• Title, Summary, Keyword: huangdi neijing

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Yang Shangsan's contribution to the theory frame of traditional Chinese medicine (양상선대중의이론체계광가형성적공헌(杨上善对中医理论体系框架形成的贡献))

  • Qian, Huinan
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.191-194
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    • 2013
  • This paper discusses Mr. Yang Shangsan's contribution to the theory frame of traditional Chinese medicine. He advocated initially the classification of Huangdi Neijing, which took preliminary shape of TCM theoretical rudiment. His Huangdi Neijing Taisu drew the outline of the TCM theoretical system framework and had a profound historical significance.

Cultural Background of the Western Han Dynasty of Huangdi Neijing (《황제내경(黄帝内经)》 성서적서한문화배경(成书的西汉文化背景))

  • Zhang, Dengben
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2013
  • Huangdi Neijing was completed during the several decades after Shijiand before Qilue, whose main content draws from the medical achievements of Qin and Han Dynasty, and is deeply influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism of Qin and Han Dynasty. What creates the profound impact on its construction of medical theories are the thoughts of this period, such as "Valuing life", "people", "Valuing Yang", "Valuing earth", "the Heaven theory", "the Unity of Man and Nature", and the important works of this period, such as Huai Nan Zi, Chun Qiu Fan Lu, Shiji. Even the astronomy, calendar and medical achievements of this period are the basic material absorbed into the theories of Huangdi Neijing.

Who Wrote Huangdi Neijing?: The Authors' Status, Class and Political Ideology (『황제내경』의 저자는 누구인가?: 그들의 신분·계급 그리고 정치적 이념)

  • Song, Seokmo;Lee, Sang-Ryong
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2017
  • Objectives : The purpose of this paper is to clarify the social characteristics of the authors of Huangdi Neijing such as status, class, and political ideology. Methods : We analyze the Neijing text and the social order and historical situations in the Han dynasty. Results : Some authors of the Neijing were the local medical officers whose salary was 100~400shi. Their positions were medical craftsmen(yigong) or chief medical craftsmen(yigongchang). They would have published the Neijing after the administrative reforms(146-145 BCE) that began after the suppression of the Rebellion of the Seven Kingdoms. The bureaucrat yigong(chang) would have expected to participate in the public health policy of the empire or kingdom as an acupuncture expert. They would have also expected to contribute to the welfare and health of the privileged intellectual group and the public, hoping to ascend in status and class. Conclusions : By investigating the social characteristics of the authors who composed the Neijing, its various aspects would be newly understood.

The Constitutional Ideas in the 『Huangdi Neijing』 (『황제내경(黃帝內經)』의 체질론(體質論))

  • Choi, Seung-hoon
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.15-28
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    • 1998
  • One's constitution is formed congenitally and is also acquired, and is relatively stable in its individually manifested function, structure and temperament. It has characteristics of universality, complexity, generality and continuity. It is also manifested in physiological responses and expresses pathologic tendencies including susceptibility. Attempts at understanding constitution has had a long history throughout the world. In Oriental Medicine, the constitution had been acknowledged from the "Huangdi Neijing", which has been a bible in Oriental Medicine for about two thousand years. In many aspects, the "Huangdi Neijing" provides the basis for both basic and practical fields. In order to derive the ideal structure from the "Huangdi Neijing" to Lee Je-ma's(Lee Jayma's) Sasang Constitutional ideas, which can strengthen the understanding of ideal core of Oriental Medicine's constitutional characteristics, the author launched his analysis of the constitutional understandings in the "Huangdi Neijing" as a first step and came to the following: 1. The constitutional understanding in the "Huangdi Neijing" was done both via the physiological responses to heat, pain and acupuncture treatment and the pathologic tendencies via body structure, strength, body heat, courage and obesity. 2. It was recognized that the constitution was formed congenitally and also acquired factors like living conditions including food customs, residents and geographical conditions were explained in detailed. 3. The constitutional typology was suggested both by the general and systematic criterion according to the Yin-yang and the Five phase theories and by single criterion such as obesity, courage and the response to acupuncture treatment. 4. As diagnosis is related to the constitution, courage was adopted for the disease caused by emotions, obesity was for its manifestations of qi and blood, the quantities of qi-blood and Yin-yang in the typology by the Yin-yang and Five phase theories were suggested. 5. In the case of obesity, Yin-yang and Five phase theory, treatment according to the constitutional ideas was mentioned, and their goals were concluded as "being the balancing between Yin and Yang" which means the Yin-yang theory is more practical than the Five phase theory in Oriental Constitutional Medical field. According to the above understandings, the author would like to suggest that the constitutional ideas in the "Huangdi Neijing" based on the Yin-yang theory blossomed via the practical spirit of Zhang Zhong-jing's "Shanghanlun" and at last from Lee Je-ma's(Lee Jayma's) Sasang Constitutional Medicine which realized "the balancing between Yin and yang" through the practical applications of herbal treatments.

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Needling Method Characteristic Analysis of Zhenjiu Jiayijing(针灸甲乙经) ("침구갑을경"적자법특정분석("针灸甲乙經"的刺法特征分析))

  • Ma, Tie-Ming;Kim, Hyo-Chul
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2013
  • Objective : To clarify the features of needling method in the Zhenjiu Jiayijing, the needling depth and needling treatment time were sorted out. Method : According to the analysis, we can identify the crucial factors of the needling features. Result : Compared with the needling related content of Huangdi Neijing(黄帝内经), the historical outline of the needling development could be found and the ancient acupuncturing process was reappeared with a historical perspective. This research will provide guidance for the literature research and clinical application. Conclusion : Zhenjiu Jiayijing, also an important and valuable literature, will provide more evidence or clues for depth and treatment time of needling, which will be helpful and meaningful in clinic.

A Study on the Spring Season Food in View of Oriental Medicine (한의학 이론에 근거한 봄철 시절식(時節食)의 고찰)

  • Ji, Myoung-Soon;Kim, Yong-Jin
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.21-36
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    • 2013
  • Jeol-sik, (festive seasons every 15 days based on sun cycle), refers to both Korean Traditional Festival food(jeol-sik), intertwined between months, and in-season meals(si-jeol-sik) in which the ingredients used are produced in each and one of the four season. Si-jeol-sik is a kind of recommendatory food, which is combined to seasonal changes. I found that ingredients in Si-jeol-sik of spring are helpful for strengthening one's life force. Moreover, the ingredients also reflects seasonal changes. The main ingredient of Si-jeol-sik in January(in lunar year) is rice. Rice is good for upgrading one's stomach qi(energy). Rice continues to be used in February. In addition, some greens are included in February Si-jeol-sik as to help defecation. In March, the ingredients become diverse and abundant. The main concern in the ingredients found in March is not limited to stomach qi. These changes of ingredients are in line with the concept of 'health maintenance', which is written in Huangdi Neijing. The writing teaches the wisdom of adaptation to nature. Si-jeol-sik's basic idea is maybe giving people some food, which includes useful elements to help them survive through a season or the next season. They can be also explained properly by the help of five flavours theory. According to Huangdi Neijing liver is main organ of spring. So liver is more important than other organs in spring. And the most efficient way for liver is supplying sweet or sour food. Interestingly, there are many sweet elements in Si-jeol-sik of spring.

A Study on Bianque's pulse Diagnosis (편작맥법(扁鵲脈法)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Bang, Min-woo;Kim, Ki-woo
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.143-165
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    • 2017
  • Objectives : The paper seeks to provide a study on Bianque's Pulse Diagnosis in the contexts of Huangdi Neijing's Maijing and Nanjing. Methods : The paper provides a comparison of sentences regarding Bianque's Pulse Diagnosis discovered in Neijing, Maijing, and Nanjing. Results & Conclusions: 1. Bianque's Pulse Diagnosis was given birth through stages in accoradnce with the development of Pyobonjin, Maeggujin, Gyeongmaeghyjin, and Meridian Theory. 2. It seems that Neijing filled in Sambuguhujin and In-yeongbuyangmaegjin because they were not discovered in Canggong's Records of Diagnosis. 3. Bianque's Pulse Diagnosis diagnosed death using Osaegjin. Underneath each sentence within each biography regarding Meridian, there existed Pulse dead Hou. 4. Bianque's Pulse Diagnosis quantified the operation and length of pulse in time. The concept of small net was added which led to the establishment of Fifty circulations, Yeongwi theory, Meridians circulation, and chongu's boundary.

A Study on The Association between Extraordinary Organs(奇恒之腑) and Eight Extra Meridians(奇經八脈) (기항지부(奇恒之腑)와 기경팔맥(奇經八脈)의 관련성 고찰)

  • Lyu, Jeong-Ah;Jeong, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.49-67
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    • 2014
  • Subject : The Association between Extraordinary Organs(奇恒之腑) and Eight Extra Meridians(奇經 八脈). Objectives : This study research some special aspects of Extraordinary Organs and Eight Extra Meridians which differentiated from ordinary Organs and Meridians, and the association between Extraordinary Organs and Eight Extra Meridians. Methods : First, researched classification standard and physiological characteristics of Extraordinary Organs through studying various chapters of HuangdiNeijing. Second, researched The Association between Extraordinary Organs and Eight Extra Meridians through studying on the origin of Eight Extra Meridians in HuangdiNeijing. Third, from accompanying researching the subject of Cheon-gye(天癸) and human body shape, draw synthetic hypothesis on the relationship among ordinary Meridians and Organs, muscles and skins of body shape, Extraordinary Organs and Eight Extra Meridians. Results & Conclusions : The following conclusions could be drawn. 1. Extraordinary Organs afford background for shaping human body. This is same as the properties of the earth which afford background for shaping all creations. The physiological characteristics of Extraordinary Organs is intermediation and regulation between Ki(氣) of Five Viscera & six Bowels and shape of muscles & skins in human body. 2. The origin of Eight Extra Meridians could be found in HuangdiNeijing. The collateral Meridians of the Uterus and Epiglottis Meridian are specifically formulated to supplying for the Uterus or Epiglottis. From this we can draw The Association between Extraordinary Organs and Eight Extra Meridians, that is Eight Extra Meridians are specifically formulated to supplying for Extraordinary Organs. 3. The Cheon-gye(天癸) is doing significant function in Eight Extra Meridians supplying for Extraordinary Organs. Cheon-gye concerned to growth, secondary sexual characters, generative function, aging process. Theses are all concerned with the changing of human body shape. Cheon-gye urge to change the body shape with following the human life cycle. 4. Human body has vertical symmetry because preserve its shape from the gravitational force. Eight Extra Meridians place at the middle or flank axis of human body, thus do physiological function that assistant human body have vertical symmetry shape. The purpose of shaping vertical symmetry is securing space what the inner Twelve Regular Meridians and Five Viscera & six Bowels create there own physical changes. On the other hand the inner changes need deviation between left and right because of mobility and circulation of force. But human body change the shape in the process of growth, reproduction, aging. Eight Extra Meridians play role at time of these processing, thus they deeply concerned to human's life cycle and reproduction. 5. Eight Extra Meridians and Extraordinary Organs were named 'Extra' because of some special aspects which differentiated from ordinary Meridians and Organs. All they play role to have vertical symmetry shape of human body and maintain the shape, thus they deeply concerned to the change of human life cycle. These shaping maintaining and the change of human life cycle are very special aspects of human body. So they needed to differently cognize separate to the ordinary changes of Five Viscera & six Bowels and Twelve Meridians at inner space.

A Study on the Philosophical Background of HuangdiNeijing - Focused on the Spirit of the Times from Warring Country to Han - (『황제내경(黃帝內經)』의 철학적 배경에 대한 연구 - 전국(戰國) ~ 한(漢) 시대정신(時代精神)을 중심으로 -)

  • Lyu, Jeong-ah
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.145-166
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    • 2017
  • Objectives : The paper aims to study the philosophical background of Huangdineijing by taking into account the fact that its ideas are identical to that of the period between the Warring States and Han. Methods : Through considering the period and the historical backdrop in which Huangdineijing was published, and through considering the book with other texts such as Huangdisijing, the paper draws the common spirit of the time and analyzed the cause and flow of philosophies and ideas that influenced Huangdineijing. Conclusions : 1. Books that upheld Huangdi contained within Hanshu・Yiwenzhi have a common point with the mythical symbol of Huangdi in that they are related to the rule of a nation and the creation of a civilization. Huangdi, who in Huangdineijing bears a need to be understand at this common point of view. 2. The spirit of the period between Warring States and Han can be deduced as "a movement towards unification" and "the development of a civilization infused with spirit of unification." Such spirit of time are reflected in Huangdineijing as Nine Acupuncture(Official Acupuncture) and the establishment of the measuring standards for meridian, bone, and internal organ, and the establishment of the concept of 'Pyungin.' Especially the construction of waterways that connected Huanghe and Yangzijiang river with their tributaries that formed a direct composition of unification was applied to human body in Huangdineijing, thereby establishing the concept of 'Mai'. 3. Unlike Lao Zhuang School of Taoism was not interested in the act of ruling at all, Huangdineijing and its contemporary publication Huangdisijing, present their readers with Number, Law, Rule, Regulation and Governance. Here, the philosophy and the idea which seek "Law" as the methods of ruling the nation by actively participating in the governance of the nation based on the model of natural law and rule appear. Such philosophy and idea is an evidence of the influence of Fajia in accordance with the social and realistic changes witnessed during the time.

Analyses on Physiological Meanings of Yin Yang through Comparison of Ying-Wei Theory and Sleep-Awakening System (영위생리와 각성.수면시스템의 비교를 통한 음양(陰陽)의 함의(含意) 분석)

  • Lee Sang-Man;Eom Hyun-Sup;Chi Gyoo-Yong
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.1154-1161
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    • 2005
  • Yin Yang theory is the first and the last one to interpret diseases apply to treatment in oriental medicine. So it is regarded as the way of heaven and earth, the discipline of all things, the origin of change, the beginning of giving birth and death, the source of spirit. These regulatory passages are needed to compare with western medical physiology and analyzed whether it has scientific bases or not. The Yin Yang theory of traditional oriental medicine are summerized from the descriptions of Scripture of Documents, Ying Wei theory of Huangdi Neijing. Meanwhile up-to-date neurobiological and molecular genetic theories on circadian physiology are reviewed in western medicine. Sunshine is transferred through RGC to SCN, herein the central circadian rhythm is made by zeitgeber and interaction of melatonin secreted from pineal body and orexin from mp pan of hypothalamus. So HPA axis is activated and controlled under the circadian rhythm and affects peripheral tissues and cells of whole body through glucocorticoid hormones. First of all, the circadian rhythm makes the basic patterns of human life in biological and sociological meaning. It is almost same context with the record of the Scripture of Documents. Also the Ying Qi and Wei Qi is basically same with the sleep-awake mechanism, that is melatonin/orexin signal or per/clk/bmal/cry genes with circadian activation and activity of each organ's physiological function. Conclusively it can be said that Yin Yang is a priori principle of living things and the beginning of giving birth and death for activation of them biologically, as is described in Huangdi Neijing.