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Analysis on Suitability Light Intensity and Introduction Plan under the Indoor Lighting for the Native Evergreen Daphniphyllum macropodum (자생 상록 굴거리나무의 실내조명 하에서 적정광도 분석 및 도입방안)

  • Shin, Hyeon-Cheol;Yun, Jae-Gill;Choi, Kyoung-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.110-117
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to determine light-adaptability under indoor lighting for Korean wild Daphniphyllum macropodum, and to provide an introduction plan for indoor spaces of landscape architecture. The experimental plants, Daphniphyllum macropodum were purchased from a farmhouse in Jejudo as anannualplant, and it was acclimatized in the glass-green house of the general farm of Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology for40 days. The experiment was performed from February 15, 2010 to November 15, 2010. First, in the case of the fluorescent lamp, the growth and development condition was poor because the plants withered, or the leaves fell off under the 100lux to 500lux, but the condition under 1,000lux was good In the aspects of the number of leaves, form of the tree, photosynthesis rate in its body, and the value of sight, the best light intensity for the growth condition was under the 1,000lux. Second, in the case of the LED light, the growth and development condition was poor because the plants withered, or the leaves fell off under 100lux to 1,000lux, but the smooth growth and development was done under a more light intensity. The best intensity for the growth condition was under 2,000lux. Third, in the case of the three-wave light, the withering was serious by 1,000lux, and the growth and development was the worst amongst the four introduced lighting systems, therefore, growth under the three-wave light was incongruous. The best intensity for the growth condition was under 2,000lux. Fourth, in the case of the optical fiver, the withering did not existed under 100lux and growth was possible. The growth and development was the amongst in the four introduced lighting systems. Generally, in the more light intensity, more growth was observed, but the value of sight was higher under 1,000lux than under 2,000lux because the falling rate of leaves and the form of the tree was stable. The most effective light was under 1,000lux due to the high photosynthesis in its body. When Daphniphyllum macropodum is introduced into the indoor landscaping space considering the light, the optical fiber, fluorescent lamp, and LED light are suitable to introduce. The three-wave light is unfit. The most proper light intensity by the light source, in the case of the optical fiber, and fluorescent lamp, is 1,000lux, and, in the case of LED light, is 2,000lux. The wild Daphniphyllum macropodum is the species of tree to substitute the Schefflera actinophylla which is the introduced species, and it is expected to be use as the central tree in indoor spaces.

A Case of Giant Cell Interstitial Pneumonia (거대세포 간절성 폐렴(Giant Cell Interstitial Pneumonia) 1예)

  • Kang, Kyeong-Woo;Park, Sang-Joon;Suh, Gee-Young;Han, Joung-Ho;Chung, Man-Pyo;Kim, Ho-Joong;Kwon, O-Jung;Rhee, Chong-H.;Choi, Jae-Wook
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.260-267
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    • 2000
  • Giant cell interstitial pneumonia. a synonym for hard metal pneumoconiosis, is a unique form of pulmonary fibrosis resulting from an exposure to hard metal dust. A case of biopsy-proved giant cell interstitial pneumonia in the absence of appropriate history of exposure to hard metal dust is reported. The patient presented with clinical features of chronic interstitial lung disease or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. He worked in a chemical laboratory at a fertilizer plant, where he had been exposed to various chemicals such as benzene and toluene. He denied having any other hobby in his house or job at work, which may have exposed him hard metal dust. High-resolution CT scan revealed multi-lobar distribution of ground glass opacity with peripheral and basal lung predominance. The retrieved fluid of bronchoalveolar lavage contained asbestos fiber and showed neutrotphil predominance. Surgical lung biopsy was performed for a definite diagnosis. Lung specimen showed alveolar infiltration of numerous multinucleated giant cells with mild interstitial fibrosis. Upon detailed examination of the lung tissue, one asbestos body was found. An analysis for mineral contents in lung tissue was performed. Compared with the control specimen, the amount of cobalt and several hard metal components in the lung tissue of this patient was ten times higher. We speculated that the inconsistency between occupational history and the findings of pathologic and mineralogical analyses could be explained by the difference in individual immunologic reactivity to hard metal dust despite the relatively small amount of unrecognized environmental exposure(ED: It's hard to understand what this phrase is trying to say).

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Relationship between Environmental Exposure and Biological Monitoring Values in Workers Exposed to Styrene (스타이렌 폭로 근로자의 환경중 폭로농도와 생물학적 모니터링에 관한 연구)

  • Paik, Jong-Min;Lee, Jong-Yung;Kim, Jung-Man
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 1997
  • This is an effort to confirm changes biological monitoring according to changes in levels of exposure to styrene for industrial workers. This study was conducted on 108 workers, including male of 64 and female 44 who were working at factories of FRP, dipping, and coating. An improved passive monitor method(organic vapor monitor; OVM) was employed to determine levels of exposure. The biological monitoring include blood styrene concentration, urinary mandelic acid(MA), and urinary phenylglyoxylic acid(PGA). Biological monitoring were made through the Collection of blood and urine. The mean value of exposure to styrene was 21.0ppm, which is measured by organic vapor monitor, one of improved passive monitors. The highest exposure level was observed among workers in boat factories, laminating procedure workers, processing workers, respectively(p<0.01). For exposure level, 11% of subjects under study showed over 50ppm which is time weighted average(TWA). The correlation coefficient between biological specimens and the exposure level was 0.62 for blood styrene concentration, 0.58 for MA corrected by creatinine, and 0.70 for PGA corrected by creatinine, respectively(p<0.01). The regression analyses found exposure level relative importance in explaining variance in biological monitoring. In additional to that, gender was a significant factor in explaining variance of MA and MA+PGA. Almost half of variance(49%) in blood styrene concentration was explained by predictors, including exposure level, age, gender, duration, and drinking volume during the last week(p<0.01). The very high correlation(higher than 0.95 was found when a comparison was made among three types of corrected methods, including uncorrected specific gravity and creatinine. In conclusion, these findings suggest OVM to represent levels of exposure to styrene for industrial workers. A discussion was made on possible use of specific gravity sample for biological monitoring. Exposure level may be predicted on MA, PGA in urine, which could be applied to represent biological monitoring.

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Reinforcing Effects around Face of Soil-Tunnel by Crown & Face-Reinforcing - Large Scale Model Testing (천단 및 막장면 수평보강에 의한 토사터널 보강효과 - 실대형실험)

  • Kwon Oh-Yeob;Choi Yong-Ki;Woo Sang-Baik;Shin Jong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.71-82
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    • 2006
  • One of the most popular pre-reinforcement methods of tunnel heading in cohesionless soils would be the fore-polling of grouted pipes, known as RPUM (reinforced protective umbrella method) or UAM (umbrella arch method). This technique allows safe excavation even in poor ground conditions by creating longitudinal arch parallel to the tunnel axis as the tunnel advances. Some previous studies on the reinforcing effects have been performed using numerical methods and/or laboratory-based small scale model tests. The complexity of boundary conditions imposes difficulties in representing the tunnelling procedure in laboratory tests and theoretical approaches. Full-scale study to identify reinforcing effects of the tunnel heading has rarely been carried out so far. In this study, a large scale model testing for a tunnel in granular soils was performed. Reinforcing patterns considered are four cases, Non-Reinforced, Crown-Reinforced, Crown & Face-Reinforced, and Face-Reinforced. The behavior of ground and pipes as reinforcing member were fully measured as the surcharge pressure applied. The influences of reinforcing pattern, pipe length, and face reinforcement were investigated in terms of stress and displacement. It is revealed that only the Face-Reinforced has decreased sufficiently both vertical settlement in tunnel heading and horizontal displacement on the face. Vertical stresses along the tunnel axis were concentrated in tunnel heading from the test results, so the heading should be reinforced before tunnel advancing. Most of maximum axial forces and bending moments for Crown-reinforced were measured at 0.75D from the face. Also it should be recommended that the minimum length of the pipe is more than l.0D for crown reinforcement.

Measurement of Operator Exposure During Treatment of Fungicide Difenoconazole on Grape Orchard (포도 과수원에서 살균제 Difenoconazole의 농작업자 노출량 측정)

  • Cho, ll Kyu;Park, Joon Seong;Park, So Hyun;Kim, Su Jin;Kim, Back Jong;Na, Tae Wong;Nam, Hyo Song;Park, Kyung Hun;Lee, Jiho;Kim, Jeong-Han
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.286-293
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: 18% of difenoconazole+iminoctadin triacetate microemulsion (3%+15%) formulation were mixed and sprayed as closely as possible to normal practice on the ten of farms located in the Youngju of South Korea. Patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks and XAD-2 resin were used to measure the potential exposure for applicators wearing standardized whole-body outer and inner dosimeter (WBD). This study has been carried out to determine the dermal and inhalation exposure to difenoconazole during preparation of spray suspension and application with a power sprayer on a grape orchard. METHODS AND RESULTS: A personal air monitor equipped with an air pump IOM sampler and cassette and glass fiber filter were used for inhalation exposure. The field studies were carried out in a grape orchard. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored with a thermometer and a hygrometer. Wind speed was measured using a pocket weather meter. All mean field fortification recoveries were between 97.3% and 119.6% in the level of 100 LOQ (limit of quantification) while the LOQ for difenoconazole was $0.025{\mu}g/mL$ using HPLC-UVD. The arms exposure to difenoconazole for the mixer/loader (0.0794 mg) was higher than other body parts (head, hands, upper body, legs). The exposure to difenoconazole in the legs for applicator (3.78 mg) was highest in the parts of body. The dermal exposure for mixer/loader and applicator were 0.02 and 2.28 mg on a grape orchard, respectively. The inhalation exposure during application was estimated as 0.02 mg. The ratio of inhalation exposure to dermal exposure was equivalent to 0.9% of the dermal exposure. CONCLUSION: The inhalation exposure for applicator indicated $18.8{\times}10^{-3}mg$, which was level of 0.9% of the dermal exposure (2.28 mg). Operator exposure (0.004 mg/kg bw/day) to difenoconazole during treatment for grape is calculated as 2.5% of the established AOEL (0.16 mg/kg bw/day).

Operator Exposure to Indoxacarb Wettable Powder and Water Dispersible Granule during Mixing/loading and Risk Assessment (Indoxacarb의 수화제 및 입상수화제 살포액 조제 시 농작업자의 노출량 측정 및 위해성 평가)

  • Kim, Eunhye;Hwang, Yon-Jin;Kim, Suhee;Lee, Hyeri;Hong, Soonsung;Park, Kyung-Hun;Kim, Jeong-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.343-349
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    • 2012
  • Exposure and risk assessments were conducted to evaluate the relative safety of mixing/loading work of indoxacarb between wettable powder (WP) and water dispersible granule (WG). Hand exposure was monitored using cotton gloves while inhalation exposure was measured using personal air monitor. Method validation for the exposure monitoring was established successfully through several experiments. Limit of determination and limit of quantitation were 0.25 and 1 ng, respectively. $R^2$ of calibration curve linearity was more than 0.9999 and reproducibility was 0.7-6. Recovery of indoxacarb from gloves, solid sorbent and glass fiber filter at three different levels was 81.5-108.8%. Trapping efficiency and breakthrough tests gave 981.5-108.8% of recovery. During mixing/loading procedure, hand exposure amount (75 percentile of 30 repetitions) for indoxacarb WP was 6 folds (459.8 mg/kg a.i) than that of WG (81.4 mg/kg a.i). This result indicates that WG has less drift than WP thanks to its granular type of formulation. Inhalation amount was $10^{-8}-10^{-7}%$ of spray mixture prepared and $10^{-4}-10^{-3}%$ of hand exposure. In inhalation case, no significant differences were observed between two formulations. Margin of safety was calculated for risk assessment using male Korean average body weight and acceptable operator exposure level as the important exposure factors. Mixing/loading procedures for both of the formulations were considered to be of least risk because calculated MOS values were more than 1.

Risk Assessment of Operator Exposure During Treatment of Fungicide Dithianon on Apple Orchard (사과 과수원에서 농약살포시 살균제 Dithianon의 농작업자 위해성 평가)

  • Cho, ll Kyu;Kim, Su Jin;Kim, Ji Myung;Oh, Young Goun;Seol, Jae Ung;Lee, Ji Ho;Kim, Jeong Han
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.302-311
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: Dithianon (75%) formulation were mixed and sprayed as closely as possible by normal practice on the ten farms located in the Mungeong of South Korea. Patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and XAD-2 resin were used for measurement of the potential exposure of dithianon on the applicators wearing standardized whole-body outer and inner dosimeter (WBD). This study has been carried out to determine the dermal and inhalation exposure to dithianon during preparation of spray suspension and application with a power sprayer on a apple orchard. METHODS AND RESULTS: A personal air monitor equipped with an air pump, IOM sampler and cassette, and glass fiber filter was used for inhalation exposure. The field studies were carried out in a apple orchard. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored with a thermometer and a hygrometer. Wind speed was measured using a pocket weather meter. All mean field fortification recoveries were between 85.1% and 99.1% in the level of 100 LOQ (limit of quantification), while the LOQ for dithianon was $0.05{\mu}g/mL$ using HPLC-DAD. The exposure to dithianon on arms of the mixer/loader (0.0794 mg) was higher than other body parts (head, hands, upper body, or legs). The exposure to dithianon on the applicator's legs (3.78 mg) was highest in the body parts. The dermal exposures for mixer/loader and applicator were 10 and 8.10 mg, respectively, from a grape orchard. The inhalation exposure during application was estimated as 0.151 mg, and the ratio of inhalation exposure was 11.2% of the dermal exposure (inner clothes). CONCLUSION: The dermal and inhalation exposure on the applicator appeared to be 4.203 mg - 25.064 mg and $0.529{\mu}g-116.241{\mu}g$, respectively. The total exposures on the agricultural applicators were at the level of 2.596 mg - 25.069 mg to dithianon during treatment for apple orchard. The TER showed 3.421 (>1) when AOEL of dithianon was used as a reference dose for the purpose of risk assessment of the mixing/loading and application.