• Title/Summary/Keyword: intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring

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Clinical practice guidelines for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring: 2020 update

  • Korean Society of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring;Korean Neurological Association;Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine;Korean Society of Clinical Neurophysiology;Korean Association of EMG Electrodiagnostic Medicine
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 2021
  • The utility and accuracy of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has evolved greatly following the recent development of new devices for neurophysiological testing and advances in anesthesiology. Until recently, the need for IONM services has been limited to large academic hospitals, but the demand for neurophysiologists with expertise in IONM has grown rapidly across diverse types of hospital. The primary goal of the Korean Society of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (KSION) is to promote the development of IONM research groups and to contribute to the improvement of fellowship among members and human health through academic projects. These guidelines are based on extensive literature reviews, recruitment of expert opinions, and consensus among KSION board members. This version of the guidelines was fully approved by the KSION, Korean Association of EMG Electrodiagnostic Medicine, the Korean Society of Clinical Neurophysiology, the Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine, and the Korean Neurological Association.

Basic Techniques of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring

  • Park, Sang-Ku;Hyun, Soon-Chul;Lim, Sung-Hyuk;Park, Chan-Woo;Park, Jin-Woo;Kim, Dong-Jun;Choi, Wan-Soo;Kim, Gi-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2013
  • Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (INM) is very useful in monitoring the motorsensory pathway and vascular circulation system during intraspinal, or intracranial neurosurgery. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) are for detecting the problems along the auditory pathways including, the eighth cranial nerve and brainstem. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) is a useful adjunct to conventional monitoring of Somato-sensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs) during surgery. Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs) has been regarded as having limited significance for the preservation of visual function during neurosurgical procedures. In this paper, we propose that the most appropriate averaging of the number of inspections in the inspection of each used in the operative field, is good and efficient, functionally.

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Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring during Microvascular Decompression Surgery for Hemifacial Spasm

  • Park, Sang-Ku;Joo, Byung-Euk;Park, Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.62 no.4
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 2019
  • Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is due to the vascular compression of the facial nerve at its root exit zone (REZ). Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve near the REZ is an effective treatment for HFS. In MVD for HFS, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (INM) has two purposes. The first purpose is to prevent injury to neural structures such as the vestibulocochlear nerve and facial nerve during MVD surgery, which is possible through INM of brainstem auditory evoked potential and facial nerve electromyography (EMG). The second purpose is the unique feature of MVD for HFS, which is to assess and optimize the effectiveness of the vascular decompression. The purpose is achieved mainly through monitoring of abnormal facial nerve EMG that is called as lateral spread response (LSR) and is also partially possible through Z-L response, facial F-wave, and facial motor evoked potentials. Based on the information regarding INM mentioned above, MVD for HFS can be considered as a more safe and effective treatment.

Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring in Cerebello Pontine Angle Tumor

  • Park, Sang-Ku
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2014
  • Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (INM) inspection has a very important role. While preserving the patient's neurological function be sure to safe surgery, neurological examination should thank. Cerebello pontine angle tumor surgery, especially in the nervous system is more important to the meaning of INM. In cochlear nerve, facial nerve, trigeminal nerve, which are intricate brain surgery, doctors are only human eye and brain to the brain that it is virtually impossible to distinguish the nervous system. They receives a lot of help from INM. In this paper, we examined six kinds broadly. First, the methods of spontaneous EMG and Free-running EMG, which can instantly detect a damage inflicted on a nerve during surgery. Second, methods of triggered EMG and direct nerve electrical stimulation, which directly stimulate a nerve using electricity to distinguish between nerves and brain tumors. Third, the method of knowing a more accurate neurologic status by informing neurological surgeons about Free-running EMG wave forms that are segmetalized into four. Fourth, three ways of knowing when a patient will be awaken from intraoperative anesthesia, which happens due to a weak anesthetic. Fifth, a method of understanding the structures of a brain tumor and a facial nerve as five dividend segments. Sixth, comparisons between cases normal facial nerve recovery and occurrence of a facial nerve paralysis during the postoperative course.

Spinal Dysraphism in the Last Two Decades : What I Have Seen during the Era of Dynamic Advancement

  • Wang, Kyu-Chang
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.63 no.3
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    • pp.272-278
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    • 2020
  • Compared to any other decade, the last two decades have been the most dynamic period in terms of advances in the knowledge on spinal dysraphism. Among the several factors of rapid advancement, such as embryology during secondary neurulation and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, there is no doubt that Professor Dachling Pang stood high amidst the period. I review here the last two decades from my personal point of view on what has been achieved in the field of spinal dysraphism, focusing on occult tethered cord syndrome, lumbosacral lipomatous malformation, terminal myelocystocele, retained medullary cord, limited dorsal myeloschisis and junctional neural tube defect. There are still many issues to revise, add and extend. Profound knowledge of basic science is critical, as well as refined clinical analysis. I expect that young scholars who follow the footsteps of precedent giants will shed bright light on this topic in the future.

Intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory and visual evoked potentials for detecting posterior cerebral artery infarction during anteromesial temporal resection

  • Seo, Suyeon;Kim, Dong Jun;Lee, Chae Young
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.104-108
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    • 2020
  • We performed intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (INM) during anteromesial temporal resection (AMTR) in a patient with lesional temporal lobe epilepsy. INM revealed a sudden decrease in N20 waves in somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and poor P100 waves in visual evoked potentials (VEPs). These changes developed after applying electrocoagulation in the right mesial temporal areas. Postoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated right thalamic and medial occipital infarctions. SSEPs and VEPs monitoring can be useful for detecting posterior cerebral artery infarction in AMTR.

An Electrode Configuration for Recording Muscle Motor Evoked Potentials in the Upper Extremities during Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring

  • Choi, Young-Doo;Jin, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Chi-Heon;Kwak, Gil Ho;Kim, Bo Eun;Chung, Chun Kee
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.60 no.4
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    • pp.475-480
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    • 2017
  • Objective : The main aim of the present study is to examine the electrode configurations used to record the muscle motor evoked potential (mMEP) in the upper extremities during surgery with the goal of producing a high and stable mMEP signal, in particular among the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), and across the APB-ADM muscles, which have been widely used for the mMEP in the upper extremities. Methods : Thirty right-handed patients were recruited in this prospective study. No patients showed any adverse events in their mMEP signals of the upper extremities during surgery. The mMEPs were recorded independently from the signals for the APB and ADM and for those across the APB-ADM. Results : The mMEP amplitude from across the APB-ADM was statistically higher than those recorded from the APB and ADM muscles. Moreover, the coefficient of variation of the mMEP amplitude from across the APB-ADM was smaller than those of mMEP amplitude recorded from the APB and ADM muscles. Conclusion : The mMEP from across the APB-ADM muscles showed a high yield with high stability compared to those in each case from the APB and ADM muscles. The configuration across the APB-ADM muscles would be best for mMEP recordings from the upper extremities for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring purposes.

Surgical Outcomes of Thalamic Tumors in Children: The Importance of Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Neuro-Navigation and Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring

  • Kim, Jun-Hoe;Phi, Ji Hoon;Lee, Ji Yeoun;Kim, Kyung Hyun;Park, Sung-Hye;Choi, Young Hun;Cho, Byung-Kyu;Kim, Seung-Ki
    • Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.60-67
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    • 2018
  • Background Recently, modern technology such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), neuro-navigation and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) have been actively adopted for the treatment of thalamic tumors. We evaluated surgical outcomes and efficacy of the aforementioned technologies for the treatment of pediatric thalamic tumors. Methods We retrospectively reviewed clinical data from 37 children with thalamic tumors between 2004 and 2017. There were 44 operations (27 tumor resections, 17 biopsies). DTI was employed in 17 cases, neuro-navigation in 23 cases and IOM in 14 cases. All diagnoses were revised according to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated, and relevant prognostic factors were analyzed. The median follow-up duration was 19 months. Results Fifteen cases were gross total resections (GTR), 6 subtotal resections (STR), and 6 partial resections (PR). Neurological status did not worsen after 22 tumor resections. There were statistically significant differences in terms of the extent of resection between the groups with DTI, neuro-navigation and IOM (n=12, GTR or STR=12) and the group without at least one of the three techniques (n= 15, GTR or STR=9, p=0.020). The mean PFS was $87.2{\pm}38.0$ months, and the mean OS $90.7{\pm}36.1$ months. The 5-year PFS was 37%, and the 5-year OS 47%. The histological grade ($p{\leq}0.001$) and adjuvant therapy (done vs. not done, p=0.016) were significantly related to longer PFS. The histological grade (p=0.002) and the extent of removal (GTR/STR vs. PR/biopsy, p=0.047) were significantly related to longer OS. Conclusion Maximal surgical resection was achieved with acceptable morbidity in children with thalamic tumors by employing DTI, neuro-navigation and IOM. Maximal tumor resection was a relevant clinical factor affecting OS; therefore, it should be considered the initial therapeutic option for pediatric thalamic tumors.

Principles of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring with Insertion and Removal of Electrodes (수술 중 신경계감시검사에서 검사에 따른 전극의 삽입 및 제거방법)

  • Lim, Sung Hyuk;Park, Soon Bu;Moon, Dae Young;Kim, Jong Sik;Choi, Young Doo;Park, Sang Ku
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.453-461
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    • 2019
  • Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (INM) examination identifies the damage caused to the nervous system during surgery. This method is applied in various surgeries to validate the procedure being performed, and proceed with confidence. The assessment is conducted in an operating room, using subdermal needle electrodes to optimize the examination. There are no textbooks or guides for the correct stimuli and recording areas for the surgical laboratory test. This article provides a detailed description of the correct stimuli and recording parts in motor evoked potential (MEP), somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Free-running Electromyography (EMG) is an observation of the EMG that occurs in the muscle, wherein the functional state of most cranial nerves and spinal nerve roots is determined. In order to help understand the test, an image depicting the inserting subdermal needle electrodes into each of the muscles, is attached. Furthermore, considering both the patient and the examiner, a safe method is suggested for removal of electrodes after conclusion of the test.

Artifacts and Troubleshooting in Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (수술중신경계감시검사에서 발생하는 인공산물의 종류와 해결 방법)

  • Lim, Sung Hyuk;Kim, Kap Kyu;Jang, Min Hwan;Kim, Ki Eob;Park, Sang-Ku
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.122-130
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    • 2021
  • The types of artifacts that are observed in intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (INM) is truly diverse. The removal of artifacts that interfere with the examination is essential. In addition, improving the quality of the examination by removing artifacts is a reflection of the competency of the examiner and is also the best way to ensure patient safety. However, if knowledge of the equipment or anesthesia in the operating room is insufficient due to lack of experience, artifacts cannot be removed even with a method appropriate to the situation. If artifacts are not separated and removed, the reading of the examination results in confusion in the operation process. This can be a fatal problem in neurosurgery that requires rapid and sophisticated procedures. In this paper, the causes of artifacts that occur during surgery are classified into electrical factors, non-electrical factors, and other factors, and a method and examination method for removing artifacts according to the specific situation is mentioned. Although the operating room environment is a very critical place to simultaneously consider various scenarios, we hope that a stable and optimal INM will play a role by knowing the types and causes of various artifacts and how to tackle them.