• Title, Summary, Keyword: glial cells

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The Effects of Lead Exposure on Glutamatergic Nervous System in Rat Cerebellar Cells

  • Yi, Eun-Young;Ma, Young;Choi, Woo-Joung;Lim, Dong-Koo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.211-211
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    • 1996
  • Changes in glutamate release and uptake on cerebellar cells after the chronic exposure to lead were investigated. Rats were received 0.25% lead acetate in drinking water from the beginning of the pregnancy. The control group was given 0.125% sodium acetate in drinking water. The cerebellar cells from 7 or 8 day-old pups were cultured. Amino acid release from cerebellar granule cells and the glutamate uptake into cerebellar glial cells were measured using HPLC-ECD. Basal glutamate release and NMDA-induced glutamate release didn't show significant difference. However, the other amino acids in the granule cells obtained from lead exposed pups were less released than the control after the stimulation by NMDA (50$\mu$M). SNAP-induced (50$\mu$M) glutamate release was significantly reduced in granule cells prepared from lead exposed pups. The basal glutamate uptake in glial cells didn't show any difference. However, the uptake in glial cells prepared from lead exposed pups was significantly less blocked by PDC (24$\mu$M) compared to the control group. These results indicate that lead exposure to the mother might affect the Excitatory amino acid system during the development of the offspring.

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The Neuro-Protective Effect of the Methanolic Extract of Perilla frutescens var. japonica and Rosmarinic Acid against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in C6 Glial Cells

  • Lee, Ah Young;Wu, Ting Ting;Hwang, Bo Ra;Lee, Jaemin;Lee, Myoung-Hee;Lee, Sanghyun;Cho, Eun Ju
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.338-345
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    • 2016
  • Neurodegenerative diseases are often associated with oxidative damage in neuronal cells. This study was conducted to investigate the neuro-protective effect of methanolic (MeOH) extract of Perilla frutescens var. japonica and its one of the major compounds, rosmarinic acid, under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$) in C6 glial cells. Exposure of C6 glial cells to $H_2O_2$ enhanced oxidative damage as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assays. The MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid prevented oxidative stress by increasing cell viability and inhibiting cellular lipid peroxidation. In addition, the MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid reduced $H_2O_2-indcued$ expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcriptional level. Moreover, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression was down-regulated in $H_2O_2-indcued$ C6 glial cells treated with the MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid. These findings suggest that P. frutescens var. japonica and rosmarinic acid could prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases through attenuation of neuronal oxidative stress.

Paeoniflorin ameliorates Aβ-stimulated neuroinflammation via regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway and Aβ degradation in C6 glial cells

  • Cho, Eun Ju;Kim, Hyun Young;Lee, Ah Young
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.593-605
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    • 2020
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease is common age-related neurodegenerative condition characterized by amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation that leads cognitive impairment. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of paeoniflorin (PF) against Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and the underlying mechanism in C6 glial cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: C6 glial cells were treated with PF and Aβ25-35, and cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) production, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were measured. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying the effect of PF on inflammatory responses and Aβ degradation was determined by Western blot. RESULTS: Aβ25-35 significantly reduced cell viability, but this reduction was prevented by the pretreatment with PF. In addition, PF significantly inhibited Aβ25-35-induced NO production in C6 glial cells. The secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was also significantly reduced by PF. Further mechanistic studies indicated that PF suppressed the production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines by regulating the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. The protein levels of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were downregulated and phosphorylation of NF-κB was blocked by PF. However, PF elevated the protein expression of inhibitor kappa B-alpha and those of Aβ degrading enzymes, insulin degrading enzyme and neprilysin. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that PF exerts protective effects against Aβ-mediated neuroinflammation by inhibiting NF-κB signaling, and these effects were associated with the enhanced activity of Aβ degradation enzymes.

Bis Is Involved in Glial Differentiation of PI9 Cells Induced by Retinoic Acid

  • Yoon, Jung-Sook;Lee, Mun-Yong;Lee, Jae-Seon;Park, Chan-Sun;Youn, Ho-Joong;Lee, Jeong-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.251-256
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    • 2009
  • Previous observations suggest that Bis, a Bcl-2-binding protein, may playa role the neuronal and glial differentiation in vivo. To examine this further, we investigated Bis expression during the in vitro differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells induced by retinoic acid (RA). Western blotting and RT-PCR assays showed that Bis expression was temporarily decreased during the free floating stage and then began to increase on day 6 after the induction of differentiation. Double immunostaining indicated that Bis-expressing cells do not express several markers of differentiation, including NeuN, MAP-2 and Tuj-1. However, some of the Bis-expressing cells also were stained with GFAP-antibodies, indicating that Bis is involved glial differentiation. Using an shRNA strategy, we developed bis-knock down P19 cells and compared them with control P19 cells for the expression of NeuroD, Mash-1 and GFAP during RA-induced differentiation. Among these, only GFAP induction was significantly attenuated in Pl9-dnbis cells and the population showing GFAP immunoreactivity was also decreased. It is noteworthy that distribution of mature neurons and migrating neurons was disorganized, and the close association of migrating neuroblasts with astrocytes was not observed in P19-dnbis cells. These results suggest that Bis is involved in the migration-inducing activity of glial cells.

The Preventive Effects of Bcl-2 and $Bcl-_{XL}$ on Lovastatin-induced Apoptosis of C6 Glial Cells

  • Choi, Jae-Won;Lee, Jong-Min;Oh, Young-Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.235-239
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    • 2002
  • It has been reported that lovastatin induced cell death and suppressed proliferation in various cell lines. In this study, we examined whether the cytotoxic effects of lovastatin could be prevented by Bcl-2 or $Bcl-_{XL}$ in C6 glial cells. Overexpression of human Bcl-2 or $Bcl-_{XL}$ prevented lovastatin $(25{\mu}M)-induced$ changes such as DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, disruption of cell membrane, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Lovastatin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation was unaffected by Bcl-2 or $Bcl-_{XL}$ overexpression. These results suggest that Bcl-2 and $Bcl-_{XL}$ can prevent lovastatin-induced apoptosis in C6 glial cells, though the inhibition of proliferation remains unaffected by these proteins.

Glial Mechanisms of Neuropathic Pain and Emerging Interventions

  • Jo, Daehyun;Chapman, C. Richard;Light, Alan R.
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2009
  • Neuropathic pain is often refractory to intervention because of the complex etiology and an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms behind this type of pain. Glial cells, specifically microglia and astrocytes, are powerful modulators of pain and new targets of drug development for neuropathic pain. Glial activation could be the driving force behind chronic pain, maintaining the noxious signal transmission even after the original injury has healed. Glia express chemokine, purinergic, toll-like, glutaminergic and other receptors that enable them to respond to neural signals, and they can modulate neuronal synaptic function and neuronal excitability. Nerve injury upregulates multiple receptors in spinal microglia and astrocytes. Microglia influence neuronal communication by producing inflammatory products at the synapse, as do astrocytes because they completely encapsulate synapses and are in close contact with neuronal somas through gap junctions. Glia are the main source of inflammatory mediators in the central nervous system. New therapeutic strategies for neuropathic pain are emerging such as targeting the glial cells, novel pharmacologic approaches and gene therapy. Drugs targeting microglia and astrocytes, cytokine production, and neural structures including dorsal root ganglion are now under study, as is gene therapy. Isoform-specific inhibition will minimize the side effects produced by blocking all glia with a general inhibitor. Enhancing the anti-inflammatory cytokines could prove more beneficial than administering proinflammatory cytokine antagonists that block glial activation systemically. Research on therapeutic gene transfer to the central nervous system is underway, although obstacles prevent immediate clinical application.

Regeneration of the retina: toward stem cell therapy for degenerative retinal diseases

  • Jeon, Sohee;Oh, Il-Hoan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.193-199
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    • 2015
  • Degenerative retinal diseases affect millions of people worldwide, which can lead to the loss of vision. However, therapeutic approaches that can reverse this process are limited. Recent efforts have allowed the possibility of the stem cell-based regeneration of retinal cells and repair of injured retinal tissues. Although the direct differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into terminally differentiated photoreceptor cells comprises one approach, a series of studies revealed the intrinsic regenerative potential of the retina using endogenous retinal stem cells. Muller glial cells, ciliary pigment epithelial cells, and retinal pigment epithelial cells are candidates for such retinal stem cells that can differentiate into multiple types of retinal cells and be integrated into injured or developing retina. In this review, we explore our current understanding of the cellular identity of these candidate retinal stem cells and their therapeutic potential for cell therapy against degenerative retinal diseases. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(4): 193-199]

Neural Transdifferentiation: MAPTau Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

  • Lara-Padilla, E;Miliar-Garcia, A;Gomez-Lopez, M;Romero-Morelos, P;Bazan-Mendez, CI;Alfaro-Rodriguez, A;Anaya-Ruiz, M;Callender, K;Carlos, A;Bandala, C
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1967-1971
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    • 2016
  • Background: In tumor cells, aberrant differentiation programs have been described. Several neuronal proteins have been found associated with morphological neuronal-glial changes in breast cancer (BCa). These neuronal proteins have been related to mechanisms that are involved in carcinogenesis; however, this regulation is not well understood. Microtubule-associated protein-tau (MAP-Tau) has been describing in BCa but not its variants. This finding could partly explain the neuronal-glial morphology of BCa cells. Our aim was to determine mRNA expression of MAP-tau variants 2, 4 and 6 in breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cultured cell lines MCF-10A, MDA-MB-231, SKBR3 and T47D were observed under phase-contrast microscopy for neural morphology and analyzed for gene expression of MAP-Tau transcript variants 2, 4 and 6 by real-time PCR. Results: Regarding morphology like neural/glial cells, T47D line shown more cells with these features than MDA-MB-231 and SKBR. In another hand, we found much greater mRNA expression of MAP-Tau transcript variants 2, and to a lesser extent 4 and 6, in T47D cells than the other lines. In conclusion, regulation of MAP-Tau could bring about changes in cytoskeleton, cell morphology and motility; these findings cast further light on neuronal transdifferentiation in BCa.

Effect of Methanol on Cultured Neuronal and Glial Cells on Rat Hippocampus (Methanol이 배양된 흰쥐 해마의 신경세포 및 신경교 세포의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • 이정임;조병채;배영숙;이경은
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.203-211
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    • 1996
  • Methanol has been widely used as an industrial solvent and environmental exposure to methanol would be expected to be increasing. In humans, methanol causes metabolic acidosis and damage to ocular system, and can lead to death in severe and untreated case. Clinical symptoms are attributed to accumulation of forrnic acid which is a metabolic product of methanol. In humans and primates, formic acid is accumulated after methanol intake but not in rodents due to the rapid metabolism of methanol. Neverthless, the developmental and reproductive toxicity were reported in rodents. Previous reports showed that perinatal exposure to ethanol produces a variety of damage in human central nervous system by direct neurotoxicity. This suggests that the mechanism of toxic symptoms by methanol in rodents might mimic that of ethanol in human. In the present study I hypothesized that methanol can also induce toxicity in neuronal cells. For the study, primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons and glias were empolyed. Hippocampal cells were prepared from the embryonic day-17 fetuses and maintained up to 7 days. Effect of methanol (10, 100, 500 and 1000 mM) on neurite outgrowth and cell viability was investigated at 0, 18 and 24 hours following methanol treatment. To study the changes in proliferation of glial cells, protein content was measured at 7 days. Neuronal cell viability in culture was not altered during 0-24 hours after methanol treatment. 10 and 100 mM methanol treatment significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth between 18-24 hours. 7-day exposure to 10 or 100 mM methanol significantly increased protein contents but that to 1000 mM methanol decreased in culture. In conclusion, methanol may have a variety of effects on growing and differentiation of neurons and glial cells in hippocampus. Treatment with low concentration of methanol caused that neurite outgrowth was enhanced during 18-24 hours and the numbers of glial cell were increased for 7 days. High concentration of methanol brought about decreased protein contents. At present, the mechanism responsible for the methanol- induced enhancement of neurite outgrowth is not clear. Further studies are required to delineate the mechanism possibly by employing molecular biological techniques.

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Radioautographical observations of development and appearance of glia cells in brain I. Apperarace of ectodermal glial cell aggregates in rodent brain (뇌신경교세포(腦神經膠細胞) 집단(集團)의 발생(發生)과 이동(移動)에 대한 방사선(放射線) 자기법적(自記法的) 관찰 I, 설치류 뇌(腦)에 외배엽성(外胚葉性) 신경교세포(神經膠細胞) 집단(集團)의 출현(出現)에 대하여)

  • Kwak, Soo-dong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.481-487
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    • 1992
  • The present study was designed to investigate the appearance of the congenital aggregates of the ectodermal glial cells in the brain of the normal rodents. The brain samples were taken from mice fetus, juvenile mice, rats and rabbits. The appearance regions of the glial cell aggregates (GCA) were investigated and the cells in the GCA were identified with electron microscope. 1. GCA in the mouse fetus tended to be higher in cell density, larger in size and lower frequency in appearance than juvenile mouse. The regions of higher appearance frequency of GCA in the juveniles of mice, rats and rabbits were ordered as subependymal layer in the collateral trigone of lateral ventricles, molecular layer of the neocortex, inner layer except the molecular layer in the neocortex, cerebral medulla, corpus callosum and hippocampus. Appearance frequency of GCA in the neonatal mice tended to be higher until 5 day after birth, and were markedly decreased on 10 and 15 day after birth. 2. GCA tended to be closed on one side of the blood vessels or neurons but not perivascular or perineuronal appearance. 3. In electron microscophy, GCA were composed of immature oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the subependymal, and tended to be more mature and loose in the neocortex and to be appended some microglia cells with age. The cells in the GCA of older mice tended to be more mature than in young mice.

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