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Verification of Gated Radiation Therapy: Dosimetric Impact of Residual Motion (여닫이형 방사선 치료의 검증: 잔여 움직임의 선량적 영향)

  • Yeo, Inhwan;Jung, Jae Won
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.128-138
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    • 2014
  • In gated radiation therapy (gRT), due to residual motion, beam delivery is intended to irradiate not only the true extent of disease, but also neighboring normal tissues. It is desired that the delivery covers the true extent (i.e. clinical target volume or CTV) as a minimum, although target moves under dose delivery. The objectives of our study are to validate if the intended dose is surely delivered to the true target in gRT and to quantitatively understand the trend of dose delivery on it and neighboring normal tissues when gating window (GW), motion amplitude (MA), and CTV size changes. To fulfill the objectives, experimental and computational studies have been designed and performed. A custom-made phantom with rectangle- and pyramid-shaped targets (CTVs) on a moving platform was scanned for four-dimensional imaging. Various GWs were selected and image integration was performed to generate targets (internal target volume or ITV) for planning that included the CTVs and internal margins (IM). The planning was done conventionally for the rectangle target and IMRT optimization was done for the pyramid target. Dose evaluation was then performed on a diode array aligned perpendicularly to the gated beams through measurements and computational modeling of dose delivery under motion. This study has quantitatively demonstrated and analytically interpreted the impact of residual motion including penumbral broadening for both targets, perturbed but secured dose coverage on the CTV, and significant doses delivered in the neighboring normal tissues. Dose volume histogram analyses also demonstrated and interpreted the trend of dose coverage: for ITV, it increased as GW or MA decreased or CTV size increased; for IM, it increased as GW or MA decreased; for the neighboring normal tissue, opposite trend to that of IM was observed. This study has provided a clear understanding on the impact of the residual motion and proved that if breathing is reproducible gRT is secure despite discontinuous delivery and target motion. The procedures and computational model can be used for commissioning, routine quality assurance, and patient-specific validation of gRT. More work needs to be done for patient-specific dose reconstruction on CT images.

Radiographic, MRI and Histopathologic Assessment to Standardize Canine Spinal Cord Injury Model (척수손상 모델 견 표준화를 위한 방사선, 자기공명영상 및 조직 병리 평가)

  • Seong, Yun-Sang;Yun, Sung-Ho;Park, Jai-Soon;Kim, Hee-Kyung;Chang, Yong-Min;Ku, Sae-Kwang;Park, Hyun-Jeong;Jang, Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.546-552
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    • 2010
  • Previous studies could not offer available guideline to decide size of balloon and grade of injury before induction of spinal cord injury (SCI) because grade of SCI was assessed after inserting a catheter and each experimental animal were different in body size and weight as well as in species. This study was performed to provide guideline for standardized SCI model. Eight healthy adult beagle dogs that had 8 mm of spinal canal height were assigned to four groups according to the diameter of balloon and compression time: 4 mm/3hrs, 4 mm/6hrs, 4 mm/12hrs and 6 mm/3hrs group. Radiography was performed to standardize between experimental animal and balloon before selecting balloon diameter to induce SCI. Behaviors outcomes, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathological examination were evaluated. Behaviors outcomes and SEPs were not available to assess grade of SCI and those only indicate SCI. The damaged area was revealed clear hyperintensity on STIR image and T2WI after induction of SCI. The hyperintense area on MRI was cranially and caudally expanded with increasing of the diameter of balloon or the compression time. Well corresponded to expanding of hyperintense area on MRI, the damaged region and the numbers of caspase-3 and PARP immunoreactive cells were increased on histopathological findings. Therefore, these results will be considered fundamental data to induce standardized SCI model in experimental animal that has various weight and size.

A Study on the Correlation Analysis of EEG and Vibraimage due to Auditory and Olfactory Stimulation (청각 및 후각자극에 의한 뇌파(EEG)와 진동이미지기술의 상관성 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Min;Kim, Myung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.4291-4297
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    • 2015
  • EEG has been used to measure the emotion of amenity and discomfort in the interior space. EEG is limited to the experiment, because it is a equipment of contact type. However, Vibraimage can measure the emotion with a web camera. Because Vibraimage is a equipment of non-contact type, it is more suitable for the interior space than EEG. Therefor, it tries to find a correlation variable between EEG and Vibraimage to measure the human emotions. In this study, it were analyzed correlation of EEG and vibraimage due to variation of loudness 60[dB], 90[dB] and rosemary, jasmine scents. Check the health status of subjects who were selected 3 male students, and the period of this experiment was about months. The condition of the environmental test room was in temperature 25[$^{\circ}C$], relative humidity 50[RH%], air current speed 0.02[m/s] and illuminance 1000[lux]. It were analyzed correlation of twenty-three index of EEG(absolute ${\theta}$, relative ${\theta}$, absolute $S{\alpha}$, relative $S{\alpha}$, absolute ${\alpha}$, relative ${\alpha}$, absolute ${\beta}$, relative ${\beta}$, absolute $\gamma$, relative $\gamma$, absolute $F{\alpha}$, relative $F{\alpha}$, absolute SMR, relative SMR, $SMR/{\theta}$, $SMR+M{\beta}/{\theta}$, absolute $H{\beta}$, relative $H{\beta}$, $H{\beta}/{\alpha}$, absolute $M{\beta}$, relative $M{\beta}$, SEF50, ASEF50) and ten index of Vibraimage(Aggression, Stress, Tension/Anxiety, Suspect, Balance, Charm, Energy, Self regulation, Inhibition, Neuroticism). As a result, I was found that relative ${\gamma}$ index of EEG and neuroticism index of Vibraimage have a high correlation as (${\pm}$).414 and (${\pm}$).424.

A Study on Integrated Visualization and Mapping Techniques using the Geophysical Results of the Coastal Area of the Dokdo in the East Sea (독도 연안 해저 지구물리 자료의 통합 중첩 주제도 작성 연구)

  • Lee, Myoung Hoon;Kim, Chang Hwan;Park, Chan Hong;Rho, Hyun Soo;Kim, Dae Choul
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.381-388
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to integrate and visualize using mapping techniques based on precise seabed geomorphology, seafloor backscattering images and high-resolution underwater images of the nearshore area around the Dokdo, in the East Sea. We have been obtained the precise topography map using multibeam echosounder system around the nearshore area(~50 m) of the southern part of the Seodo. Side scan sonar survey for analysis seafloor backscattering images was carried out in the same area of topography data. High-resolution underwater images(zone(a), zone(b), zone(c)) were taken in significant habitat scope of the nearshore area of the southern part of the Seodo. Using the results of bathymetry, seafloor backscattering images, high-resolution underwater images, we performed an integrated visualization about the nearshore area of the Dokdo. The integrated visualizing techniques are possible to make the seabed characteristic mapping results of the nearshore area of the Dokdo. The integrated visualization results present more complex and reliable information than separate geological products for seabed environmental mapping study and it is useful to understand the relation between seafloor characteristics and topographic environments of the study area. The integrated visualizing techniques and mapping analysis need to study sustainably and periodically, for effective monitoring of the nearshore ecosystem of the Dokdo.

A Study on Construction of Region-Based Cartoon Creation & Production Center (지역 중심의 만화 창· 제작센터 구축에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jin-hee;Kim, Byoung-Soo
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.147-175
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    • 2016
  • This thesis aims to research ways for the regional balanced development of cartoon creation & production environment being centered in metropolitan area in Korean cartoon industry which has rapidly changed since 2013. As a cartoon can not only be produced with relative lower production cost comparing to those of other cultural contents industries, but also can be produced only if the minimal requirements for cartoon production is prepared, so the cartoon is a field that the decentralization can be accomplished very easily. Currently, most cartoon-relevant companies and cartoon promotion institutions are located in Seoul an Bucheon, etc. However, cartoon artists live nationwide, and even cartoon artists producing their works abroad are reached to a significant number. In some regions like Daejeon, Busan, Suncheon and Gyeongbuk (Gyeongsangbuk-do), there have been appeared full-scale movement to construct regional cartoon creation & production centers since 2015. This thesis aimed to investigate each region's movement to construct cartoon creation & production center with oversea cases, and to check how such movement could be balanced and harmonized with each region's unique features. First of all, this thesis analyzed the status quo of government's policy nurturing the cartoon industry. Korean government's cartoon-promotion policy around the axis of the Cartoon Industry's Mid.Long-Term Development Plan has been developed around the Korea Creative Content Agency and the Korea Manwha(cartoon) Contents Agency in Bucheon, but as the webtoon industry has rapidly grown up, the necessity for building a cartoon promotion institution in each region has been raised since 2015. With the establishment of 4th Cartoon Industry Mid.Long-Term Development Plan to be executed from 2019, it seems that full-scaled support framework for cartoon regional balanced development should be occupied. For the case of foreign countries, cartoon promotion institutions and relevant events have been developed around regions from early times like San-Diego, USA(Comicon), Angouleme, France(National Image Center), Kyoto (Cartoon Museum), Sakaiminato(Misuki Sigeru Road), Japan gave a lot of implications. In the section of conclusion, this study aimed to suggest the importance of and necessity for establishing a cartoon creation & production center in each region appropriately for the region's identity and characteristics with specific plans. Based on that, this thesis aimed to suggest a vision for cartoon & webtoon industry that regional creation & production system can be settled almost only in the cultural contents industry.

Signal Change of Iodinated Contrast Agents in MR Imaging (요오드화 조영제가 MR영상에 미치는 신호 변화)

  • Jeong, HK;Kim, Seongho;Kang, Chunghwan;Lee, Suho;Yi, Yun;Kim, Mingi;Kim, Hochul
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.53 no.12
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we tried to analyze the influence of ICM(Iodinated Contrast Media) in MR imaging compare to GBCA(Gadolinium Based Contrast Agent), and as this result we discussed whether resonable or not the protocol which is MRI scan after enhanced CT scan without proper time interval in clinical field. For this research, we assembled two phantoms. which one was iodine and another one was gadolinium. We did test two phantoms in conventional MRI scan which is T1, T2, T2 FLAIR and 3D angio. After that, quantitative analysis was progressed. The results of study were as follow : SSI(Saline's Signal Intensity) was shown as each sequences 175, 1231, 333, 37 [a.u] at iodine. and 1297, 123, 757, 232 [a.u] was recorded at gadolinium. BDEPS(the Biggest Difference of EPS) was shown as each sequences 1297, 123, 757, 232 [a.u] at iodine and 793, 6, 1495, 365 [a.u] was recorded at gadolinium. At this time, EPS(Enhancement Percentage to Saline) was shown 641.1, -90.0, 127.3, 527% at iodine and 685.1, 99.4, 365.7, 1077.4% was recorded at gadolinium. BP(BDEPS's point) was shown 900, 900, 477, 900 mmol at iodine and 4, 0.2, 0.2, 40 mmol was recorded at gadolinium. CPSS(Change Point of SI to SSI) was shown 63, 423, 63, 29 mmol at iodine and each [50, 30], [4, 0.2], [4, 1], 0.2 mmol was recorded at gadolinium. According to this research, we could not only discover the fact that was iodine could effect on MR signal, but also the pattern is different as various sequences compare to gadolinium. Therefore, we expect useful diagnostic MR image in clinical field with this quantitative data for deciding protocol regarding MRI and CT scan order.

A Study on Sensibility Evaluation of Ceramic Surface: Comparison between Tactility and Visual Tactility (세라믹 표면의 감성 평가 연구: 촉감과 시각적 촉감의 비교를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Jihyun;Song, Min Jeong
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.101-112
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    • 2016
  • Selecting appropriate materials can be significantly important to make different image in the product and also give distinguished express to the users. A material for the ceramic product surface consists of the combination between a glaze and a body, and each attribution of materials and the way of the combination creates different texture and color. This study analyzes the difference between visually and tactually sensibility of ceramic surface to through the simulating both visual and tactual stimulation by verbal evaluation method. Totally 13 adjectives are selected from homepage of local and global ceramic product brand. And totally 12 ceramic samples are created with the consideration of color, glossiness and roughness. These 12 samples are the combination between four ceramic bodies (White porcelain, Celadon_c, Sancheong and Black soil) and three glazes (Transparent, Celadon_g, Black glaze). The respondents of first survey were asked to rub, touch and hold before evaluating the sensibility of ceramic surface and other respondents of second survey were asked to evaluate visual images of 9 samples which showed meaningfully difference from first survey. The surface which scored the highest sensibility with the first survey was 'pure' on a surface of White porcelain body with Transparent glaze, and the lowest was also 'pure' on a surface of Black soil body with Transparent glaze. The highest score in the second survey was the same result as the first survey, but the lowest scored 'casual' and the surface was Black soil body with Celadon glaze. By the comparison with two survey results, not every sensibility is same result shown as the first survey and the second survey, but the tactile sensibilities such as 'artistic', 'luxurious', 'sensuous', 'romantic' and 'mysterious' can be experienced by via visual materials of ceramic surfaces.

Improvement and Validation of Convective Rainfall Rate Retrieved from Visible and Infrared Image Bands of the COMS Satellite (COMS 위성의 가시 및 적외 영상 채널로부터 복원된 대류운의 강우강도 향상과 검증)

  • Moon, Yun Seob;Lee, Kangyeol
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.420-433
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to improve the calibration matrixes of 2-D and 3-D convective rainfall rates (CRR) using the brightness temperature of the infrared $10.8{\mu}m$ channel (IR), the difference of brightness temperatures between infrared $10.8{\mu}m$ and vapor $6.7{\mu}m$ channels (IR-WV), and the normalized reflectance of the visible channel (VIS) from the COMS satellite and rainfall rate from the weather radar for the period of 75 rainy days from April 22, 2011 to October 22, 2011 in Korea. Especially, the rainfall rate data of the weather radar are used to validate the new 2-D and 3-DCRR calibration matrixes suitable for the Korean peninsula for the period of 24 rainy days in 2011. The 2D and 3D calibration matrixes provide the basic and maximum CRR values ($mm\;h^{-1}$) by multiplying the rain probability matrix, which is calculated by using the number of rainy and no-rainy pixels with associated 2-D (IR, IR-WV) and 3-D (IR, IR-WV, VIS) matrixes, by the mean and maximum rainfall rate matrixes, respectively, which is calculated by dividing the accumulated rainfall rate by the number of rainy pixels and by the product of the maximum rain rate for the calibration period by the number of rain occurrences. Finally, new 2-D and 3-D CRR calibration matrixes are obtained experimentally from the regression analysis of both basic and maximum rainfall rate matrixes. As a result, an area of rainfall rate more than 10 mm/h is magnified in the new ones as well as CRR is shown in lower class ranges in matrixes between IR brightness temperature and IR-WV brightness temperature difference than the existing ones. Accuracy and categorical statistics are computed for the data of CRR events occurred during the given period. The mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean squire error (RMSE) in new 2-D and 3-D CRR calibrations led to smaller than in the existing ones, where false alarm ratio had decreased, probability of detection had increased a bit, and critical success index scores had improved. To take into account the strong rainfall rate in the weather events such as thunderstorms and typhoon, a moisture correction factor is corrected. This factor is defined as the product of the total precipitable waterby the relative humidity (PW RH), a mean value between surface and 500 hPa level, obtained from a numerical model or the COMS retrieval data. In this study, when the IR cloud top brightness temperature is lower than 210 K and the relative humidity is greater than 40%, the moisture correction factor is empirically scaled from 1.0 to 2.0 basing on PW RH values. Consequently, in applying to this factor in new 2D and 2D CRR calibrations, the ME, MAE, and RMSE are smaller than the new ones.

Analyzing animation techniques used in webtoons and their potential issues (웹툰 연출의 애니메이션 기법활용과 문제점 분석)

  • Kim, Yu-mi
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.85-106
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    • 2017
  • With the media's shift into the digital era in the 2000s, comic book publishers attempted a transition into the new medium by establishing a distribution structure using internet networks. But that effort shied from escaping the parallel-page reading structure of traditional comics. On the other hand, webtoons are showing divers changes by redesigning the structure of traditional sequential art media; they tend to separate and allot spaces according to the vertical scroll reading method of the internet browser and include animations, sound effects and background music. This trend is also in accordance with the preferences of modern readers. Modern society has complicated social structures with the development of various media; the public is therefore exposed to different stimuli and shows characteristics of differentiated perceptions. In other words, webtoons display more relevant and entertaining characteristics by inserting sounds and using moving texts and characters in specific frames, while traditional comics require an appreciation of withdrawal and immersion like other published media. Motions in webtoons are partially applied for dramatic tension or to create an effective expression of action. For example, hand-drawn animation is adopted to express motions by dividing motion images into many layers. Sounds are also utilized, such as background music with episode-related lyrics, melodies, ambient sounds and motion-related sound effects. In addition, webtoons provide readers with new amusement by giving tactile stimuli via the vibration of a smart phone. As stated above, the vertical direction, time-based nature of animation motions and tactile stimuli used in webtoons are differentiated from published comics. However, webtoons' utilization of innovative techniques hasn't yet reached its full potential. In addition to the fact that the software used for webtoon effects is operationally complex, this is a transitional phenomenon since there is still a lack of technical understanding of animation and sound application amongst the general public. For example, a sound might be programmed to play when a specific frame scrolls into view on the monitor, but the frame may be scrolled faster or slower than the author intended; in this case, sound can end before or after a reader sees the whole image. The motion of each frame is also programmed to start in a similar fashion. Therefore, a reader's scroll speed is related to the motion's speed. For this reason, motions might miss the intended timing and be unnatural because they are played out of context. Also, finished sound effects can disturb the concentration of readers. These problems come from a shortage of continuity; to solve these, naturally activated consecutive sounds or animations, like the simple rotation of joints when a character moves, is required.

Evaluation of Image Quality According to Presence or Absence of Upper limbs in Scan Field of View During CT Examinations (Including LUNG MAN) (CT 검사 시 스캔 범위 내 상지 유무에 따른 영상의 질 평가(LUNG MAN 포함))

  • Zhang, Yuying;Zheng, Haoyang;Jung, Kang-gyo;Cho, Yu-Jin;Cho, Pyong-Kon
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.567-573
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not there was artifact when the upper limb could not be lifted to the top of the head during multi-detector computed tomography(MDCT) scans of the chest and abdomen. Contrast radiography of the human and chest phantom was performed with 128channal MDCT. Under the same conditions(120 kVp, 110 mAs, standard algorithm)both hands lifted up and put down each time in the human experiment. In the chest phantom experiment, the radiography was carried out when the upper limb phantom was adjusted at a certain distance(0, 3, 7 cm) from the chest phantom. Subsequently, the values of Noise, CT number, SNR, and CNR were measured in the field of concern. The noise value of fat, rib, and muscle increased when the arm was lifted in humans(0.79, 47.8, 27%). Furthermore, when the upper limb was lowered, the noise value of muscle and lung increased in the phantom(31.2, 9.4%). In addition, the noise value of the muscles and lung decreased by 5, 25.12% and 5.6, 15.35% as the upper limb moved about 0,3,7cm away from the chest. When the chest and abdominal radiography were performed, in the case of the presence of other parts outside the inspection area, the probability of artifact was minimal while the distance was more than 3cm away from the upper limb to the chest and abdomen.