• Title, Summary, Keyword: glucose utilization

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A Study on the Performance and Utilization of Results of Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose in Type Ⅱ Diabetes (일 병원 제2형 당뇨병환자의 자가혈당검사 수행 및 활용 실태)

  • Ha, Jung-Mi;Kim, Dong-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.330-338
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate performance of self-monitoring of blood glucose and the utilization of results for people with type II diabetes. Method: Data was collected from 177 patients with type II diabetes using a questionnaire from August to September, 2009. Result: Most participants performed self-monitoring of blood glucose in the correct way while some misused the lancet or test strips. In the utilization of results for self-monitoring blood glucose data, 62% of participants always recorded the data, 46% always understood the cause for hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, 25% changed their diet, 23% regulated their exercise-amount, and 11% of participants adjusted the drug dosage. There were significant differences in the performance of self-monitoring of blood glucose and the utilization of results according to the characteristics in the self-monitoring subjects such as awareness of HbA1c, target fasting glucose level, target fasting glucose level 2 hours after meal etc. Conclusion: Systemic self-monitoring of blood glucose education which includes the utilization of self-monitoring of blood glucose needs to be developed for type II diabetic patients.

Comparative Studies on the Utilization of Glucose in the Mammary Gland of Crossbred Holstein Cattle Feeding on Different Types of Roughage during Different Stages of Lactation

  • Chaiyabutr, N.;Komolvanich, S.;Preuksagorn, S.;Chanpongsang, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.334-347
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    • 2000
  • The present experiment was carried out to study the utilization of glucose in the mammary gland of crossbred Holstein cattle during feeding with different types of roughage. Sixteen first lactating crossbred Holstein cattle which comprised eight animals of two breed types, Holstein Friesian${\times}$Red Sindhi ($50{\times}50=50%$ HF) and Holstein Friesian${\times}$Red Sindhi ($87.5{\times}12.5=87.5%$ HF). They were divided into four groups of 4 animals each of the same breed. The utilization of glucose in the mammary gland was determined by measuring rates of glucose uptake and the incorporation of glucose into milk components in both groups of 50% HF and 87.5% HF animals feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw. In early lactation, there were no significant differences of the total glucose entry rate and glucose carbon recycling among groups of crossbred animals feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw. During lactation advance, the total glucose turnover rates and recycling of carbon glucose of crossbred HF animals feeding on urea treated rice straw were markedly higher than those of crossbred HF animals feeding on hay as roughage, whereas there were no significant changes for both groups of crossbred animals feeding on hay. The percentages and values of non-mammary glucose utilization showed an increase during lactation advance in the same group of both 50% HF and 87.5% HF animals. The percentage of glucose uptake for utilization in the synthesis of milk lactose by the mammary gland was approximately 62% for both groups of 87.5% HF and by approximately 55% for both groups of 50% HF animals feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw. Intracellular glucose 6-phosphate metabolized via the pentose phosphate pathway accounted for the NADPH (reducing equivalent) of fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland being higher in 87.5% HF animals during mid-lactation. A large proportion of metabolism of glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway in the mammary gland was more apparent in both groups of 50% HF animals than those of 87.5 % HF animals during early and mid-lactation while it markedly increased for both groups of 87.5% HF animals during late lactation. It can be concluded that utilization of glucose in the mammary gland occurs in a different manner for 50% HF and 87.5% HF animals feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw. The glucose utilization for biosynthetic pathways in the mammary gland of 50% HF animals is maintained in a similar pattern throughout the periods of lactation. A poorer lactation persistency in both groups of 87.5% HF animals occurs during lactation advance, which is related to a decrease in the lactose biosynthetic pathway.

Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid on Cellular Lipid Accumulation and Transcription Factors Involving Glucose Utilization (에이코사펜타에노익산에 의한 세포 내에서의 지방 축적 억제 효과 및 포도당 대사에 관여하는 전사인자의 변화)

  • Bu, So-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.501-508
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    • 2011
  • Previous studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids with long carbon chains such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have several health benefits. However metabolic consequences of these fatty acids themselves and their regulation of transcriptional activity involving glucose utilization are not well established. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate how EPA influx affects cellular lipid accumulation and gene expressions involving $de$ $novo$ lipogenesis in hepatocyte cultures. Compared to oleic acid treatment, EPA treatment showed remarkably decreased cellular TG conversion and accumulation, along with phospholipids at a lower extent. As expected, EPA increased mRNA expression involving fatty acid influx and lipid droplet formation, but did not affect mRNA expression involving glucose utilization. EPA increased transcriptional activity of PPAR-${\alpha}$ and glucose responsive transcription factor when transcription factor binding protein was activated. Taken together, these data suggest that EPA decreases lipid accumulation through increases of the ${\beta}$-oxidation pathway without interruption of glucose utilization.

Xylan 분해균주인 Bacillus stearothermophilus의 오탄당 이용

  • 이효선;조쌍구;최용진
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.385-392
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    • 1996
  • Bacillus stearotheymophilus, a potent xylanolytic bacterium isolated from soil, was tested for the strain's strategies of pentose utilization and the evidence of substrate preferences. The strain metabolized glucose, xylose, ribose, maltose, cellobiose, sucrose, arabinose and xylitol. The efficacy of the sugars as a carbon and energy source in this strain was of the order named above. The organism, however, could not grow on glycerol as a sole growth substrate. During cultivation on a mixture of glucose and xylose or arabinose, the major hydrolytic products of xylan, B. stearothermophilus displayed classical diauxic growth in which glucose was utilized during the first phase. On the other hand, the pentose utilization was prevented immediately upon addition of glucose. Cellobiose was preferred over xylose or arabinose. In contrast, maltose and pentose were co-utilized, and also no preference on between xylose and arabinose. Enzymatic studies indicated that B. stearothermophilus possessed constitutive hexokinase, a key enzyme of the glucose metabolic system. While, the production of $^{D}$-xylose isomerase, $^{D}$-xylulokinase and $^{D}$-arabinose isomerase essential for pentose phosphate pathway were induced by xylose, xylan, and xylitol but repressed by glucose. Taken together, the results suggested that the sequential utilization of B. stearothermophilus would be mediated by catabolite regulatory mechanisms such as catabolite inhibition or inducer exclusion.

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Effect of feeding garlic leaves on rumen fermentation, methane emission, plasma glucose kinetics, and nitrogen utilization in sheep

  • Panthee, Arvinda;Matsuno, Ayana;Al-Mamun, Mohammad;Sano, Hiroaki
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.59 no.6
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    • pp.14.1-14.9
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    • 2017
  • Background: Garlic and its constituents are reported to have been effective in reducing methane emission and also influence glucose metabolism in body; however, studies in ruminants using garlic leaves are scarce. Garlic leaves contain similar compounds as garlic bulbs, but are discarded in field after garlic bulb harvest. We speculate that feeding garlic leaves might show similar effect as garlic constituents in sheep and could be potential animal feed supplement. Thus, we examined the effect of freeze dried garlic leaves (FDGL) on rumen fermentation, methane emission, plasma glucose kinetics and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Methods: Six sheep were fed Control diet (mixed hay and concentrate (60:40)) or FDGL diet (Control diet supplemented with FDGL at 2.5 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$ of sheep) using a crossover design. Methane gas emission was measured using open-circuit respiratory chamber. Plasma glucose turnover rate was measured using isotope dilution technique of [$U-^{13}C$]glucose. Rumen fluid, feces and urine were collected to measure rumen fermentation characteristics and nitrogen utilization. Result: No significant difference in rumen fermentation parameters was noticed except for rumen ammonia tended to be higher (0.05 < P < 0.1) in FDGL diet. Methane emission per kg dry matter ingested and methane emission per kg dry matter digested were lower (P < 0.05) in FDGL diet. Plasma glucose concentration was similar between diets and plasma glucose turnover rate tended to be higher in FDGL diet (0.05 < P < 0.1). Nitrogen retention was higher (P < 0.05) and microbial nitrogen supply tended to be higher (0.05 < P < 0.1) in FDGL diet. Conclusion: FDGL diet did not impair rumen fermentation, improved nitrogen retention; while absence of significant results in reduction of methane emission, glucose turnover rate and microbial nitrogen supply, further studies at higher dose would be necessary to conclude the merit of FDGL as supplement in ruminant feedstuff.

Hydrogen Bonding Analysis of Hydroxyl Groups in Glucose Aqueous Solutions by a Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

  • Chen, Cong;Li, Wei Zhong;Song, Yong Chen;Weng, Lin Dong;Zhang, Ning
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.2238-2246
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    • 2012
  • Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate hydrogen bonding characteristics of hydroxyl groups in glucose aqueous solutions with different concentrations. The hydrogen bonding abilities and strength of different O and H atom types have been calculated and compared. The acceptor/donor efficiencies have been predicted and it has been found that: (1) O2-HO2 and O3-HO3 are more efficient intramolecular hydrogen bonding acceptors than donors; (2) O1-HO1, O4-HO4 and O6-HO6 are more efficient intramolecular hydrogen bonding donors than acceptors; (5) O1-HO1 and O6-HO6 are more efficient intermolecular hydrogen bonding acceptors than donors while hydroxyl groups O2-HO2 and O4-HO4 are more efficient intermolecular hydrogen bonding donors than acceptors. The hydrogen bonding abilities of hydroxyl groups revealed that: (1) the hydrogen bonding ability of OH2-$H_w$ is larger than that of hydroxyl groups in glucose; (2) among the hydroxyl groups in glucose, the hydrogen bonding ability of O6-HO6 is the largest and the hydrogen bonding ability of O4-HO4 is the smallest; (3) the intermolecular hydrogen bonding ability of O6-HO6 is the largest; (4) the order for intramolecular hydrogen bonding abilities (from large to small) is O2-HO2, O1-HO1, O3-HO3, O6-HO6 and O4-HO4.

Influence of Dietary Salinomycin on Feeding-induced Variations of Glucose Kinetics and Blood Volatile Fatty Acids and Insulin Concentrations in Sheep Fed a High-roughage Diet

  • Fujita, Tadahisa;Itoh, Takahiro;Majima, Hiroya;Sano, Hiroaki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.365-372
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to determine effects of salinomycin (SL) on feeding-induced changes in glucose kinetics and blood VFA concentrations in sheep fed a high-roughage diet. Four sheep were fed the diet with or without 20 mg/kg diet of SL once daily for 21 d. Glucose entry and utilization rates were determined during the prefeeding and 3 h postfeeding periods, using a [$^{13}C_6$]glucose dilution method and non-steady state equations. Ruminal characteristics and concentrations of blood VFA, plasma glucose and insulin were also measured during the same periods. A feeding-induced increase in ruminal total VFA concentration tended to be inhibited (p<0.10) with SL, although ruminal pH was unaffected (p>0.10) with SL or by feeding. Salinomycin decreased (p<0.05) acetate proportion and increased (p<0.05) propionate proportion in the rumen, but did not modify these changes in response to feeding (p>0.10). A feeding-induced increase in blood acetate concentration was attenuated (p<0.05) with SL. Salinomycin tended to increase (p<0.10) blood propionate concentration without modifying its response patterns to feeding (p>0.10). Plasma concentrations of glucose or insulin were unaffected (p>0.10) with SL. Salinomycin tended to enhance (p<0.10) glucose entry and utilization rates. Feeding also enhanced (p<0.01) both rates, whereas their interactive effect was not detected (p>0.10). We conclude that SL possibly enhances whole body glucose entry and utilization with an increase in blood propionate concentration in sheep given a high-roughage diet, although SL does not appear to affect their responses to feeding.

Utilization of Substrate for the In vitro Lipid Synthesis in the Adipose Tissue of Hanwoo Steers

  • Song, M.K.;Sohn, H.J.;Hong, S.K.;Kim, H.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1560-1563
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    • 2001
  • An ability to utilize the substrates (acetate, glucose and lactate) in the lipid synthesis was measured in vitro with the adipose tissues of 4 locations (subcutaneous, SUBC; intramuscular, INTR; tail and kidney, KIDN) in 12 Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) steers (26 and 28 months of ages, mean body weight 638.6 kg). The rates of lipid synthesis from acetate were higher than those from glucose in SUBC and ITRA adipose tissues, respectively. In contrast, the rates of lipid synthesis from glucose were higher than those from acetate in the adipose tissues of tail and KIDN, respectively. Lactate utilization was lowest in all the locations while that of acetate or glucose had the different trends of utilization in the lipogenesis. The rate of lipid synthesis from acetate was highest in the SUBC adipose tissue but was lowest in the KIDN while that from glucose was also higher in the SUBC adipose tissue than in the other tissue locations. The rate of lipid synthesis from lactate, however, was highest in the tail adipose tissue among the locations.

Characteristics of Carbon Source Utilization by Heterotrophic Bacteria Isolated from Internal Organs of Starfish (Asterias amurensis) (불가사리(Asterias amurensis) 장내에서 분리된 종속영양세균의 탄소원 이용 특성)

  • 이건형;송경자;이오형;최문술
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.57-61
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    • 2002
  • To investigate the characteristics of carbon sources utilization by the intestinal microflora of starfish, starfishes (Asterias amurensis) were collected from the South Sea near Jangheung-gun sumun-ri of Jeollanam-do on July 14,2000. The population densities of heterotrophic bacteria were in the range of $8.65{\pm}0.65{\times}10^3\cfu{\cdot}g^{-1}$ in the interval organs of starfish. Total 24 strains (Gram-negative bacteria. 11 strains, Gram-positive bacteria: 13 strains) from the internal organs of starfish were isolated. Dominant bacteria were Genus nbrio, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium. A high percentage of isolates was Gram positive rods. The catalase and oxidase positive were shown 54.2% and 20.8% of isolated bacteria, respectively. Isolated Gram negative and positive bacteria utilized various carbon sources. Among them, glucose could be utilized by all the isolated Gram negative bacteria, and sucrose, mannose, and maltose were utilized by a relatively high percentage of isolates. On the other hands, adipate and phenyl acetate were shown no utilization. In case of Gram positive bacteria, glucose was shown the highest utilization and the next highest utilization was fructose, trehalose, and maltose.

Studies on the Ethanol Production by Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum (Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum에 의한 에탄올생산에 관한 연구)

  • 조은경;이윤광;변유량;유주현
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.397-402
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    • 1985
  • The fermentation of various sugars by C. thermosaccharolyticum was examined under pH controlled, anaerobic condition. The kinetic model for Product formation at various sugars was the combination of growth and non-growth associated mode. In the utilization of a single sugar, glucose was the best carbon source for growth. The specific growth rate of glucose, xylose and cellobiose were 0.363 h$^{-1}$, 0.242 h$^{-1}$ and 0.144 h$^{-1}$ respectively. The production of ethanol from glucose showed a negatively growth associated mode, so the higher growth rate decreased the productivity of ethanol. The maximum concentrations of the produced ethanol were 2.42 g/l, 3.76 g/l, and 3.4 g/l on glucose, xylose, and cellobiose. No glucose was detected during cellobiose fermentation. Sequential utilization of sugars was observed in the mixtures of glucose, xylose and cellobiose. It preferred glucose, followed by xylose and then cellobiose. The presence of other sugars had little or no effect on the rate of another sugar utilization. Cell lysis at the end of fermentation occured more slowly in the mixtures of sugars than a single sugar.

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