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The Changes of Korean Fashion in the Period of Japanese Rule Via the Advertisement of the Mall Shin Bo (매일신보광고를 통해 본 일제시대 한국복식의 변천)

  • 김진구;김애련
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.230-241
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study is to classify frequency of advertisement and types of advertisement by items and to analyze a primary factors were factors were reflected in the costumes by a policy of rule under the Japanese rule. Data was MaIl Shin Bo\`s advertisement connected with costumes from 1910 to 1945 years. The results are as follows : 1. The order of the advertisement\`s frequency was footwear, cosmetics, soap[, headgear, western style clothes, precious metals and so on. 2. The type of the advertisement was a format that transmits informs in all items. Cosmetics, hairdye and shampoo applied positive appeals. 3. In the military government, the advertisement\`s frequency connected with costumes was 37.5% and a shoe store was the first order. A shoes and headgear were high level, because of these were essential imports and were allowded as a proper articles for a western style clothes by a civilized policy. In the political periods of civilization, the advertisement\`s frequency connected with costumes was 54%. This result indicates industrial development of this period. Soap was the first order during 1924∼1933 and cosmetics was the first order during 1934∼1940. High level of the advertisement\`s frequency in these imports were reflected by a cultural policy as a link of an appeasement measure In the political periods of a racial liquidation, the advertisement\`s frequency connected with costumes was 8.5% and the advertisement\`s order by items was cosmetics, a shoe store. The reason was that reflected the phases of the times that was serious by a shortage of goods and an reinforcement of wartime\`s attitudes throughout war.

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A Study on the Potentially Economic Effect of the Korea-China FTA: Focusing on Busan City (한-중FTA 체결이 미칠 경제적 영향: 부산경제를 중심으로)

  • Jung, Hyung-Dae;Park, Young-Bae;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.781-799
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    • 2009
  • Korea and China should come up with a mutually beneficial FTA proposal at an early date and thus lead the way towards the FTA. An FTA with China is a key issue of economic cooperation in order to confront soaring Chinese competitiveness in international markets. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze the overall Busan regional economy impacts of the Korea-China FTA. We analyzed the quantitative effects of an FTA by using microeconomic concept. The Korea-China FTA will have positive effects on the overall industry in Busan. Therefore, Busan regional industries exports and imports are expected to grow. Busan is worried the deal would pave the way for imports of cheap Chinese agricultural products, hurting the nation's already fragile agricultural sector. In contrast, Busan's manufacturing sector is expected to see its surplus rise. In sum, we think the FTA will bring benefit to the whole industry in Busan Regional economy because it accelerates development of the industries by trade and investment along with comparative advantage.

Spillover Effects Study of US Import Refusals on ASEAN Countries' Fishery Products (미국의 대 아세안 수산물 수입거부조치 파급효과 연구)

  • Li, Ping;Kim, Hag-Min
    • Korea Trade Review
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.109-126
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    • 2019
  • Import refusals can be considered a new method of non-tariff barriers. This study aims to analyze reputation spillover effects on fish and fishery products imported from ASEAN countries to the U.S. FDA. The supply of aquatic products is not stable due to various factors such as reduction of fish stocks and climate change. Fish is a basic food ingested directly, but there are many ways to control the safety of aquatic products. ASEAN countries account for about 20% of U.S.imports in fish and fishery products. For Southeast Asian countries, fish and fishery products comprise a high proportion of exports revenue. Despite the large share of exports to the U.S., Southeast Asia countries have been receiving many import refusals from the United States. In this study, a theoretical model for examining import refusals is suggested using the negative binomial counting process. The reputation spillover effect, was divided into two spillover effects of 'neighbor reputation' and 'sector reputation'. Results show that there exists a neighbor reputation spillover effect. It can be said if there was a import refusal of the same product from neighboring countries in the preceding year, the home country have a possibility to experience import refusals of the same product. Therefore, it is interpreted that neighboring countries have good standard compliance can help home countries to effectively reach the target markets. Our findings have a important policy implication for ASEAN exporters of fish and fishery products.

Is the U.S. Trade Expansion Act Section 232 Consistent with GATT/WTO Rules? (미국 무역확장법 제232조 조치는 GATT/WTO 규정에 타당한가?)

  • Yin, Zi-Hui;Choi, Chang-Hwan
    • Korea Trade Review
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.177-191
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    • 2019
  • Global trade protectionism has increased further and U.S. priorities and protectionism have strengthened since Trump took office in 2017. Trump administration is actively implementing tariff measures based on U.S. domestic trade laws rather than the WTO rules and regulations. In particular, the American government has recently been imposing high tariffs due to national security and imposing economic sanctions on other countries' imports. According to the U.S. Trade Expansion Act Section 232, the American government imposed additional tariffs on steel and aluminum imports to WTO member countries such as China, India, and EU etc. on march 15, 2018. Thus, this study aims to investigate whether the U.S. Trade Expansion Act Section 232 is consistent with GATT/WTO rules by comparing the legal basis of US / China / WTO regulations related to Section 232 of the U.S. Trade Expansion Act, and gives some suggestions for responding to the Section 232 measure. As the Section 232 measure exceeded the scope of GATT's Security Exceptions regulation and is very likely to be understood as a safeguard measure. If so, the American government is deemed to be in breach of WTO's regulations, such as the most-favored-nation treatment obligations and the duty reduction obligations. In addition, American government is deemed to be failed to meet the conditions of initiation of safeguard measure and violated the procedural requirements such as notification and consultation. In order to respond to these U.S. protection trade measures, all affected countries should actively use the WTO multilateral system to prevent unfair measures. Also, it is necessary to revise the standard jurisdiction of the dispute settlement body and to explore the balance of the WTO Exception clause so that it can be applied strictly. Finally, it would be necessary for Chinese exporters to take a counter-strategy under such trade pressure.

An Analysis of Macro Aspects Caused by Protectionism in Korea

  • Kim, Yuri;Kim, Kyunghun
    • Journal of Korea Trade
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2021
  • Purpose - The global trend of protectionism has expanded since the onset of US President Donald Trump's administration in 2017. This global phenomenon has led to a significant reduction in world trade volume and a negative impact on economic development in some countries where the external sector accounts for a large proportion of GDP. Although Korea is a country vulnerable to this deteriorating trade environment, few studies have examined the relationship between protectionism and its business cycles based on Korean data. Thus, this paper investigates the impact of protectionism on Korea's business cycle. Design/methodology - To identify future implications, we conduct a structural vector autoregression (VAR) analysis using monthly Korean data from 1994 to 2015. Macroeconomic variables in the model include the industrial production index, inflation rates, exports (or net exports), interest rates, and exchange rates. For the identification of the shock reflecting the expansion of protectionism, we use an antidumping investigation (ADI) data. Since ADIs are followed generally by the imposition of antidumping tariffs, they have no contemporaneous impact on tariffs and are also contemporaneously exogenous to other endogenous variables in the VAR model. We examine two kinds of ADI shocks i) shocks on Korean exports imposed by Korea's trading partners (ADI-imposed shocks) and ii) shocks on imports imposed by the Korean government (ADI-imposing shocks). Findings - We find that Korea's exports decline sharply due to ADI-imposed shocks; the lowest point at the third month after the initial shock; and do not recover until 24 months later. Simultaneously, the inflation rate decreases. Therefore, the ADI-imposed shock can be regarded as a negative shock on the demand curve where both production and price decrease. In contrast, the ADI-imposing shock generates a different response. The net exports decline, but the inflation rate increases. These can be seen as standard responses with respect to the negative shock on the supply curve. Originality/value - We shed light on the relationship between protectionism and Korea's economic fluctuations, which is rarely addressed in previous studies. We also consider the effects of both protective policy measures on imports to Korea imposed by the Korean government and on policy measures imposed by Korea's trading partner countries on its exports.

A Study of Correlation Between China Iron Ore Import, Steel Export Activity and Dry Bulk Index : Focus on Capesize C5/C10/C14 and Supramax S2/S3 (중국의 철광석 수입량과 철강 수출량이 부정기선 운임지수에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Bong-Gil;Oh, Jin-Ho;Park, Keun-Sik
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.115-136
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    • 2020
  • This study aims to analyze the impact of China's iron ore imports and exports on the tramper freight rate of China. The import volume of iron ore in China, the export volume of steel products in China, and exogenous variables were used as independent variables. The dependent variables were BDI, BCI, C5, C10, C14, BSI, S2, and S3. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were conducted. The correlation analysis showed that China's iron ore imports were not related to the remaining BDI, BCI, BSI, C5, C10, S2, and S3, except for the C14 index. However, there was a positive correlation between the ship's space and international oil prices, and it was not related to China's Purchasing Managers Index (PMI). The export volume of steel products was negatively correlated with BDI, BCI, BSI, C5, C10, C14, S2, S3, and international oil prices, and was not related to iron ore imports, ship space, and China's PMI. In the verification of the hypothesis between China's iron ore imports and exogenous variables, China's PMI was rejected within the hypothesis. However, the hypothesis on international oil prices and ship space was adopted. In the verification of the hypothesis between China's steel export volume and exogenous variables, the hypothesis on BDI and the S3 index was adopted, and the hypothesis on BSI and S2 was rejected. In the analysis results of this study, the ship space and oil prices were adopted in all the hypothesis results. Domestic companies participating in the tramper shipping market will need to be prepared through continuous monitoring of related indicators.

The Production, the Use, the Number of Workers and Exposure Level of Asbestos in Korea (우리나라의 석면 생산과 사용 및 근로자 수와 노출농도의 변화)

  • Choi, Jung Keun;Paek, Do Myung;Paik, Nam Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.242-253
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    • 1998
  • South Korea has been producing asbestos over 60 years. The use of asbestos was over 50 years for production of asbestos slate and 27 years for asbestos friction materials including asbestos textile and brake-lining. Thus, it can be supposed that asbestos related diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma could be found in the vulnerable workers exposed to asbestos in 1955-1975, given the average latency period of 10-30 years. Asbestos was produced primarily by Japanese during World War II In Korea. The production of chrysotile peaked to 4,815 tons in 1944. From 1978 to 1984, 10,000 tons of asbestos were produced annually. However, the production was interrupted by raising labor costs and extinction of mine reserves, and finally they had to depend on import for the need of asbestos. In 1945, there were 16 asbestos mines, in total, with the addition of new asbestos mines in South Korea. Imports of asbestos was increased from 74,000 tons to 95,000 tons during the period of 1976 - 1992. But the imports was reduced to 88,000 tons in 1995. Since, in addition to the import of asbestos itself, the imports of asbestos products were increased as well and the accumulation of asbestos reached to 30,000 tons during the period of 1964 to 1993. In 1965, there was only one asbestos company with 207 employees. But the size of asbestos industry has been expanded so much that 118 asbestos companies could be found in 1993 with 1,476 workers. However, there was no record on the survey of asbestos concentration to which workers were exposed in any companies in 1983. The record of the air-borne concentration of the asbestos in textile working places in 1984 showed 6.7 fibers/cc by geometric mean(GM), but it was reduced to 1.2 fibers/cc in 1993. GMs of asbestos in working places for construction materials and asbestos textiles were also decreased from 1.7 fibers/cc to 0.55 fibers/cc during the period of 1984 - 1996.

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A Comparative Analysis of News Frame on U. S. Beef Imports and Candlelight Vigils (미국산 수입쇠고기와 촛불시위 보도에 나타난 뉴스 프레임 비교 연구)

  • Im, Yang-June
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.46
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    • pp.108-147
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    • 2009
  • This study explores the news frames on the U. S. beef imports and candlelight vigils covered by the two national dailies such as ChosunIlbo and the Hankyoreh Shinmun; the KwangwonIlbo, a local daily. The news frames extracted based on the models of Iyengar(1987), Semetko & Valkenburg(2000) and other researchers are attribution of responsibility, economic sequences, protest against the authorities, national health and governmental public relations and so on. The result shows that the news reports are consisted of the straight news(75.9%), feature stories(11.7%) and editorials(6.3%). More specifically, there is a comparatively hight ratio of editorials(11.0%) for the ChosunIlbo, feature stories(20.9%) for the Hankyoreh, and the straight news(89.7%) for the KwangwonIlbo. In terms of the news frames stressed by the three dailies, the ChosunIlbo focuses and stresses on the national health(17.8%) and the attribution of responsibilities(10.6%). However, the Hankyoreh have a tendency to stress on the protest against the authorities(31.3%) and attribution of responsibilities(38.4%); the KwangwonIlbo, focuses on the protest against the authorities(38.4%) and the economic sequences(17.9%). Finally, in the case of the main characteristics of the dailies, the governmental public relations frame is found only on the ChosunIlbo that has a comparatively high ratio; the Hankyoreh also has a high ratio of the feature stories on the U. S. beef imports. Even thought the KwangwonIlbo has a high ratio of the economic sequence frame, the ratio of opinion pages, such as editorial and columns, the local newspaper has not spoken up for the potential economic crisis of the local Kwangwon province beef industry, mainly caused by the U. S. import beef.

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The Changes and the Determinants of Korea's Market Share in U.S., Japanese, and Other DECO Imports (한국수출(韓國輸出)의 시장점유율(市場占有率) 분석(分析) : 대미(對美)·日(일)·여타(餘他) OECD 수출실적(輸出實績)을 중심으로)

  • Yoo, Jung-ho
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.3-30
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    • 1991
  • This paper examines Korea's exports of manufactures to the United States, Japan, and other OECD member countries in the 1974-89 period, focusing on the market share in the trade partners' imports. It decomposes the growth of exports into various effects, following the "constant-market-shares" analysis. For this purpose, the entire period is divided into three subperiods: 1974-78, 1978-83, and 1983-89. The paper also estimates a regression model of the market share determination, using the data of Korea's market share in U.S. imports. In the three subperiods under study, Korea's exports grew at different paces for varied reasons. The average annual growth rate was 28 %, 11 %, and 21 %, respectively. A large drop in the "competitiveness effect", that is, in the market-share growth rate, was mainly responsible for the decline in the export growth rate. The largest drop in the competitiveness effect was found in the light manufactures exports in the second period. The market share did not regain the rapid growth momentum. The main reason for the rise in export growth rate in the last subperiod was the "market-size effect"-a rise in the growth rate of the trade partners' imports. According to the regression results, high intensities in physical and human capital tended to lower the Korean manufacturing industries' market shares in the United States. This negative correlation was stronger in the case of human capital intensity, suggesting that Korea is relatively poorer in human capital endowment than in physical capital endowment when compared to the United States. This negative correlation between the market share and each of the two intensities became weaker overtime. This may be interpreted as the consequence of both physical and human capital accumulation which were faster than the labor force growth. Depreciation of the Japanese yen was estimated to have a negative influence on the Korean manufacturing industries' market share in the United States, and this negative influence became stronger each year in the 1980s. This seems to reflect the intensifying competition between the two countries' exports in U.S. import markets. The Heavy and Chemical Industry Policy of the 1970s, which promoted a number of selected industries by providing them with various incentives and inevitably discriminated against the rest of the industries, was estimated to have had strong negative effects on the export performance of the light manufacturing industries. This finding and the largest decline in the "competitiveness effect" -found in the light manufactures exports in the 1978-83 period-indicate that the Heavy and Chemical Industry Policy was mainly accountable for the drop in the export growth rate during the period. On the other hand, the rise in export growth rate during the subsequent subperiod was greatly impacted by the large scale exchange rate realignments of major currencies, especially by the appreciation of the Japanese yen, and other changes in international economic conditions.

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Study on Optimum Compartment of 300K VLOC Considered Longitudinal Strength and Bottom Damage (종강도 및 Bottom Damage를 고려한 300K VLOC의 최적구획검토)

  • Park, Ji-Yun;Koo, Ja-Won
    • Special Issue of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • pp.39-42
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    • 2011
  • The last years have seen a dramatic increase of the new-building orders for Very Large Ore Carriers(VLOC), mainly driven by the increasing demand for iron ore imports from Australia and brazil to the steel mills in china. Thus the vibrant research of VLOC aimed cost-cutting by optimum compartment have conducted in recent years. In this study, we are also trying to find ways to reduce longitudinal strength by optimum compartment and check additionally whether the modified compartments were satisfied with SOLAS bottom damage.

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