• Title, Summary, Keyword: hardness

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Determination of Brinell Hardness through Instrumented Indentation Test without Observation of Residual Indent (계장화압입시험법을 이용한 비압흔관찰 브리넬 경도 평가)

  • Kim, Sung-Hoon;Choi, Yeol;Kwon, Dong-Il
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.578-585
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    • 2004
  • Hardness test is performed for determination of the other properties, such as strength, wear resistance and deformation resistance, as well as hardness itself. And it is performed for prediction of residual lifetime by analysis of hardness reduction or hardness ratio. However, hardness test has limitation that observation of residual indent is needed for determination of hardness value, and that is the reason for not to be widely used in industrial field. Therefore, in this study, we performed researches to obtain Brinell hardness value from quantitative numerical formula by analysing relationship between indentation depths from indentation load-depth curve and mechanical properties such as work hardening exponent, yield strength and elastic modulus.

Relationship between Barcol hardness and flexural modulus degradation of composite sheets subjected to flexural fatigue

  • Sakin, Raif
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.1531-1548
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Barcol hardness (H) and flexural modulus (E) degradation of composite sheets subjected to flexural fatigue. The resin transfer molding (RTM) method was used to produce 3-mm-thick composite sheets with fiber volume fraction of 44%. The composite sheets were subjected to flexural fatigue tests and Barcol scale hardness measurements. After these tests, the stiffness and hardness degradations were investigated in the composite sheets that failed after around one million cycles (stage III). Flexural modulus degradation values were in the range of 0.41-0.42 with the corresponding measured hardness degradation values in the range of 0.25-0.32 for the all fatigued composite sheets. Thus, a 25% reduction in the initial hardness and a 41% reduction in the initial flexural modulus can be taken as the failure criteria. The results showed that a reasonably well-defined relationship between Barcol hardness and flexural modulus degradation in the distance range.

Effects of Flame Peeling Characteristics on the Hardness of the Chestnut Shells (밤 외피 경도가 화염박피 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김종훈;박재복;최창현;김재민
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.351-358
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    • 1998
  • It was intended to investigate that how hardness of chestnut shell affects the flame peeling characteristics of Korean Chestnut. Effects of the hardness on the flame peeling characteristics need to be found to establish the optimum drying conditions for chestnut of various cultivars, sizes and harvested years. The equation based on the hardness of the chestnut shells was developed. It was found that the flame peeling characteristics of the corresponding to the various drying conditions did not differ significantly to the groups with the same hardness. The flame peeling characteristics of the chestnut with the same hardness were not influenced by cultivars, size, and harvested year, The peeling ratio and the heating depth were increased by decrease of the hardness of the chestnut shells. On the other hand, the peeling ratio and the heating depth were increased as the flame temperature was increased with the same hardness. When the heating depth was limited to 2.1 mm regarding the process characteristics and the damage ratio, the proper hardness and peeling ratio of chestnut shells were 1,369.8 g/$\textrm{mm}^2$ and 83.9%, respectively, at the flame temperature of $700^{\circ}C$. And also 1,517.7 g/$\textrm{mm}^2$ and 80.7% at 75$0^{\circ}C$.

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Evaluation of Brinell Hardness of Coated Surface Using Finite Element Analysis: Part 1 - A Feasibility Study (유한요소해석에 의한 코팅면의 브리넬 경도 평가: 제1보 - 타당성 연구)

  • Park, TaeJo;Kang, JeongGuk
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.378-384
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    • 2020
  • The friction surfaces of mechanical parts are heat-treated or coated with hard materials to minimize wear. Increasing the hardness is a very useful way to reduce abrasive wear. The general Brinell hardness test, which is widely used for metallic materials, is not suitable because it hardly shows any change in hardness when coated with thin films. In this study, we propose a basis for the application of the new Brinell hardness test method to the coated friction surface. An indentation analysis of the rigid sphere and elastic-perfectly plastic materials is performed using a commercial finite element analysis software. The results indicate that their loadto-diameter ratio is the same; the Brinell hardness test method can be applied even when the indenter diameter is on the micrometer scale. In the case of hard coating, it is difficult to calculate Brinell hardness using the diameter of the indentation, but the study revealed, for the first time, that it can be calculated using the depth of the indentation regardless of coating. The change in hardness owing to thin film coating over a wide load range implies that the hardness evaluation method is appropriate. Additional studies on various properties related to the substrate and coating material are required to apply the proposed method.

Modification of Thin Film Friction and Wear Models with Effective Hardness

  • Kim, Chang-Lae;Kim, Hae-Jin
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.320-323
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    • 2020
  • Thin film coatings are commonly exploited to minimize wear and optimize the frictional behavior of various precision mechanical systems. The enhancement of thin film durability is directly related to the performance maximization of the system. Therefore, a fine approach to analyze the thin film wear behavior is required. Archard's equation is a representative and well-developed law that defines the wear coefficient, which is the probability of creating wear particles. A ploughing model is a commonly used model to determine the friction force during the abrasive contact. The equations demonstrate that the friction force and wear coefficient are inversely proportional to the hardness of the material. In this study, Archard's equation and ploughing models are modified with an effective hardness to minimize the gap between the experimental and numerical results. It is noted that the effective hardness is the hardness variation with respect to the penetration depth owing to the substrate effect. The nanoindentation method is utilized to characterize the effective hardness of Cu film. The wear coefficient value considering the effective hardness is more than three times higher than that without considering the effective hardness. The friction force predicted with the effective hardness agreed better with the results obtained directly from the friction force detecting sensor. This outcome is expected to improve the accuracy of friction and wear amount predictions.

A Study on the Measuring Accuracy of Ultrasonic Hardness Tester (초음파 경도계의 측정정도에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Eung-Kyo;Yoon, Jong-Hak;Kim, Jae-Yeor
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 1987
  • In recent days, the application of ultrasonics has been increased in the field of engineering and medicine. The ultrasonic hardness tester to apply the principle of contact compliance method is entirely different from hardness tester in the past and in the practical use, the more pre- cisive measurement is required because it has a slight change of hardness value due to the difference of resonance frequency. Therefore, in this study, as one type of applicative transducers which can detect the optimum pressure load, ring type load cell was used in the measurement of ultrasonic hardness. From experimental results, it was compared ultrasonic hardness testing method with the other hardness testing methods. Also, the measurement error of ultrasonic hardness tester could be measured within .+-. 0.5 HRC F.S. in the case of 3.0Kg pressure load.

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Effect of Triacetin and Activated Carbon on the Hardness of Cellulose Acetate Filter containing Activated Carbon (활성탄과 가소제가 탄소복합필터의 경도에 미치는 영향)

  • 신창호;김종열;김정열;김영호;이영택
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 2000
  • Filter hardness is important to filter and cigarette manufactures because it is directly related to the ability of a plugmaker during making filter and to the acceptability of the filter by the consumer. In general, glycerol triacetate(Triacetin, TA) is the currently used common plasticizer in making filters from cellulose acetate tow and the effect of triacetin on hardness of filter which is made of mono cellulose acetate tow was well known. But unfortunately, the effect of triacetin on the hardness of cellulose acetate filter containing ativated carbon(carbon filter) was not reported so far. In this study, we manufactured filters with various carbon content at different triacetin concentrations and then analyzed the filter hardness and pressure drop. Filter hardness was directly increased with triacetin concentration but pressure drop was not affected and the effect of carbon content on filter hardness was smaller than that of triacetin concentration. However, pressure drop was directly increased with carbon content.

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Hardness Estimation of Compressor Journal for a Use of Instrumented Indentation Techniques (계장화 압입시험법을 이용한 차량용 컴프레서 저널 경도 평가)

  • Kwak, Sung-Jong;Jin, Ji-Won;Kim, Tae-Seong;Noh, Ki-Han;Kang, Ki-Weon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.376-381
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    • 2012
  • This paper deals with application of instrumented indentation technique for quality inspection methodology for automobile component. For this, the instrumented indentation tests were performed the normal and cracked compressor journal, which is made from spheroidal graphite cast iron and utilized in air-conditioning system. And the Brinell hardness was estimated using the unloading slope and maximum indentation force. With the aid of Normal distribution, this Brinell hardness was statistically compared and analyzed with hardness measured by indentation hardness tests. Also, application possibility of reliability-based quality inspection criteria for compressor journal was evaluated through the probabilistic analysis for the Brinell hardness estimated by instrumented indentation technique.

A Study on the Vegetation Properties of Slope Areas according to the Soil Hardness (토양경도에 따른 비탈면 식생 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kil, Sung-Ho;Lee, Dong-Kun;Ahn, Tong Mahn;Koo, Meehyun;Kim, Te Yon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.115-127
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted on the measurement of soil hardness through a hardness testing machine in slopes of natural environments and artificial environments which is generally known as slope revegetation. The soil hardness as one of physicochemical soil properties is significantly associated with plant growth. Although another studies related to the slope revegetation was focused on herbaceous plants, studies related to soil properties for arbor appearance is lack. It was focused on the correlation analysis between the soil hardness and the plant appearance. the results were as follows : The higher the soil hardness is, the less the appearance of plants is as a result of survey. Species appearing in the high levels of the soil hardness represented mugwort and grass. The levels of the soil hardness in the slope of natural environments was good environmental conditions with various plants in the range of 6 to 12mm. The levels of the soil hardness in the slope revegetation was in the 6.88-30mm range. The soil hardness below 21mm showed a variety of plants with arbors and herbaceous plants, whereas it above 21mm represented a monotonous style of plant structure including Artemisia princeps, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis L and Setaria viridis. The result of the correlation analysis between the soil hardness and the plant appearance was negatively correlated with justifiable significance levels. The result of a logistic regression analysis for tree appearance was statistically proved when the numerical value of the soil hardness is lower.

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HARDNESS IN VISIBLE LIGHT-CURED COMPOSITE RESIN AT VARYING DEPTH (가시광선(可視光線) 복합(復合)레진의 심부경도(深部硬度) 측정(測定)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Myoung, Jae-Keun;Lee, Myoung-Jong
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 1985
  • The purpose of this study was to measure the Micro-Knoop Hardness of three commercial visible light-cured composite resins (Plurafil-super, He1iosit and Durafi) according to the difference of depth and shade. Specimens of the resin were prepapared in plastic tubes 5mm in diameter with height of 5mm, and the tubes were put into the columned holes in stone molds. The molds were exposed to the visible light through the hole 5mm in diameter in metal plate. Specimens were sectioned (longitudinally) with disk. Knoop Hardness measurements were made at the depth of surface, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0mm from the surface to the deep portion. Knoop Hardness numbers were taken on each depth under 20gm load for 10 seconds with Shimadzu Tester. The following results were: 1. The highest hardness value was measured at 0.5mm depth. Then the deeper the depth, the lesser the hardness was observed. 2. The value of hardness was directly propotional to the time of exposure to the light. 3. The hardness of light shade resin was higher than the that of the dark shade. 4. The pattern of hardness change at varying depth is similar to all the experimental materials with no relation to the shade nor exposure time.

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