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Deterioration Characteristic Analysis for Stone Properties in the Taereung Royal Tomb of the Joseon Dynasty using Nondestructive Analysis (비파괴 분석을 활용한 조선왕릉 태릉 석조물의 손상특성 분석)

  • Lee, Myeonseong;Choie, Myoungju;Lee, Taejong;Chun, Yungun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.222-241
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    • 2020
  • The Taereung Royal Tomb from the Joseon Dynasty is the tomb of Empress Munjeong, the second queen of King Jungjong, and it contains various types of stone artifacts. All of these stone artifacts were constructed using coarse- to medium-grained biotite granite. The major types of deterioration of the stone artifacts are identified as surface weathering and biological contaminants. Exfoliation (145 sculptures), granular decomposition (138 sculptures), and repair materials (156 sculptures), along with biological contaminant algae (154 sculptures), lichen (165 sculptures) and moss (97 sculptures), have a high occurrence frequency. In particular, it is deemed that immediate conservation treatment is required, as biological deterioration (algae) represents the most serious condition (grade 3 or higher in 94% of all stones), and it is thought that exfoliation and granulation decomposition are required for long-term conservation management. As a result of equo -tip hardness and ultrasonic measurement, more than 70% of stones were found to have very weak physical properties. Through hyperspectral analysis, organisms were shown to inhabit more than 80% of the surface of burial mound stone artifacts, and P (phosphorus), S (sulfur), Cl (chlorine), and Ca (calcium) were detected in this area. This is because Taereung Royal Tomb has been exposed to the outdoors for hundreds of years and has been weathered by physical, chemical, and biological factors. Therefore, among the stone artifacts in the Taereung Royal Tomb, those with high physical weathering grades are considered to require consolidation to reinforce them physically. Since organisms are highly likely to cause stone damage, they must be removed via dry and wet cleaning. In addition, in order to delay the reoccurrence of organisms following conservation treatment, it is necessary to regularly clean up the soil that has flowed into the burial mound, and to monitor conservation conditions over the long term.

Mechanical and Operational Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Rice Polishing Machines (정미기의 능률에 미치는 기계적 요인및 작동조건에 관한 연구)

  • 노상하;최재갑
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.17-48
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    • 1976
  • In analyzing the operational characteristics of a rice whitening machine, the internal radial pressure of the machine was measured using strain gage equipment. Changes in cylinder and feed screw configurations, screen type, cylinder speed and counter-pressure levels were examined to determine their impact on the quality and quantity of milled rice and the performance of the machine. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The internal radial pressure in the whitening chamber varied with the surface condition of the grain being processed. During the first or second pass through the machine, pressure was relatively low, reached a maximum after two to three passes with combinations I and II, three to six with combination III and then began to fall. 2. The pitch of the feed screw and the size of the feed gate opening which determine the rate of entry of grain into the whitening chamber, appeared to be the most important factor aff-::cting the degree of radial pressure, quality and quantity of milled rice and the efficiency of the machine. Using a feed screw with a wide pitch (4.8cm), radial pressure was relatively high and head rice recovery ratio \vere quite low. In this case capacity and machine effic\ulcorneriency were much higher than obtained when using a feed screw with a narrow pitch (2.3cm). Very significant responses in radial pressure, head rice recovery rates and machine capacity were observed with changes in cylinder speed and counter-pressure levels when using the wide pitch feed screw. 3. The characteristics of the screen which surrounds the whitening chamber had an important effect on whitening efficiency. The existence of small protuberances on the original screen resulted in significant increases in both machine capacity and efficiency but without a significant decrease in head rice recovery or development of excessive radial pressure. Further work is required to determine the effects of screen surface conditions and the shape of the cylinderical steel roller on the rate of bran removal, machine efficiency and recovery rates. The size of the slotted perforations 0:1 the screen affects total milled rice recovery. The opening size on the original screen was fabricated to accommodate the round shape of Japonica rice varieties but was not suitable for the more slender Indica type. Milling Indica varieties with this screen resulted in a reduction in total milled rice recovery. 4. An increase in cylinder speed from 380 to 820 rpm produced a positive effect on head rice recovery for all machine combinations at every level of counter-pressure used in the tests. Head rice recovery was considerably lower at 380rpm using a wide screw pitch when compared to the results obtained at speeds from 600 to 820 r.p.m. The effects of cylinder speed On radial pressure, capacity and machine efficiency showed contrasting results, depending on the width of the feed screw pitch. With a narrow feed screw pitch (2.3cm), a direct proportional relationship was observed bet\ulcornerween cylinder speed and both radial pressure and machine efficiency. In contrast, using a 4.8 centimeter pitch feed roller produced a series of inverse relationships between the above variables. Based on the results of this study it is recommended when milling Indica type long grain rice varieties that the cylinder speed of the original machine be increased from 500-600 rmp up to a minimum of 800 rpm to obtain a greater abrasive effect between the grain and the screen. The pitch of the feed screw should be also reduced to decr\ulcornerease the level of internal radial pressure and to obtain higher machine efficiency and increased quality of milled rice with increased cylinder speeds. Further study on the interaction between cylinder speed and feed screw pitch is recommended. 5. An increase in the counter pressure level produced a negative effect On the head rice recovery with an increase in radial pressure, capacity, and machine efficiency over all combinations and at every level of cylinder speed. 6. Head rice recovery rates were conditioned primarily by the pressure inside the whitening chamber. According to the empirical cha racteristics curve developed in this study, the relationships of head rice recovery ($Y_h$) and machine capacity ($Y_c$/TEX>) to internal radial pressure ($X_p$) followed an inverse quadratic function and a linear function respectively: $$Y_h^\Delta=\frac{1}{{1.4383-0.2951X_p^\ast+0.1425X_p^{\ast\ast}}^2} , (R^2=0.98)$$ $$Y_c^\Delta=-305.83+374.37X_p^{\ast\ast}, (R^2=0.88)$$ The correlation between capacity and power consumption per unit of brown rice expressed in the following exponential function: $$Y_c^\Delta=1.63Y_c^{-0.7786^\{\ast\ast}, (R^2=0.94)$$ These relationships indicate that when radial pressure increases above a certain range (1. 6 to 2.0 kg/$cm^2$ based On the results of the experiment) head ricerecovery decrea\ulcornerses in a quadratic relation with a inear increase in capacity but without any decrease in power consump tion per unit of brown rice. On the other hand, if radial pressure is below the range shown above, power consumption increases dramatically with a lin\ulcornerear decrease in capacity but without significant increases in head rice recovery. During the operation of a given whitening machine, the optimum radial pressure range or the correct capacity range should be selected by controlling the feed rate and/or counter-pressure keeping in mind the condition of the grain, particulary the hardness. It was observed that the total number of passes is related to radial pessure level, feed rate and counter-pressure level. The higher theradial pressure the fewer num\ulcornerber of pass required but with decreased head rice recovery. In particular, when using high feed rates, the total number of passes should be increased to more than three by reducing the counter-pressure level to avoid decreaseases in head rice recovery (less than 65 percent head rice recovery on the basis of brown rice) at every cylinder speed. 7. A rapid rise in grain temperature seemed to have a close relationship with the pressure generated inside the whitening chamber and, subsequently with head rice reco\ulcornervery rates. The higher the rate of increase, the lower were the resulting head rice recoveries.

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The Ripening of Camembert Cheese Made with Mucor Miehei Rennet (Mucor Miehei 응유효소(凝乳酵素)로 제조(製造)한 Camembert Cheese의 숙성(熟成)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Mooh Il;Kim, Jong Woo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.179-200
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    • 1989
  • Mucor miehei rennet(MR) was added as calf rennet(CR) substitutes in the fixed amounts of mixed rennets in making Camembert cheese. The conditions in the variations of chemical composition: water-soluble nitrogen, non-caseinic nitrogen, non-proteinic nitrogen, amino nitrogen, ammoniacal nitorgen, electrophoresis, molecular fractionation, mineral distribution, texture characterisitics, free amino acids and free fatty acids, were checked up with the sensory test and the chesse yields at each ripening period. The results obtained by investigating the utility of Mucor rennet were summarized as follows: 1. CR chesse, MR cheese and the mixed-rennet chesse failed to show any significant difference in their yields of 15%. 2. The contents of protein, fat and ash in MR cheese gave lower value than CR cheese did and with progress of ripening lactose decreased rapidly after 14 days of ripening. The difference among the rate of addition of mucor rennet was not recognized. 3. The WSN contents of 5 fresh sample chesse were from 14.7% to 17.3% and WSN increased from 39.7% to 41.0% with progress of ripening. After 21 days of ripening MR chesse had more WSN than CR cheese did. In NCN and ammoniacal nitrogen MR cheese showed higher value. 4. As the ripening progressed, MR chesse showed more cystein, phenylalanine and proline than CR chesse did but it failed to show any increase in aspartic acid, threonine and glutamic acid etc. 5. In the content of free fatty acid MR chesse showed higher value than CR cheese did and with the progress of ripening fatty acids increased from 8.36 mEq to 26.36 mEq but did not show any significant difference in the cheese types by the coagulant ratio. 6. Ca contents in the sample chesse were 0.238-0.27%, Mg 0.019-0.022%, Na 0.910-1.047%, and K 0.175-0.200%. The important non-sedimentable Ca in casein remained from 61 % to 77% without regard the ripening periods and added-rennets and Mg remained from 59.1% to 92.5% in non-sedimentable and water-soluble conditions. 7. In the fractionation of protein by ultrafilteration, MW> $5{\times}10^4$ decresed from 95% at the beginning period of ripening to 45% and MW< $10^4$ increased from 0.2% to 38% and definite caseinolysis was shown in all samples. 8. All the cheese showed to different electrophoretic patterns for the added-amounts of mucor rennet in the 14 days of ripenig. In the 28 days or ripening, MR cheese kept some bands on the patterns compared with CR cheese. 9. In vitro digestibility increased from 81.48-94.81 % to 94.47-98.61% but failed to show any significant difference in the cheese types by the coagulant ratio. 10. In hardness, MR cheese showed lower value compared with CR cheese as the ripening progressed. 11. The results of the sensory test failed to show any difference in flora rind, feelings in mouth and hands, deep structure, flavor and bitterness between CR Camembert cheese and MR Camembert chesse.

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Environmental Changes after Timber Harvesting in (Mt.) Paekunsan (백운산(白雲山) 성숙활엽수림(成熟闊葉樹林) 개벌수확지(皆伐收穫地)에서 벌출직후(伐出直後)의 환경변화(環境變化))

  • Park, Jae-Hyeon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.84 no.4
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    • pp.465-478
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    • 1995
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of large-scale timber harvesting on the environment of a mature hardwood forest. To achieve the objective, the effects of harvesting on forest environmental factors were analyzed quantitatively using the field data measured in the study sites of Seoul National University Research Forests [(Mt.) Paekunsan] for two years(1993-1994) following timber harvesting. The field data include information on vegetation, soil mesofauna, physicochemical characteristics of soil, surface water runoff, water quality in the stream, and hillslope erosion. For comparison, field data for each environmental factor were collected in forest areas disturbed by logging and undisturbed, separately. The results of this study were as follows : The diversity of vegetational species increased in the harvested sites. However, the similarity index value of species between harvested and non-harvested sites was close to each other. Soil bulk density and soil hardness were increased after timber harvesting, respectively. The level of organic matter, total-N, avail $P_2O_5$, CEC($K^+$, $Na^+$, $Ca^{{+}{+}}$, $Mg^{{+}{+}}$) in the harvested area were found decreased. While the population of Colembola spp., and Acari spp. among soil mesofauna in harvested sites increased by two to seven times compared to those of non-harvested sites during the first year, the rates of increment decreased in the second year. However, those members of soil mesofauna in harvested sites were still higher than those of non-harvested sites in the second year. The results of statistical analysis using the stepwise regression method indicated that the diversity of soil mesofauna were significantly affected by soil moisture, soil bulk density, $Mg^{{+}{+}}$, CEC, and soil temperature at soil depth of 5(0~10)cm in the order of importance. The amount of surface water runoff on harvested sites was larger than that of non-harvested sites by 28% in the first year and 24.5% in the second year after timber harvesting. The level of BOD, COD, and pH in the stream water on the harvested sites reached at the level of the domestic use for drinking in the first and second year after timber harvesting. Such heavy metals as Cd, Pb, Cu, and organic P were not found. Moreover, the level of eight factors of domestic use for drinking water designated by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea were within the level of the first class in the quality of drinking water standard. The study also showed that the amount of hillslope erosion in harvested sites was 4.77 ton/ha/yr in the first year after timber harvesting. In the second year, the amount decreased rapidly to 1.0 ton/ha/yr. The impact of logging on hillslope erosion in the harvested sites was larger than that in non-harvested sites by seven times in the first year and two times in the second year. The above results indicate that the large-scale timber harvesting cause significant changes in the environmental factors. However, the results are based on only two-year field observation. We should take more field observation and analyses to increase understandings on the impacts of timber harvesting on environmental changes. With the understandings, we might be able to improve the technology of timber harvesting operations to reduce the environmental impacts of large-scale timber harvesting.

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A Study on the 'Zhe Zhong Pai'(折衷派) of the Traditional Medicine of Japan (일본(日本) 의학醫學의 '절충파(折衷派)'에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Hyun-Kuk;Kim, Ki-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.121-141
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    • 2007
  • The outline and characteristics of the important doctors of the 'Zhe Zhong Pai'(折衷派) are as follows. Part 1. In the late Edo(江戶) period The 'Zhe Zhong Pai', which tried to take the theory and clinical treatment of the 'Hou Shi Pai (後世派)' and the 'Gu Fang Pai (古方派)' and get their strong points to make treatments perfect, appeared. Their point was 'The main part is the art of the ancients, The latter prescriptions are to be used'(以古法爲主, 後世方爲用) and the "Shang Han Lun(傷寒論)" was revered for its treatments but in actual use it was not kept at that. As mentioned above The 'Zhe Zhong Pai ' viewed treatments as the base, which was the view of most doctors in the Edo period, However, the reason the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' is not valued as much as the 'Gu Fang Pai' by medical history books in Japan is because the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' does not have the substantiation or uniqueness of the 'Gu Fang Pai', and also because the view of 'gather as well as store up' was the same as the 'Kao Zheng Pai', Moreover, the 'compromise'(折衷) point of view was from taking in both Chinese and western medical knowledge systems(漢蘭折衷), Generally the pioneer of the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' is seen as Mochizuki Rokumon(望月鹿門) and after that was Fukui Futei(福井楓亭), Wadato Kaku(和田東郭), Yamada Seichin(山田正珍) and Taki Motohiro(多紀元簡), Part 2. The lives of Wada Tokaku(和田東郭), Nakagame Kinkei(中神琴溪), Nei Teng Xi Zhe(內藤希哲), the important doctors of the 'Zhe Zhong Pai', are as follows First. Wada Tokaku(和田東郭, 1743-1803) was born when the 'Hou Shi Pai' was already declining and the 'Gu Fang Pai' was flourishing and learned medicine from a 'Hou Shi Pai' doctor, Hu Tian Xu Shan(戶田旭山) and a 'Gu Fang Pai' doctor, Yoshimasu Todo(吉益東洞). He was not hindered by 'the old ways(古方), and did not lean towards 'the new ways(後世方)' and formed a way of compromise that 'looked at hardness and softness as the same'(剛柔相摩) by setting 'the cure of the disease' as the base, and said that to cure diseases 'the old way' must be used, but 'the new way' was necessary to supplement its shortcomings. His works include "Dao Shui Suo Yan", "Jiao Chiang Fang Yi Je" and "Yi Xue Sho(醫學說)" Second. Nakagame Kinkei(中神琴溪, 1744-1833) was famous for leaving Yoshirnasu Todo(吉益東洞) and changing to the 'Zhe Zhong Pai', and in his early years used qing fen(輕粉) to cure geisha(妓女) of syphilis. His argument was "the "Shang Han Lun" must be revered but needs to be adapted", "Zhong jing can be made into a follower but I cannot become his follower", "the later medical texts such as "Ru Men Shi Qin(儒門事親)" should only be used for its prescriptions and not its theories". His works include "Shang Han Lun Yue Yan(傷寒論約言) Third. Nei Teng Xi Zhe(內藤希哲, 1701-1735) learned medicine from Qing Shui Xian Sheng(淸水先生) and went out to Edo. In his book "Yi Jing Jie Huo Lun(醫經解惑論)" he tells of how he went from 'learning'(學) to 'skepticism'(惑) and how skepticism made him learn in 'the six skepticisms'(六惑). In the latter years Xi Zhe(希哲) combines the "Shen Nong Ben Cao jing(神農本草經)", the main text for herbal medicine, "Ming Tang jing(明堂經)" of accupuncture, basic theory texts "Huang Dui Nei jing(黃帝內徑)" and "Nan jing(難經)" with the "Shang Han Za Bing Lun", a book that the 'Gu Fang Pai' saw as opposing to the rest, and became 'an expert of five scriptures'(五經一貫). Part 3. Asada Showhaku(淺田宗伯, 1815-1894) started medicine at Zhong Cun Zhong(中村中倧) and learned 'the old way'(古方) from Yoshirnasu Todo and got experience through Chuan Yue(川越) and Fu jing(福井) and received teachings in texts, history and Wang Yangmin's principles(陽明學) from famous teachers. Showhaku(宗伯) meets a medical official of the makufu(幕府), Ben Kang Zong Yuan(本康宗圓), and recieves help from the 3 great doctors of the Edo period, Taki Motokato(多紀元堅), Xiao Dao Xue GU(小島學古) and Xi Duo Cun Kao Chuang and further develops his arts. At 47 he diagnoses the general Jia Mao(家茂) with 'heart failure from beriberi'(脚氣衝心) and becomes a Zheng Shi(徵I), at 51 he cures a minister from France and received a present from Napoleon, at 65 he becomes the court physician and saves Ming Gong(明宮) jia Ren Qn Wang(嘉仁親王, later the 大正犬皇) from bodily convulsions and becomes 'the vassal of merit who saved the national polity(國體)' At the 7th year of the Meiji(明治) he becomes the 2nd owner of Wen Zhi She(溫知社) and takes part in the 'kampo continuation movement'. In his latter years he saw 14000 patients a year, so we can estimate the quality and quantity of his clinical skills Showhaku(宗伯) wrote over 80 books including the "Ju Chuang Shu Ying(橘窓書影)", "WU Wu Yao Shi Fang Han(勿誤藥室方函)", "Shang Han Biang Shu(傷寒辨術)", "jing Qi Shen Lun(精氣神論)", "Hunag Guo Ming Yi Chuan(皇國名醫傳)" and the "Xian Jhe Yi Hua(先哲醫話)". Especially in the "Ju Chuang Shu Ying(橘窓書影)" he says "the old theories are the main, and the new prescriptions are to be used"(以古法爲主, 後世方爲用), stating the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' way of thinking. In the first volume of "Shung Han Biang Shu(傷寒辨術) and "Za Bing Lun Shi(雜病論識)", 'Zong Ping'(總評), He discerns the parts that are not Zhang Zhong Jing's writings and emphasizes his theories and practical uses.

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COMPARISON OF POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE AND STRAIN STRESS OF SEVERAL COMPOSITE RESINS USING STRAIN GUAGE (스트레인 게이지를 이용한 수종의 복합레진의 중합수축 및 수축응력의 비교)

  • Kim, Young-Kwang;Yoo, Seung-Hoon;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.516-526
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    • 2004
  • Polymerization shrinkage of photoinitiation type composite resin cause several clinical problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shrinkage strain stress, linear polymerization shrinkage, compressive strength and microhardness of recently developed composite resins. The composite resins were divided into four groups according to the contents of matrix and filler type. Group I : $Denfil^{TM}$(Vericom, Korea) with conventional matrix, Group II : $Charmfil^{(R)}$(Dentkist, Korea) with microfiller and nanofller mixture, Group III : $Filtek^{TM}$ Z250(3M-ESPE, USA) TEGDMA replaced by UDMA and Bis-EMA(6) in the matrix, and Group IV : $Filtek^{TM}$ Supreme(3M-ESPE, USA) using pure nanofiller. Preparation of acrylic molds were followed by filling and curing with light gun. Strain gauges were attached to each sample and the leads were connected to a strainmeter. With strainmeter shrinkage strain stress and linear polymerization shrinkage was measured for 10 minutes. The data detected at 1 minute and 10 minutes were analysed statistically with ONE-way ANOVA test. To evaluate the mechanical properties of tested materials, compressive hardness test and microhardness test were also rendered. The results can be summarized as follows : 1. Filling materials in acrylic molds showed initial temporary expansion in the early phase of polymerization. This was followed by contraction with the rapid increase in strain stress during the first 1 minute and gradually decreased during post-gel shrinkage phase. After 1 minute, there's no statistical differences of strain stress between groups. The highest strain stress was found in group IV and followed by group III, I, II at 10 minutes-measurement(p>.05). In regression analysis of strain stress, group III showed minimal inclination and followed by group II, I, IV during 1 minute. 2. In linear polymerization shrinkage test, the composite resins in every group showed initial increase of shrinkage velocity during the first 1 minute, followed by gradually decrease of shrinkage velocity. After 1 minute, group IV and group III showed statistical difference(p<.05). After 10 minutes, there were statistical differences between group IV and group I, III(p<.05) and between group II and group III(p<.05). In regression analysis of linear polymerization shrinkage, group II showed minimal inclination and followed by group IV, III, I during 1 minute. 3. In compressive strength test, group III showed the highest strength and followed by group II, IV, I. There were statistical differences between group III and group IV, I(p<.05). 4. In microhardness test, upper surfaces showed higher value than lower surfaces in every group(p<.05).

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A Study on the ' Zhe Zhong Pai'(折衷派) of the Traditional Medicine of Japan (일본(日本) 의학(醫學)의 '절충파(折衷派)'에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Hyun-Kuk;Kim, Ki-Wook
    • The Journal of Dong Guk Oriental Medicine
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    • v.10
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    • pp.41-61
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    • 2008
  • The outline and characteristics of the important doctors of the 'Zhe Zhong Pai'(折衷派) are as follows. Part 1. In the late Edo(江戶) period The 'Zhe Zhong Pai', which tried to take the theory and clinical treatment of the 'Hou Shi Pai (後世派)' and the 'Gu Fang Pai(古方派)' and get their strong points to make treatments perfect, appeared. Their point was 'The main part is the art of the ancients, The latter prescriptions are to be used'(以古法爲主, 後世方爲用) and the "Shang Han Lun(傷寒論)" was revered for its treatments but in actual use it was not kept at that. As mentioned above The 'Zhe Zhong Pai' viewed treatments as the base, which was the view of most doctors in the Edo period. However, the reason the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' is not valued as much as the 'Gu Fang Pai' by medical history books in Japan is because the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' does not have the substantiation or uniqueness of the 'Gu Fang Pai', and also because the view of 'gather as well as store up'(兼收並蓄) was the same as the 'Kao Zheng Pai'. Moreover, the 'compromise'(折衷) point of view was from taking in both Chinese and western medical knowledge systems(漢蘭折衷). Generally the pioneer of the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' is seen as Mochizuki Rokumon(望月鹿門) and after that was Fukui Futei(福井楓亭), Wadato Kaku(和田東郭), Yamada Seichin(山田正珍) and Taki Motohiro(多紀元簡). Part 2. The lives of Wada Tokaku(和田東郭), Nakagame Kinkei(中神琴溪), Nei Teng Xi Zhe(內藤希哲), the important doctors of the 'Zhe Zhong Pai', are as follows. First Wada Tokaku(和田東郭, 1743-1803) was born when the 'Hou Shi Pai' was already declining and the 'Gu Fang Pai' was flourishing and learned medicine from a 'Hou Shi Pai' doctor, Hu Tian Xu Shan(戶田旭山) and a 'Gu Fang Pai' doctor, Yoshimasu Todo(吉益東洞). He was not hindered by 'the old ways(古方)' and did not lean towards 'the new ways(後世方)' and formed a way of compromise that 'looked at hardness and softness as the same'(剛柔相摩) by setting 'the cure of the disease' as the base, and said that to cure diseases 'the old way' must be used, but 'the new way' was necessary to supplement its shortcomings. His works include "Dao Shui Suo Yan(導水瑣言)", "Jiao Chiang Fang Yi Je(蕉窗方意解)" and "Yi Xue Sho(醫學說)". Second. Nakagame Kinkei(中神琴溪, 1744-1833) was famous for leaving Yoshimasu Todo(吉益東洞) and changing to the 'Zhe Zhong Pai', and in his early years used qing fen(輕粉) to cure geisha(妓女) of syphilis. His argument was "the "Shang Han Lun" must be revered but needs to be adapted", "Zhong Jing can be made into a follower but I cannot become his follower", "the later medical texts such as "Ru Men Shi Qin(儒門事親)" should only be used for its prescriptions and not its theories". His works include "Shang Han Lun Yue Yan(傷寒論約言)". Third, Nei Teng Xi Zhe(內藤希哲, 1701-1735) learned medicine from Qing Shui Xian Sheng(淸水先生) and went out to Edo. In his book "Yi Jing Jie Huo Lun(醫經解惑論)" he tells of how he went from 'learning'(學) to 'skepticism'(惑) and how skepticism made him learn in 'the six skepticisms'(六惑). In the latter years Xi Zhe(希哲) combines the "Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing(神農本草經)", the main text for herbal medicine, "Ming Tang Jing(明堂經)" of accupuncture, basic theory texts "Huang Dui Nei Jing(皇帝內經)" and "Nan Jing(難經)" with the "Shang Han Za Bing Lun", a book that the 'Gu Fang Pai' saw as opposing to the rest, and became 'an expert of five scriptures'(五經一貫). Part 3. Asada Showhaku(淺田宗伯, 1815-1894) started medicine at Zhong Cun Zhong Zong(中村中倧) and learned 'the old way'(古方) from Yoshimasu Todo and got experience through Ouan Yue(川越) and Fu Jing(福井) and received teachings in texts, history and Wang Yangmin's principles(陽明學) fmm famous teachers. Showhaku(倧伯) meets a medical official of the makufu(幕府), Ben Kang Zong Yuan(本康宗圓), and receives help from the 3 great doctors of the Edo period, Taki Motokato(多紀元堅), Xiao Dao Xue Gu(小島學古) and Xi Duo Cun Kao(喜多村栲窻) and further develops his arts. At 47 he diagnoses the general Jia Mao(家茂) with 'heart failure from beriberi'(脚氣衡心) and becomes a Zheng Shi(徵土), at 51 he cures a minister from France and received a present from Napoleon, at 65 he becomes the court physician and saves Ming Gong(明宮) Jia Ren Qn Wang(嘉仁親王, later the 大正天皇) from bodily convulsions and becomes 'the vassal of merit who saved the national polity(國體)' At the 7th year of the Meiji(明治) he becomes the 2nd owner of Wen Zhi She(溫知社) and takes part in the 'kampo continuation movement'. In his latter years he saw 14000 patients a year, so we can estimate the qualjty and quantity of his clinical skills. Showhaku(宗伯) wrote over 80 books including the "Ju Chuang Shu Ying(橘窻書影)", "Wu Wu Yao Shi Fang Han(勿誤藥室方函)", "Shang Han Biang Shu(傷寒辨術)", "Jing Qi Shen Lun(精氣神論)", "Hunag Guo Ming Yi Chuan(皇國名醫傳)" and the "Xian Jhe Yi Hua(先哲醫話)". Especially in the "Ju Chuang Shu Ying(橘窻書影) he says "the old theories are the main, and the new prescriptions are to be used"(以古法爲主, 後世方爲用), stating the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' way of thinking, In the first volume of "Shang Han Biang Shu(傷寒辨術)" and "Za Bing Lun Shi(雜病論識)", 'Zong Ping'(總評), He discerns the parts that are not Zhang Zhong Jing's writings and emphasizes his theories and practical uses.

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THE EFFECT OF IRRADIATION MODES ON POLYMERIZATION AND MICROLEAKAGE OF COMPOSITE RESIN (광조사 방식이 복합레진의 중합과 누출에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jong-Jin;Park, Jeong-Won;Park, Sung-Ho;Park, Ju-Myong;Kwon, Tae-Kyung;Kim, Sung-Kyo
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.158-174
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    • 2002
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of light irradiation modes on polymerization shrinkage, degree of cure and microleakage of a composite resin. VIP$^{TM}$ (Bisco Dental Products, Schaumburg, IL, USA) and Optilux 501$^{TM}$ (Demetron/Kerr, Danbury, CT, USA) were used for curing Filtek$^{TM}$ Z-250 (3M Dental Products, St. Paul., MN, USA) composite resin using following irradiation modes: VIP$^{TM}$ (Bisco) 200mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ (V2), 400mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ (V4), 600mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ (V6), Pulse-delay (200 mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ 3 seconds, 5 minutes wait, 600mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ 30seconds, VPD) and Optilux 501$^{TM}$ (Demetron/Kerr) C-mode (OC), R-mode (OR). Linear polymerization shrinkage of the composite specimens were measured using Linometer (R&B, Daejeon, Korea) for 90 seconds for V2, V4, V6, OC, OR groups and for up to 363 seconds for VPD group (n=10, each). Degree of conversion was measured using FTIR spectrometer (IFS 120 HR, Bruker Karlsruhe, Germany) at the bottom surface of 2 mm thick composite specimens V2, Y4, V6, OC groups were measured separately at five irradiation times (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 seconds) and OR, VPD groups were measured in the above mentioned irradiation modes (n=5 each). Microhardness was measured using Digital microhardness tester (FM7, Future-Tech Co., Tokyo, Japan) at the top and bottom surfaces of 2mm thick composite specimens after exposure to the same irradiation modes as the test of degree of conversion(n=3, each). For the microleakage test, class V cavities were prepared on the distal surface of the ninety extracted human third molars. The cavities were restored with one of the following irradiation modes : V2/60 seconds, V4/40 seconds, V6/30 seconds, VPD , OC and OR. Microleakage was assessed by dye penetration along enamel and dentin margins of cavities. Mean polymerization shrinkage, mean degree of conversion and mean microhardness values for all groups at each time were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test, and using chi-square test far microleakage values. The results were as follows : . Polymerization shrinkage was increased with higher light intensity in groups using VIP$^{TM}$ (Bisco) : the highest with 600mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$, followed by Pulse-delay, 400mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ and 200mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ groups, The degree of polymerization shrinkage was higher with Continuous mode than with Ramp mode in groups using Optilux 501$^{TM}$ (Demetron/Kerr). . Degree of conversion and microhardness values were higher with higher light intensity. The final degree of conversion was in the range of 44.7 to 54.98% and the final microhardness value in the range of 34.10 to 56.30. . Microleakage was greater in dentin margin than in enamel margin. Higher light intensity showed more microleakage in dentin margin in groups using VIP$^{TM}$ (Bisco). The microleakage was the lowest with Continuous mode in enamel margin and with Ramp mode in dentin margin when Optilux 501$^{TM}$ (Demetron/Kerr) was used.

A Study on the Enamel Erosion Caused by Energy Drinks (시판되는 에너지음료의 법랑질 침식효과에 대한 연구)

  • Jeong, Moon-Jin;Jeong, Soon-Jeong;Son, Jung-Hui;Chung, Sung-Kyun;Kim, A-Reum;Kang, Eun-Ju;Kim, Eun-Ju;Kim, Hye-In;Jang, Ko-Eun;Cho, Min-Hee;Cheon, Ye-Ji;Choi, Hyo-Jung;Lim, Do-Seon
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.597-609
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    • 2014
  • To find out the effect of commercially available energy drinks on tooth enamel erosion, analyzed pH, buffering capacity, and the content of some of the inorganic components selecting 4 energy drinks that has high affinity of the products currently being sold. In addition, by observing the degree of erosion before and after immersion in energy drink by surface microhardness and scanning electron microscope (SEM) the results were as follows: Acidity of energy drink 'Burn Intense' was the lowest as $2.78{\pm}0.01$ highest on distilled water as $6.475{\pm}0.01$. 'Burn Intense' buffering capacity was $3.48{\pm}0.155$ at pH 5.5, $1.88{\pm}0.15$ at pH 7.0 which is the highest, and 'Hot6' was $1.71{\pm}0.37$, $1.23{\pm}0.35$ on each of it showing the lowest points. Ca content on energy drink was the highest at 'Volt Energy' as ($77.21{\pm}2.70mg/kg$), the lowest at 'Hot6' as ($0.98{\pm}0.05mg/kg$). P content was the highest on 'Hot6'($1.34{\pm}0.05mg/kg$) and detected at 'Red Bull'. Enamel surface hardness variation of the energy drinks before and after immersion showed rapid decrease at 'Red Bull' ($66.65{\pm}35.60$), and 'Volt Energy' ($61.96{\pm}31.42$), 'Burn Intense' ($58.53{\pm}24.84$), 'Hot6' ($53.99{\pm}60.26$) was in order. Distilled water, the control group, showed significant difference with the experimental group (p<0.05). But there was no significant difference between energy drinks. At SEM observation and analysis, 'Burn Intense' was the most severe demineralization, 'Volt Energy', 'Hot6', 'Red Bull', distilled water was in order. In the above results, taken together there were no statistically differences between energy drinks but significant difference in comparison with distilled water. In addition, at SEM observation and analysis all energy drink caused dental erosion, especially 'Burn Intense', has the lowest acidity, was serious. Thus, it is believed to provide a variety of oral health education and information about energy drinks that can affect the erosion of the teeth so public have the right to be recognized and reasonable dental care.

Effect of Cellulose Derivatives to Reduce the Oil Uptake of Deep Fat Fried Batter of Pork Cutlet (셀룰로오스 유도체가 돈가스 튀김옷의 흡유량 감소에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Byung-Sook;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.488-495
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    • 2009
  • Pork cutlet is a favorite deep fat fried food item among Korean children, and an excellent protein-containing food, and as well as a simple and economical cuisine. However, the frying process adds a significant amount of calories. We added MC (Methylcellulose) and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose) to the batter in an effort to reduce oil uptake in prepared pork cutlets. After additions of MC and HPMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% respectively, we assessed the viscosity of batter, color after frying, the increases in moisture retention and oil uptake, and sensory characteristics, comparing each quality. The viscosity of batter with 0.5% HPMC added (w/w) was similar to that of the controls, but the viscosity of all the batter with added MC was so much higher that it was difficult to use the batter for coating at the same temperature, leading to a failure even to prepare a sample. After frying, the batter with added HPMC provided significantly less oil uptake and more moisture retention than the batter to which MC was added. Additionally, with regard to color and sensory characteristics, the pork cutlet with 0.5% added HPMC was superior to the other samples. According to these results, we concluded that when cellulose derivatives are added in order to reduce oil uptake and to raise the moisture retention of the batter of pork cutlet, HPMC is more useful in this regard than MC. Additionally, the batter with 0.5% HPMC added appears to be the best of the tested choices, for three reasons: first, the viscosity of the batter is similar to that of the controls; second, the taste is not greasy after frying as the result of the reduced oil uptake and higher moisture retention; and third, the sensory characteristics of this sample, such as, color, crispiness, and hardness were the best among samples.