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Structural Decomposition Analysis on Changes in Industrial Energy Use in Korea, 1980~2000 (구조분해분석을 통한 국내 산업별 에너지 소비 변화요인 연구)

  • Kim, Jin-Soo;Heo, Eunnyeong
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.257-290
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    • 2005
  • Korean energy use in industrial sector has increased more rapidly than other sectors during 1980~2000 periods. Relatively higher increases in industrial sector energy consumption raise questions whether government policy of rationalization of industrial energy use has been effective. In this study, we use 80-85-90 and 90-95-00 constant price input-output table to analyze increases in industrial energy use. Using an adjusted version of structural decomposition model introduced by Chen and Rose (1990), we decompose Changes of energy use into 17 elements. We classify entire industry sector into 32 sectors including four energy sectors (coal and coal products, refined petroleum, electricity and town gas). We then analyze changes of energy use by industrial level to check differences among industrial energy demand structures. Finally, we compare three industries, electronic product manufacturing, metal manufacturing and construction, that represent technology and capital intensive, energy and material intensive and labor and capital intensive industry. As results, we find that high energy using industries make the most effort to reduce energy use. Primary metal, petrochemical and mon-metal industries show improvements in elements such as energy and material productivity, energy and material imports, energy substitution and material substitutions towards energy saving. These results imply that although those industries are heavy users of energy, they put the best effort to reduce energy use relative to other industries. We find various patterns of change in industrial energy use at industrial level. To reduce energy use, electronic product manufacturing industry needs more effort to improve technological change element while construction industry needs more effort to improve material input structure element.

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Framework of Stock Market Platform for Fine Wine Investment Using Consortium Blockchain (공유경제 체제로서 컨소시엄 블록체인을 활용한 와인투자 주식플랫폼 프레임워크)

  • Chung, Yunkyeong;Ha, Yeyoung;Lee, Hyein;Yang, Hee-Dong
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.45-65
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    • 2020
  • It is desirable to invest in wine that increases its value, but wine investment itself is unfamiliar in Korea. Also, the process itself is unreasonable, and information is often forged, because pricing in the wine market is done by a small number of people. With the right solution, however, the wine market can be a desirable investment destination in that the longer one invests, the higher one can expect. Also, it is expected that the domestic wine consumption market will expand through the steady increase in domestic wine imports. This study presents the consortium block chain framework for revitalizing the wine market and enhancing transparency as the "right solution" of the nation's wine investment market. Blockchain governance can compensate for the shortcomings of the wine market because it guarantees desirable decision-making rights and accountability. Because the data stored in the block chain can be checked by consumers, it reduces the likelihood of counterfeit wine appearing and complements the process of unreasonably priced. In addition, digitization of assets resolves low cash liquidity and saves money and time throughout the supply chain through smart contracts, lowering entry barriers to wine investment. In particular, if the governance of the block chain is composed of 'chateau-distributor-investor' through consortium blockchains, it can create a desirable wine market. The production process is stored in the block chain to secure production costs, set a reasonable launch price, and efficiently operate the distribution system by storing the distribution process in the block chain, and forecast the amount of orders for futures trading. Finally, investors make rational decisions by viewing all of these data. The study presented a new perspective on alternative investment in that ownership can be treated like a share. We also look forward to the simplification of food import procedures and the formation of trust within the wine industry by presenting a framework for wine-owned sales. In future studies, we would like to expand the framework to study the areas to be applied.

Consideration about LINAC movable range by H&N patient immobilization device manufacture (두경부환자 고정기구제작을 통한치료기 가동범위에 관한 고찰)

  • Jung DoHyung;Shim JinSeop;Youm DuSeok;Choi GyeSuk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : New therapy technique appeared in 3D-CRT or IMRT according to a radiation treatment developing and worked. Such treatment technique requires the radiation irradiation of many direction. It has many restriction at radiation irradiation of many direction to the linear acceleration deception of now actually. Consequently We make new fix device and measure consequently the improvement of the activate range. Method and Material : We upload the fix device on a linear accelerator Couch. We fixed Gantry at 45, 90, 135 and Couch is spin and measure the clearance of the equipment. Couch is fixed at 0 45 90 and measures the clearance of Gantry. We upload the Extended head holder(EHH) on a linear accelerator Couch. and We measure with the experiment of the front. Result : The action range did not have big difference to increase Gantry45. but The activate range of Couch increases the angle in Gantry 90 and Gantry 135 when it uses EHH. The activate range of Gantry increases the angle in Couch 45 when it uses EHH. We showed good activate situation all in Couch 0 and Couch 90. The utility of EHH could keep a behind radiation diminution. Conclusion : The radiation irradiation of many direction comes to be possible the utility of the fix instrument(EHH). The safety space between the patient and equipment or between equipment and equipment increased the utility of the fix device. Also, The manufacture is possible imports to rather cheap price. and We could bring the frugality of the treatment expendable supplies.

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Economic Effects of Eliminating Trade Barriers under Imperfect Competition (불완전경쟁하(不完全競爭下)에서의 무역장벽(貿易障壁) 완화효과(緩和效果))

  • Lee, Hong-gue
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.29-54
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    • 1992
  • Recent studies on the economic effects of trade liberalization and economic integration have emphasized the significant gains associated with product differentiation and scale economies. Securing access to markets in other countries will make it possible to increase product variety and capture scale economies, thus, expanding the gains from trade. Liberalization is also expected to introduce foreign competition into the previously closed market. Concurrently, the liberalization will improve the competitive market environment for firms selling in the domestic market. Firms will be pressed to either exit or reduce cost. The output per firm, then, will increase due to the exit of rival firms, and the average total cost will decline due to the economies of scale. 'Rationalization' of the production process will eventually follow. This paper addresses the economic effects of (counterfactual) bilateral tariff elimination between Korea and Japan. It computationally assesses the gains from liberalization as well as the resource allocations and welfare effects associated with the tariff reduction. The endogenous determination of the key parameters distinguishes this paper from others. The firm's perceived elasticity of demand and elasticity of substitution in the present model are calibrated to be consistent with the base year data. Korea, Japan, and the rest of the world are modeled explicitly. The sectoral coverage of the model includes twenty-three tradable product categories based on three-digit SITC industries and seven nontradable categories based on one-digit SITC industries. Product categories are also classified into perfectly competitive and imperfectly competitive ones. In the imperfectly competitive industries, product differentiation exists at the firm level, while the perfectly competitive industries are characterized by national product differentiation. The simulation results of bilateral tariff reduction are reported. Tariff elimination tends to increase intra-industry trade flows so that the total amount of exports and imports of both countries expand. Yet, Japan is expected to increase the bilateral trade surplus in the wake of the mutual tariff reduction. Terms-of-trade for Korea will not change, while for Japan it will deteriorate. Equivalent variations reflecting the change in consumer surplus (welfare) will favor Korean consumers. Total output, however, will not change substantially, recording 0.5 and 0.6% for Japan and Korea, respectively. An interesting finding in the analysis is that the gains from increased competition and scale efficiency are not as prevailing as expected in theory.

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An Analysis of Imports by Domestic Producers of Competing Goods (메이커에 의한 수입(輸入)의 문제점(問題點)과 대응방안(對應方案))

  • Nam, Il-chong
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.55-75
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    • 1992
  • At the outset of import liberalization, most economists expected a significant drop in the prices of domestic goods that faced foreign competition. However, it is now generally acknowledge that a significant drop in prices of those goods has not occurred. A common claim is that the prices did not drop significantly because the major importers of many imported goods were also the domestic producers of competing goods. The objective of this paper is to analyze the welfare effect of importation by domestic firms that produce competing goods, to identify the factors that facilitate such business practices, and to formulate a policy that could improve the welfare. We proved that importation by competing domestic firms definitely raises the prices of both imported and domestic goods compared to the situation where foreign goods are imported by non-producers, ceteris paribus. The intuition behind this result is that since a producer-importer is essentially a cartel, its overall profit maximization requires reduced competition between the products that it sells. On the other hand, if a producer-importer is more efficient at distrinbution than a simple importer, the comparison between the two cases is a priori indeterminate. We also find that the industries in which domestic producers are actively involved in importing competing goods are the ones in which the distribution channels are tightly controlled by importer-producers. This finding suggests that exclusive dealing contracts, which work as an entry barrier, may be the source of importing by domestic producers. We argue that in a country such as Korea, where financial market is highly incomplete, tight control of the distribution channels by oligopolistic manufacturers is likely to be an effective entry barrier that leads to importing by domestic producers of similar goods. We further argue that seemingly superior distribution costs of importer-producers is likely to be a result of market foreclosure which would disappear once the entry barrier of exclusive dealing contracts is removed. Above findings suggest that market imperfections are the source of importation by domestic competitors, which in turn constitutes a market imperfection in itself and reduces consumer welfare. As potential remedies, we considered three alternatives; direct price control by the government over the imported goods sold by major domestic producers, regulation of trade itself between major producers, and regulation of exclusive dealing contracts. For reasons both theoretical and pratical, we find that the last alternative is the most attrative. Prohibiting exclusive contracts between manufacturers and dealers in industries where exclusive dealing contracts are a significant entry barrier is expected to break up the importer-producer cartel and improve the welfare.

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Strategic Antitrust Policy Promoting Mergers to Enhance Domestic Competitiveness (기업결합규제(企業結合規制)와 국제경쟁력(國際競爭力))

  • Seong, So-mi
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.153-172
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    • 1990
  • The present paper investigates the potential value of strategic antitrust policy in an oligopolistic international market. The market is characterized by a non-cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium and by asymmetry in costs among firms in the world market. The model is useful for two reasons. First, it is important in the context of policy-making to examine the conditions under which it may be beneficial to relax antitrust law to enhance competitiveness. Second, the explicit derivation of the level of cost-saving required for a gain in total domestic surplus provides an empirical rule for excluding industries that do not satisfy the requirements for a socially beneficial antitrust exemption. Results of the analysis include a criterion that tells how the cost-saving and concentration effects of a merger offset each other. The criterion is derived from fairly general assumptions on demand functions and is simple enough to be applied as a part of the merger guidelines. Another interesting policy implication of our analysis is that promoting mergers would not be a beneficial strategy in a net importing industry where cost-saving opportunities are thin. Cost-saving domestic mergers are more likely to increase national welfare in exporting industries. The best candidate industries for application of strategic antitrust policy are those with the following characteristics: (i) a large potential for efficiency enhancement; (ii) high market concentration at the world but not the domestic level; (iii) a high ratio of exports to imports. Recently, many policymakers and economists in Korea have also come to believe that the appropriate antitrust policy in an era of increased foreign competition may actually be to encourage rather than to prohibit domestic mergers. The Industry Development Act of 1986 and the proposed bill for Mergers and Conversions in the Financial Industry of 1990 reflect this changing perspective on antitrust policy. Antitrust laws may burden domestic firms in the sense that they have a more constrained strategy set. Expenditures to avoid antitrust attacks could also increase costs for domestic firms. But there is no clear evidence that the impact of antitrust policy is significant enough to harm the competitiveness of domestic firms. As a matter of fact, it is necessary for domestic financial institutions to become large in scale in this era of globalization. However, the absence of empirical evidence for efficiency enhancement from mergers suggests caution in the relaxation of antitrust standards.

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A Study on Commodity Asset Investment Model Based on Machine Learning Technique (기계학습을 활용한 상품자산 투자모델에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Jin Ho;Choi, Heung Sik;Kim, Sun Woong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.127-146
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    • 2017
  • Services using artificial intelligence have begun to emerge in daily life. Artificial intelligence is applied to products in consumer electronics and communications such as artificial intelligence refrigerators and speakers. In the financial sector, using Kensho's artificial intelligence technology, the process of the stock trading system in Goldman Sachs was improved. For example, two stock traders could handle the work of 600 stock traders and the analytical work for 15 people for 4weeks could be processed in 5 minutes. Especially, big data analysis through machine learning among artificial intelligence fields is actively applied throughout the financial industry. The stock market analysis and investment modeling through machine learning theory are also actively studied. The limits of linearity problem existing in financial time series studies are overcome by using machine learning theory such as artificial intelligence prediction model. The study of quantitative financial data based on the past stock market-related numerical data is widely performed using artificial intelligence to forecast future movements of stock price or indices. Various other studies have been conducted to predict the future direction of the market or the stock price of companies by learning based on a large amount of text data such as various news and comments related to the stock market. Investing on commodity asset, one of alternative assets, is usually used for enhancing the stability and safety of traditional stock and bond asset portfolio. There are relatively few researches on the investment model about commodity asset than mainstream assets like equity and bond. Recently machine learning techniques are widely applied on financial world, especially on stock and bond investment model and it makes better trading model on this field and makes the change on the whole financial area. In this study we made investment model using Support Vector Machine among the machine learning models. There are some researches on commodity asset focusing on the price prediction of the specific commodity but it is hard to find the researches about investment model of commodity as asset allocation using machine learning model. We propose a method of forecasting four major commodity indices, portfolio made of commodity futures, and individual commodity futures, using SVM model. The four major commodity indices are Goldman Sachs Commodity Index(GSCI), Dow Jones UBS Commodity Index(DJUI), Thomson Reuters/Core Commodity CRB Index(TRCI), and Rogers International Commodity Index(RI). We selected each two individual futures among three sectors as energy, agriculture, and metals that are actively traded on CME market and have enough liquidity. They are Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Corn, Wheat, Gold and Silver Futures. We made the equally weighted portfolio with six commodity futures for comparing with other commodity indices. We set the 19 macroeconomic indicators including stock market indices, exports & imports trade data, labor market data, and composite leading indicators as the input data of the model because commodity asset is very closely related with the macroeconomic activities. They are 14 US economic indicators, two Chinese economic indicators and two Korean economic indicators. Data period is from January 1990 to May 2017. We set the former 195 monthly data as training data and the latter 125 monthly data as test data. In this study, we verified that the performance of the equally weighted commodity futures portfolio rebalanced by the SVM model is better than that of other commodity indices. The prediction accuracy of the model for the commodity indices does not exceed 50% regardless of the SVM kernel function. On the other hand, the prediction accuracy of equally weighted commodity futures portfolio is 53%. The prediction accuracy of the individual commodity futures model is better than that of commodity indices model especially in agriculture and metal sectors. The individual commodity futures portfolio excluding the energy sector has outperformed the three sectors covered by individual commodity futures portfolio. In order to verify the validity of the model, it is judged that the analysis results should be similar despite variations in data period. So we also examined the odd numbered year data as training data and the even numbered year data as test data and we confirmed that the analysis results are similar. As a result, when we allocate commodity assets to traditional portfolio composed of stock, bond, and cash, we can get more effective investment performance not by investing commodity indices but by investing commodity futures. Especially we can get better performance by rebalanced commodity futures portfolio designed by SVM model.

The Effect on Aviation Industry by WTO Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft and Policy Direction of Korea (WTO 민간항공기 교역 협정이 항공산업에 미치는 영향과 우리나라의 정책 방향)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.247-280
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    • 2020
  • For customs-free and liberalization on the trade of aircraft parts, the WTO Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft was separately concluded as plurilateral trade agreement at the time of launching WTO in 1995, and currently 33 countries including the United States and the EU are acceded but Korea does not. Major details of the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft include product coverage, the elimination of customs duties and other charges, the prohibition of government-directed procurement of civil aircraft, the application of the Agreement on Subsides and Countervailing Measures, and the consultation on issues related to this Agreement and dispute resolution. Article 89 paragraph 6 of the current Customs Act was newly established on December 31, 2018, and the tariff reduction rate for imports of aircraft parts will be reduced in stages from May 2019 and the tariff reduction system will be abolished in 2026. Accordingly, looking at the impact of the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft on the aviation industry, first, as for the impact on the air transport industry, an tariff allotment of the domestic air transport industry is expected to reach about 160 billion won a year from 2026, and upon acceding to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft, the domestic air transport industry will be able to import aircraft parts at no tariff, so it will not have to pay 3 to 8 percent import duties. Second, as for the impact on the aviation MRO industry, if the tariff reduction system for aircraft parts is phased out or abolished in stages, overseas outsourcing costs in the engine maintenance and parts maintenance are expected to increase, and upon acceding to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft, the aviation MRO industry will be able to import aircraft parts at no tariff, so it will reduce overseas outsourcing costs. If the author proposes a policy direction for the trade liberalization of aircraft parts to ensure competitiveness of the aviation industry, first, as for the tariff reduction by the use of FTA, in order to be favored with the tariff reduction by the use of FTA, it is necessary to secure the certificate of origin from foreign traders in the United States and the EU, and to revise the provisions of Korea-Singapore and Korea-EU FTA. Second, as for the push of acceding to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft, it would be resonable to push the acceding to Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft for customs-free on the trade of aircraft parts, as the tariff reduction method by the use of FTA has limits. Third, as for the improvement of the tariff reduction system for aircraft parts under the Customs Act, it is expected that there will take a considerable amount of time until the acceding to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft, so separate improvement measures are needed to continue the tariff reduction system of aircraft parts under Article 89 paragraph 6 of the Customs Act. In conclusion, Korea should accede to the WTO Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft to create an environment in which our aviation industry can compete fairly with foreign aviation industries and ensure competitiveness by achieving customs-free and liberalization on the trade of aircraft parts.

An Analysis on the Conditions for Successful Economic Sanctions on North Korea : Focusing on the Maritime Aspects of Economic Sanctions (대북경제제재의 효과성과 미래 발전 방향에 대한 고찰: 해상대북제재를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Sang-Hoon
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.239-276
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    • 2020
  • The failure of early economic sanctions aimed at hurting the overall economies of targeted states called for a more sophisticated design of economic sanctions. This paved way for the advent of 'smart sanctions,' which target the supporters of the regime instead of the public mass. Despite controversies over the effectiveness of economic sanctions as a coercive tool to change the behavior of a targeted state, the transformation from 'comprehensive sanctions' to 'smart sanctions' is gaining the status of a legitimate method to impose punishment on states that do not conform to international norms, the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction in this particular context of the paper. The five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council proved that it can come to an accord on imposing economic sanctions over adopting resolutions on waging military war with targeted states. The North Korean nuclear issue has been the biggest security threat to countries in the region, even for China out of fear that further developments of nuclear weapons in North Korea might lead to a 'domino-effect,' leading to nuclear proliferation in the Northeast Asia region. Economic sanctions had been adopted by the UNSC as early as 2006 after the first North Korean nuclear test and has continually strengthened sanctions measures at each stage of North Korean weapons development. While dubious of the effectiveness of early sanctions on North Korea, recent sanctions that limit North Korea's exports of coal and imports of oil seem to have an impact on the regime, inducing Kim Jong-un to commit to peaceful talks since 2018. The purpose of this paper is to add a variable to the factors determining the success of economic sanctions on North Korea: preventing North Korea's evasion efforts by conducting illegal transshipments at sea. I first analyze the cause of recent success in the economic sanctions that led Kim Jong-un to engage in talks and add the maritime element to the argument. There are three conditions for the success of the sanctions regime, and they are: (1) smart sanctions, targeting commodities and support groups (elites) vital to regime survival., (2) China's faithful participation in the sanctions regime, and finally, (3) preventing North Korea's maritime evasion efforts.

Situation of Fertilizer Industry in Korea (비료산업(肥料産業)의 현황(現況)과 문제점(問題点))

  • Lee, Yun Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.34-48
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    • 1982
  • 1. Production and consumption of chemical fertilizers in Korea could be divided into five different phases of total imports, setting up fertilizer plants, self-sufficiency in production, net export, and diversification in compound fertilizers. Currently the nation has production capacity of 800 thousand M/T of nitrogen, 400 thousand M/T of phosphate ($P_2O_5$) and 200 thousand M/T of potash ($K_2O$). 2. Yearly consumption increased every year, since 1964, 28,000 M/T N, 7,700 M/T $P_2O_5$, and 7,500 M/T $K_2O$ until 1972, when the increase jumped by eight times for $P_2O_5$ and seven times for $K_2O$ for the following 3 years in anticipation of their short supply. Now total consumption has been more or less stabilized at the level of 450 thousand M/T N, 220 thousand M/T $P_2O_5$ and 180 thousand M/T $K_2O$ for the last 7 years. 3. Current operation rate of fertilizer plants is around 80% throughout the whole industry, after going through several different levels depending on demand at times. 4. Fertilizer export started in 1967 and reached a peak of 150 thousand nutrient ton in 1972, about 20% of total production, before temporarily stopping due to over-demand for next three years. The export resumed again in 1976 rise to the all time high of 670 thousand nutrient ton in 1980, almost half of total production, and then started to decline due to higher price of petroleum since then. 5. The decline in fertilizer export appears to be accelerated because several countries, in South-Eastern Asia, traditional export market for Korean fertilizers, started to build their own plants, since 1980, based on their raw materials of especially petroleum. 6. Current consumption in Korea is about 30 nutrient Kg per 10a, equivalent to that in Western European countries, partly due to new high-yielding rice varieties and extensive cultivation of fruit trees and vegetables. Additional fertilizer demand in future can be anticipated in reclaimed land for growing grass and forestry.

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