• Title/Summary/Keyword: growth

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How Does Financial Development Impact Economic Growth in Pakistan?: New Evidence from Threshold Model

  • TARIQ, Rameez;KHAN, Muhammad Arshad;RAHMAN, Abdul
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.7 no.8
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    • pp.161-173
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    • 2020
  • This study examines the nonlinear relationship between financial development and economic growth in Pakistan using the threshold regression model for the period 1980-2017. We also employed quantile regression with 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 quantiles of conditional distribution. The quantile regression is based on minimizing of sum of squared residuals. The result indicates that economic growth responds positively to financial development when the level of financial development surpasses the threshold value of 0.151. However, when financial development lies below the threshold value (that is, 0.151), its impact on economic growth is negative. Thus, when financial development of Pakistan surpasses the threshold level, it contributes more towards economic growth since greater level of financial development contributes more to boosts economic growth. This finding reveals that economic growth reacts differently to financial development, and the relationship between financial development and economic growth is U-shaped in Pakistan. Among the other variables, physical capital, labor force, and government expenditure exert a positive effect on economic growth. Furthermore, inflation rate and trade openness have an insignificant impact on economic growth. The results of quantile regression also confirm the non-linear relationship between financial development and economic growth in Pakistan. The finding of this study suggests revamping of financial sector policies in Pakistan.

Effect of substrate pretreatment on the growth yield enhancement and growth temperature decrease of carbon nanotubes (탄소나노튜브의 합성수율 증대와 저온 합성에 미치는 기판 전처리의 영향)

  • Shin, Eui-Chul;Jo, Sung-Il;Jeong, Goo-Hwan
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2019
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNT) on metal substrates are definitely beneficial because they can maintain robust mechanical stability and high conductivity between CNT and metal interfaces. Here, we report direct growth of CNT on Ni-based superalloy, Inconel 600, using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with acetylene feedstock in the growth temperature range of $400-725^{\circ}C$. Furthermore, we studied the effect of substrate pretreatment on the growth yield enhancement and growth temperature decrease of CNT on Inconel 600. Activation energy (AE) for CNT growth was estimated from the CNT height change with respect to the growth temperature. The AE values significantly decreased from 205.03 to 24.35 kJ/mol by the pretreatment of thermal oxidation of Inconel substrate at $725^{\circ}C$ under ambient. Higher oxidation temperature tends to have lower activation energy. The results have shown the importance of pretreatment temperature on CNT growth yield and growth temperature decrease.

Comparison of Models to Describe Growth of Green Algae Chlorella vulgaris for Nutrient Removal from Piggery Wastewater (양돈폐수의 영양염류 제거를 위한 녹조류 Chlorella vulgaris 성장 모형의 비교)

  • Lim, Byung-Ran;Jutidamrongphan, Warangkana;Park, Ki-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2010
  • Batch experiments were conducted to investigate growth and nutrient removal performance of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris by using piggery wastewater in different concentration of pollutants and the common growth models (logistic, Gompertz and Richards) were applied to compare microalgal growth parameters. Removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) by Chlorella vulgaris showed correlation with biomass increase, implying nutrient uptake coupled with microalgae growth. The higher the levels of suspended solids (SS), COD and ammonia nitrogen were in the wastewater, the worse growth of Chlorella vulgaris was observed, showing the occurrence of growth inhibition in higher concentration of those pollutants. The growth parameters were estimated by non-linear regression of three growth curves for comparative analyses. Determination of growth parameters were more accurate with population as a variable than the logarithm of population in terms of R square. Richards model represented better fit comparing with logistic and Gompertz model. However, Richards model showed some complexity and sensitivity in calculation. In the cases tested, both logistic and Gompertz equation were proper to describe the growth of microalgae on piggery wastewater as well as easy to application.

R&D Expenditure, International Trade and Economic Growth: Korea's Experience

  • Yi, Myung-Hoon;Mah, Jai-Shin
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2016
  • Purpose - The purpose of this research is to investigate whether Korea's economic growth can be explained by the endogenous growth theory. Specifically, we test whether R&D expenditure has a positive and significant effect on the economic growth. Research design, data, and methodology - We hypothesize that R&D expenditure has a positive effect on the economic growth after adding control variables in the growth equation. Korean annual data from 1963 to 2011 from Science and Technology Annual of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, the Bank of Korea, etc. are used. We estimate the growth equation by GMM in addition to OLS. Results - We found that R&D expenditure has a positive and significant effect on the economic growth after adding the ratio of investment to GDP, the ratio of FDI to GDP, the ratio of government expenditure to GDP, inflation and the ratio of trade openness to GDP as control variables in the growth equation. Conclusions - Our results show that Korea's rapid economic growth for the past five decades can be explained by the R&D-based endogenous economic growth theory. Our results suggest that the policy attention of the Korean government be paid to R&D promotion.

Implementation of Complex Growth-environment Control System in Greenhouse (온실 복합생장환경 관제 시스템 구현)

  • Cho, Hyun Wook;Cho, Jong Sik;Park, In Gon;Seo, Beom Seok;Kim, Chan Woo;Shin, Chang Sun
    • Journal of Korea Society of Digital Industry and Information Management
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, Wireless sensor network technology applied to various greenhouse agro-industry items such as horticulture and local specialty etc., we was constructed automatic control system for optimum growth environment by measuring growth status and environmental change. existing monitoring systems of greenhouse gather information about growth environment depends on the temperature. but in this system, Can be efficient collection and control of information to construct wireless sensor network by growth measurement sensor and environment monitoring sensor inside of the greenhouse. The system is consists of sensor manager for information processing, an environment database that stores information collected from sensors, the GUI of show the greenhouse status, it gather soil and environment information to soil and environment(including weather) sensors, growth measurement sensor. In addition to support that soil information service shows the temperature, moisture, EC, ph of soil to user through the interaction of obtained data and Complex Growth Environment information service for quality and productivity can prevention and response by growth disease or disaster of greenhouse agro-industry items how temperature, humidity, illumination acquiring informationin greenhouse(strawberry, ginseng). To verify the executability of the system, constructing the complex growth environment measurement system using wireless sensor network in greenhouse and we confirmed that it is can provide our optimized growth environment information.

Effect of Incubation Period, Temperature and pH on Mycelial Growth of Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinssm.) Scholten Causing Root-rot of Ginseng (배양기간, 온도, pH가 인삼 근부병균 Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinssm.) Scholten의 균사생육에 미치는 영향)

  • 조대휘;안일평
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 1995
  • Cylindvocarpon destmtalns isolate CY-92-01, pathogen of root-rot of Panax ginseng showed t the maximum mycelial growth on the Czapek solution agar among the thirteen kinds of media. Five isolates (Isolate CY-92-01, CY-92-03, CY-92-07, CY-94-01, CY-94-02) of C. destructan from various growth stages of p. ginseng recovered from several geographical sites also showed maximum growth in the Czapek-Dox broth compared with potato dextrose broth and V-8 juice broth. Rapid growth rate was maintained until 12 days after inoculation on the Czapek-Dox broth and mycelial weight was somewhat constant until 20 days. After 30 days of incubation, the mycelial weight began to decrease. The fungal growth occurred from 5$^{\circ}C$ to $25^{\circ}C$ and optimum temperature for growth was 2$0^{\circ}C$. Mycelial weight orderly decreased at 15, 25, 10, and 5$^{\circ}C$. Quantitative measurement was impossible at 5$^{\circ}C$. No fungal growth was occurred at the temperature higher than 3$0^{\circ}C$. Growth was observed at all tested pH ranges from 2.8 to 8.0. Optimum pH for growth was 4.0~5.0 followed by pH 3.3~3.5 and 5.4~6.0. The least growth occurred at pH 2.8.

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Studies on Antler (II) Effect of Antler on the Growth of the Experimental Rats(part 1) (녹용에 관한 연구(제 2 보) 녹용이 실험용백서의 성장에 미치는 영향에 대하여 (기일))

  • 용재익
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.10-15
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    • 1960
  • In order to know the effect on the growth of experimental rats, this, this experimental rats, this experiment was carried out on two groups of rats-a rice-diet animal group and a stock-diet animal group. Results of the growth experiment are shown in the tables 3 and 4, and growth curves are shown in the figures 1 and 2. The growth curves are shown in the figures 3 and 4. Based on the statistical analysis of growth rats, the male group on stock-diet was stimulated significantly in its growth by adding antler. The female group on rice-diet was also significantly stimulated in growth by anter. The other groups are not significant but it seems likely that the growths wers stimulated. As shown in table 7, the numbers of days when the body weight of the animals in each group became two times, three times, three times, and four times are discussed. This method of analysis shows clearly the stimulation of growth by adding antler in each group in both sexes. It can be summarized that the antler stimulates the growth of the experimental rats but it is not discussed in this paper whether this stimulation in the growth might be due to calcium, vitamins and amino acids in antler or to an unknown growth factor.

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Effects of Herbal Composition and Fermented Cervi Pantotrichum Cornu on Longitudinal Bone Growth in Adolescent Male Rats (한약혼합제제(韓藥混合製劑)와 녹용발효추출물(鹿茸醱酵抽出物)의 성장기(成長期) 흰쥐 장골(長骨) 길이 성장(成長)에 대한 효과)

  • Lee, Se-Na;Son, Jae-Bong;Sohn, Jong-Hee;Kim, Wan-Ki;Lee, Sang-Jun;Lee, Pyeong-Jae;Leem, Kang-Hyun
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 2009
  • Objectives:This study was designed to investigate the effects of herbal composition and fermented Cervi Pantotrichum Cornu on the growth of longitudinal bone in the adolescent male rats. Methods: Longitudinal bone growth was measured by fluorescence microscopy. To examine the effects on the growth plate metabolism, the total height of growth plate and the induction of local insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were measured. Results: The herbal composition treatment enhanced longitudinal bone growth and total heght of growth plate and promoted the induction of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 of growth plate. Conclusions: This study showed that the herbal composition have the effect of bone growth in adolescent rats and might be used for the growth delayed adolescent and inherent growth failure patient.

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A Comparative Study on Effects of Kyungohkgo and Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong on Growth in Growth Deficiency Rat with Insufficient Nutrition Diet (성장장애 흰쥐에서 경옥고(瓊玉膏)와 경옥고가록용(瓊玉膏加鹿茸)의 성장효과 비교 연구)

  • Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2009
  • Objectives This study was designed to evaluate the difference of between Kyungohkgo and Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong effects of growth Methods We divided male Spraque-Dawley rats into 6 groups. They were Normal group, Growth deficiency rat with insufficient nutrition diet group, Growth deficiency rat with 0.1% Kyungohkgo group, Growth deficiency rat with 0.2% Kyungohkgo group, Growth deficiency rat with 0.1% Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong group and Growth deficiency rat with 0.2% Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong group. They were administered for 5 weeks. We measured body weight, serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor and thyroid stimulating hormone, RBC, concentration of Hb and PCV ratio, total WBC and its composition, the values of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase(GPT) activities. Results 1. In body weight, Kyungohkgo 0.1%, Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong 0.1%, 0.2% groups were showed sighnificantly different than control group. But That groups were not showed significantly different than each others. 2. In serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor and thyroid stimulating hormone, we obtained the results of tendency to increase in Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong group, however these values showed no significantly different. 3. In the counts of RBC, Kyungohkgo group and Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong group were showed significantly different than control group. But these values showed no significantly different. In the concentration of Hb, Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong 0.2%group was showed significantly different than control group. Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong 0.2% group and Kyungohkgo 0.2% group were showed significantly different than control group. 4. The counts of total WBC and its composition showed no significantly different in all treatment groups. 5. The values of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase(GPT) activities showed no significantly different in all treatment groups. Conclusions So Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong and Kyungohkgo have an effect of promoting growth of rats. And We know that the effect of Kyungohkgo Ga Nokyong is better than Kyungohkgo.

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A STUDY OF THE SUTURAL FACIAL BONE GROWTH OF RABBIT : SERIAL ROENTGENOGRAPHIC STUDY BY MEANS OF MEANS OF IMPLANTS (금속매식법(金屬埋植法)에 의(依)한 가토(家兎)의 봉합성(縫合性) 안면골성장(顔面骨成長)에 관(關)한 X-선학적(線學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Won Chul
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.23-35
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    • 1979
  • The present study has the purpose of investigating various growth and developmental aspects of rabbit snout with the aid of metallic implantation and of improving on the indirect method of growth and developmental studies of its skull. Sixty-eight growing albino rabbits were used. A head holder, film holder, cephalometer, metallic implanting device and implant materials were designed and constructed by the author. Eight metallic pins were implanted with a metallic implanting device in the rabbit snout under general anesthesia. Two metallic pins were implanted on each side of the interfrontal suture and another two were put on each side of the internasal suture near the frontonasal suture. Serial cephalograms were taken with a two-week interval, using the head holder, film holder and cephalometer. Eight items of linear measurement were obtained from the film. On the base of the results of the study, the following conclusions are obtained: 1. The metallic implant method is better than the other indirect methods for growth and developmental studies of the rabbit skull. 2. Most of the vertical growth of the rabbit snout is due to sutural growth at the frontonasal suture and the horizontal growth is at the interfrontal and the internasal suture. 3. The vertical growth of the rabbit snout is greater than the horizontal growth. 4. The horizontal growth of the rabbit snout is greater at the nasal bone than at the frontal bone. 5. The amount of vertical growth of the rabbit snout is almost same at inner and outer side of the interfrontal and internasal suture line, 6. Growth rate of the sutural growth of the rabbit snout tends to decrease by the growth of the rabbit. 7. Implant materials do not disturb growth and development of the rabbit snout, except a slight trauma effect during the first week of metallic implantation.

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