원;정병용;김희경
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 1987
  • This experiment was carried out in laboratory to find out the effect of coating materials, minerals and insecticides on germination of pasture seed. Seed coating was made by specially made machine and seed germination in petridishes was also determined from Sep. 1986 to May 1987. The results were summarized as follows; 1. Coating seed gave bad germination compared with the control. There were significant difference between treatment, coating materials and adhesives in white and red clover while Phleum pratense germination was improved by coating materials. 2. In mineral coating treatments, on Mg alone or Mg mixed treatment, germination was deepressed. Generally germination was lowed by mineral treatment, but the difference was small. 3. Uncoating treatment with insecticide was superior to coating treatment in terms of germination. Among the insecticide Ballen gave more serious effect to seed germination.

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Environmental factors influencing on tuber germination in scirpus maritimus l. (매자기 槐莖의 發芽에 미치는 環境 要因들)

  • Yang, Hae-Kyeng;Kim, Ok-Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.127-135
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    • 1992
  • The effects of nacl concentration, temperatura, light and growth regulator(GA3, kinetin) on the tuber germination of s. maritimus were investigated. The germination percentage increased with decreasing nacl, showing salt tolerance through time, and with increasing temperature untile 20~30oC light / dark (12/12 hr) of optimal temperature. The multiplication of nacl and temperature on germination percentage and velocity, increased significantly in higher temperature than lower temperature in saline. The germination percentage showed high value in dark condition than in light condition which is the charracteristics of underground organ. and ga3 act as germination stimulator to overcome the inhibitory effect of nacl. The effect of ga3 showed significant differances on tubers of s. maritimus of germination but that of kinetin had a litter sffects on germination. Factors of nacl and temperature interacted significantly and the effects of nacl on germination percentage and velocity depended on temperature condition.

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Environmental Factors Affecting Conidial Germination of Persimmon Leaf Blight on Sweet Persimmon Tree (단감나무 둥근갈색무늬병균(Pestalotiopsis theae)의 분생포자 발아에 미치는 환경요인)

  • 장태현;임태헌;정봉구
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.120-124
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    • 1998
  • The conidial germination of Pestaotiopsis theae was occurred in cells attched with pedicels, the inferior cell of conidium. The cells were swollen like a ball, and then germinated in 4 hours under favorable conditions. Generally, it was considered that fifty percent of whole conidia was germinated in the range 6~12 hours. The optimum temperature and pH for conidial germination of P. theae (SP-3) causing leaf blight on sweet persimmon was $25^{\circ}C$ and pH 5, respectively. Conidial germination rate was higher than 90% at 100% relative humidity, but never germinated at a relative humidity lower than 88.5%. Conidial germination was highest at the concentration of 1~4$\times$104 conidia/ml. In case of cultural media, the conidial germination was higher than 90% on PDA, PSA, OME and Leonian agar. There was no relationship between light and conidial germination. It was concluded that the key environmental factors affecting conidial germination of the fungus (SP-3) were temperature and moisture.

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