• Title, Summary, Keyword: germination

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Effect of anaerobic digestate on seed germination of perennial ryegrass seeds

  • Byun, Ji Eun;Choi, Min Su;Seo, Un Kab;Ryoo, Jong Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.211-211
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    • 2017
  • This experiments were conducted to investigate seed germination to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestate on seed germination of perennial ryegrass seeds. The study conducted a germination experiment in petri-dishes, using perennial ryegrass seeds. The treatments were compared: non-treated control treated with distilled water, different concentration of anaerobic digestate. The germination percentage of perennial ryegrass seeds was highest in the fermented anaerobic digestate treatment. Root length of perennial ryegrass seeds was long by 4~5cm in the fermented anaerobic digestate with unfermented anaerobic digestate. In the relative root length ratio was by 30% higher in the in the fermented anaerobic digestate with unfermented anaerobic digestate. The germination index of perennial ryegrass seeds was high by 113% in the fermented anaerobic digestate compared to no treatment. The fermented anaerobic digestate have shown stimulatory effects in germination and development of root. Use of fermented anaerobic digestate can be recommended to farmers as a ecofriendly practice for better germination and growth.

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Effects of Microwaves on the Germination of Weed Seeds

  • Sahin, Hasan
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.304-309
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Weeds cause significant losses in agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effect of microwaves on the germination rates of cress and arugula seeds to determine whether microwaves could be developed as an effective alternative to conventional chemical-based herbicides. Methods: Seeds were planted at equal depths (8-10 mm) in a soil-turf mixture, and seeds were exposed to microwaves for 126 s, 70 s, and 50 s in a device constructed specifically for this study. A microwave tunnel was built using a variable speed conveyor belt and 4 magnetrons with a combined output power of 2.8 kW. Seeds that were not exposed to microwaves were germinated with regulated irrigation, temperature, and humidity controls in parallel with the treated seeds, and the germination rates were compared among the treatment groups. Results: We found that the exposure of cress and arugula seeds to microwaves for 126 s inhibited germination close to 100%. Cress seeds treated with microwaves for 50 s showed 95% germination compared to 65% germination of the untreated cress seeds. Conclusions: We predict that the thermal effect of microwave energy affects the germination ratio and germination rate of seeds.

The Influence of Germinations in Soaking Treatment of Rhus chinensis, Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Lespedeza cuneata (붉나무.참싸리.비수리 종자의 침지 처리가 발아에 미치는 영향)

  • Hur, Young-Jin;Kim, Min-Ho;Cha, Go-Woon;Ahn, Tae-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.42-51
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    • 2010
  • Herbs and shrubs are employed for environmental restoration purposes. Among common herbs and shrubs, few species with low germination rates were selected and studied for enhanced germination rates and decreased germination times via soaking treatment. Rhus chinensis, incubator grown samples treated with the bacterial solution for 72hrs followed by immediate seeding showed the highest germination rate of 26.7% and germination period of 5.7 days, 3 days decrease from the control. Treatment of distilled water (t=3.79, p<0.01), nutrient broth (t=4.44, p<0.00) and bacterial solution (t=4.42, p<0.00) showed highly significant difference. In the case of soil tests, treating in the nutrient broth for 72 hrs followed by immediate seeding yielded the the highest germination rate of 23.3% with 7.3 days to initial germination, a decrease of 14.7 days with respect to the control. All the samples followed by immediate seeding showed significant difference (t=2.13, p<0.05). Incubator grown samples of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya showed different results. The incubator samples suspended for 48 hrs in distilled water followed by immediate seeding and 1 day drying displayed the highest germination rate of 96.7%, surpassing that of the control by 33.4%. The incubator samples treated with the distilled water and nutrient broth showed enhanced germination. But only the samples treated with distilled water and nutrient broth for 48hrs showed the increased germination in soil tests. All the sample treated for 24 hrs followed by immediate seeding or dried for 1 day showed initial germination as early as 1 day in incubator. The initial germinations were shortened in the samples treated with distilled water and nutrient broth for 48hrs in soil tests. Lespedeza cuneata incubator sample treated with nutrient broth for 24 hrs and dried for 1 day exhibited the highest germination rate of 83.3%, a 31.1% improvement over the control. The incubator samples treated with distilled water for 48 hrs (t=4.20, p<0.01) showed effective increase of germination. The treatment of distilled water (t=2.96, p<0.05) and bacterial solution (t=2.24, p<0.05) showed significant difference. The germination rates in soil were less than those of incubator and the control. The incubator samples treated with distilled water and bacterial solution displayed 1 day germination period, shortened by 1.3 days compared to the control. For soil grown samples, the samples treated with distilled water showed delayed initial germination and those treated with nutrient broth for 48hrs and bacterial solution for 72hrs shortened initial germination.

Comparison of Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germinating Pattern in Varieties of Coarse-textured Tall fescue under Alternative and Natural Room Temperature Conditions (자연 실온 및 변온 환경에서 광엽형 톨 훼스큐 품종의 발아특성 및 일일 발아패턴 비교)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2009
  • Research was initiated to investigate early establishment characteristics and germination pattern of tall fescue(TF, Festuca arundinacea Shreb.). Four varieties of TF were evaluated in the study. Experiment was conducted under a room temperature condition of $5^{\circ}C$ to $25^{\circ}C$(natural conditions). Daily and cumulative germination patterns were measured and analyzed on a daily basis. Significant differences were observed in germination patterns, days to the first germination, days to 50% germination, days to 75% germination, and germination percentage with different environments and varieties. Germination percentage was variable with varieties at the end of study. It was 85.25 to 97.00% under natural conditions. There were considerable variations in early germination characteristics and patterns among the entries according to different conditions. The first germination was initiated between 7 and 9 DAS(days after seeding) under natural conditions, being 2 to 3 days later as compared with ISTA conditions. It was 11 to 12 DAS in days to the 50% germination, which was 3 to 4 days after the first germination. Days to the 75% germination were 12.38 to 14.29 DAS, being 1.55 to 4.77 days slower as compared with ISTA conditions. Olympic Gold was regarded as the fastest variety and Tar Heel II was slowest. Data from this study demonstrated that information on differences in germination characteristics and patterns among varieties would be usefully applied for TF establishment such as golf course construction.

Studies on Seed Germination Characteristics and Patterns of Protein Expression of Lithospermum erythrorhizon by Plant Growth Regulators and Seed Primings (생장조절제와 프라이밍 처리에 의한 지치종자의 발아특성과 단백질 발현 양상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Do Hyun;Ahn, Bok Ju;An, Hee Jung;Ahn, Young Sup;Kim, Young Guk;Park, Chun Geun;Park, Chung Beom;Cha, Seon Woo;Song, Beom Heon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.435-441
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the quality of seeds, the germination rates and the days required for germination, to examine the patterns of protein expressions during the germination and to improve the techniques of managing and storing seeds and viability of the seeds of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. After collecting and harvesting seeds, they were classified to white and brown colors of seed coat through testing their seed size, weight, and quality. The germination rates, the days required for germination, and the protein expressions were examined with different colors of seed coats, storing temperatures and durations by treating the different plant growth regulators and primings. One hundred seed weight of white color was heavier about 1.17 g than those of brown one about 0.81 g. The germination rates in white color of seed coat was higher, 3.05 ~ 5.75%, than those in brown one. Its rates were decreased with getting longer in storage durations. There was no big differences on germination rates between storage temperatures. The plant growth regulator of $GA_3$ and Kinetin was affected to improve the seed germination. $GA_3$ increased the seed germination clearly at 25 ppm level, while kinetin increased it gradually from 25 to 100 ppm levels. In germination by seed primings, PEG6000 made higher germination rate with increasing their levels, whereas $KNO_3$ increased the germination until 100 mM level and then decreased it with 200 mM unlike PEG6000. The protein expressed during the seed germination were appeared more and clearer bands in the seed after germination, especially 20 ~ 30 kDa, compared to those in the seed before germination. These results showing more and clearer bands were positively related to the germination rates which were different by seed colors, storage temperatures and durations, and plant growth regulators and primings.

Effect of Salinity on the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki (염도가 금강소나무의 종자발아와 유묘성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ho-Joon;Kim, Seon-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.219-236
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    • 1989
  • The effect of salinity on the seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki were studied under the controlled conditions in the growth chamber. The seeds were sorted into three classes in weight such as large ($15.49\pm$1.63mg), medium($10.61\pm$1.38mg), and small ($6.57\pm$1.33mg) to determine the role of seed weight in germination and seedling growth of the pine. Polymorphic seeds of the pine were germinated an salinity range of 0 to 1.5% NaCl under various temperature ($10^{\circ}$ $-25^{\circ}$ with $5^{\circ}$C interval of constant temperature, and $10^{\circ}$ $-20^{\circ}$C, $15^{\circ}$ $-25^{\circ}$C of alternating temperature) in order to determine their germinability and seeding growth. In control plot, there was little difference of germination percentage among the seed weight classes, but in saline plot, the larger seeds generally had a higher percentage and rate of germination. There occurred synergistic interaction between salinity and temperature in the germination and the increase of temperature enhanced germination of seeds at the same salinity level. Alternating temperature regimes of $15^{\circ}$-$25^{\circ}$C yielded maximum germination and no germination was occurred at $10^{\circ}C$. The germination at alternating temperature showed higher germination percentage than at constant temperature. The percentage and of germination decreased drastically with increased salinity level to 1.00%; no germination was occurred at 1.50% salinity level. The growth fo sddelings from larger seeds was better than that of smaller seeds at the same salinity and temperature. The hypocotyl and radicle were more sensitive than cotyledon to the increased salinity stress.

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Variation of the Germination Responses to Temperature of Plantago asiatica Seed Population along Altitude in Mt. Chiri (지리산에서 고도에 따른 질경이(Plantago asiatica) 개체군의 온도에 대한 발아습성의 변이)

  • Lee, Ho-Joon;Kim, Yong-Ok;Jeon, Jae-Hee;Seong, Mi-Seon;Jang, Il-Do
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.485-499
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    • 1994
  • This study was focused on the effect of the altitude on the geographical variations of germination characteristics in the populations of Plantago asiatica L. distribute in Mt. Chiri. There was a significant difference among the 14 groups in the phenological pattern in relation to altitudes. When the altitude becomes higher, the thermal time which was required for 10 to 80% germination rate showed higher and wider distribution. On the other hand, the germination response of increasing temperature (IT) and secreasing temperature (DT) regime was classified into 3 group. The first group was the spering germination type. This group showed that the IT regime hadhigher germination rate than that of the DT regime, and was distributed in Macheon(300m) and Packmudong (500m). The second was the spring-fall germination type which was distributed in Hadong (900m) and Saemt대 (1100m). This group also showed higher germination rate in the IT regime, but the difference of the germination rate between IT and DT regime was less than that in the first group (the spring type). The third group was the early fall germination type which was found in the Nogodan (1507m), Changetomok (1750m) and Cheonwangbong (1915m). The germination rate of this group showed almost 100% similarity between IT and DT regime. These data suggested that the geographical varations of germination characteristics within species was an important ecological strategy for the survival from severe environmental conditions.

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Effects of Environmental Factors on Akinete Germination of Anabaena circinalis (Cyanobacteriaceae) Isolated from the North Han River, Korea (북한강 수역에서 분리한 남조류 Anabaena circinalis 휴면포자 발아에 대한 환경요인의 영향)

  • Park, Chae-Hong;Lim, Byung-Jin;You, Kyoung-A;Park, Myung-Hwan;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.292-301
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    • 2014
  • Akinete germination may be a starting point of some akinete-producing cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic freshwater systems. This study examined germinability of akinete of a cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis isolated from the sediment of the North Han River (Cheongpyung Dam), Korea, under several environmental factors such as temperature ($5{\sim}25^{\circ}C$), light ($0{\sim}100{\mu}mol\;photons\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and pH (5~12). The high germination rate appeared at high temperature: >55% at $25^{\circ}C$, followed by 15% at $15^{\circ}C$, $10^{\circ}C$ and 10% at $5^{\circ}C$. Low light intensity was favorable for akinete germination. Over 45% of germination occurred at low light intensities (5, 15 and $30{\mu}mol\;photons\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$), while less than 10% of germination occurred at both 50 and $100{\mu}mol\;photons\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$. No germination occurred in the dark condition. Akinete germination rate increased with nutrient (phosphorus and nitrogen) enrichment, and nitrogen addition showed greater effect on the germination compared to phosphorus addition. Akinetes germinated well at neutral or slightly alkaline pH condition (pH 7 and pH 8: >55%), but no germination was observed at pH 11~12. The present study demonstrates some favorable ambient conditions of Anabaena circinalis germination, which could provide useful information to study the germination conditions of other Anabaena species or akinete-forming algae and predict its bloom in eutrophic freshwaters.

Effect of Soaking and Prechilling Treatment on Seed Germination of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (침수 및 예냉처리가 황벽나무의 종자 발아에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Chung-Ho;Seo, Byeong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.111-115
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    • 2009
  • The seeds of Phellodendron amurense have difficulty to obtain because these plants show dioecism with independent distributions. This experiment was conducted to find the effects of soaking and prechilling treatment on the germination of P. amurense seeds. Seeds were soaked for 3, 5 and 10 days (soaking treatment), and placed on petri-dish at $4^{\circ}C$ for 10, 20, 30 and 50 days after soaked at room temperature for 24 hours (prechilling treatment). After the treatments, germination percentage, mean germination time, germination speed and germination performance index were analyzed. As a result of sowing, prechilled seeds for 30 days had the highest percent of germination, whereas all of the soaked seeds showed lower percent of germination than non-treatment (control). In case of mean germination time, only prechilling for 30 days was more effective than control. In germination speed, all of the soaked seeds had lower values than control whereas all prechilled seeds except prechilled seeds for 20 days showed higher values than control. Especially prechilled seeds for 30 days showed the highest rate among the prechilling treatments. Germination performance index was similar to germination speed.

Assessment of different pretreatments to breakage dormancy and improve the seed germination in Elaeocarpus serratus L. - an underutilized multipurpose fruit tree from South India

  • Raji, R.;Siril, E.A.
    • Forest Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.160-168
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    • 2018
  • The seeds of Elaeocarpus serratus, a tropical underutilized fruit tree are characterized by hard seed coat and consequent poor water uptake and low germination. To improve the regeneration through seeds, various parameters such as viability of seeds, water uptake, and effect of seed mass on germination and pretreatments were performed using a completely randomized design (CRD). Tetrazolium (TZ) test was conducted using fresh, mature seeds revealed $50{\pm}2.56%$ mean viability. Seeds of different weight classes showed similar pattern of water uptake and the saturation level was achieved at 60 hrs of soaking. Seeds belong to weight class 2.6-3.5g were germinated ($12.5{\pm}1.26%$) with $175{\pm}1.75days$ (d) of mean time taken for germination (MTG). Germination capacity of seeds varied significantly among different populations and Varkala population gave $12.5{\pm}1.1%$ germination with $174.6{\pm}2.5d$ MTG. Among various seed treatments, mechanical scarification was superior in germination and significant reduction in MTG ($p{\leq}0.05$). The mechanical scarification by complete removal of seed coat resulted in $49.2{\pm}1.52%$ germination within a short period of time ($9.52{\pm}0.89d$ MTG). However, the complete removal of seed coat without damaging to embryo is a difficult task. An alternate treatment (Mechanical scarification II) by making cracks on nut faces vertically followed by soaking in distilled water for 24 hrs gave $48.4{\pm}1.73%$ germination with significantly reduced MTG ($12.14{\pm}0.56d$) over unsoaked, untreated control ($6.5{\pm}1.84%$ germination and $197.18{\pm}1.79d$ MTG; $p{\leq}0.05$). This treatment (Mechanical scarification II) is therefore recommended for E. serratus seeds as it can adopt easily and can achieve 7 fold increases in germination over control. The recorded germination through mechanical scarification is in tune with realized viability percentage of the seeds.