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Clinical Study on the Iron Absorption from Heme-Iron Polypeptide and Nonheme-Iron

  • Nam, Tae-Sik;Shim, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Byung-Ju;Rah, So-Young;Park, Kwang-Hyun;Kim, Seon-Young;Mun, Eun-Gyeng;Jeong, Young-Ju;Han, Myung-Kwan;Cha, Youn-Soo;Chae, Soo-Wan;Im, Mie-Jae;Kim, Uh-Hyun
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.295-300
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    • 2006
  • Iron bound to heme appears to be more bioavailable than iron salts. A clinical study was performed to investigate the absorption efficiency of heme-iron and iron-salt products available. Heme-iron and nonheme-iron supplements have become available in Korea. We performed iron absorption studies to compare the absorption of heme-iron polypeptide (HIP) products made from digested hemoglobin, produced in Korea (HIPk) and imported from Japan (HIj), with that of iron salts. In the study, 80 subjects were divided into 5 groups (n=56): placebo group; 12 mg glucose, HIPk group; 12 mg iron as HIPk, HIj group; 12 mg iron as HIj, iron-salt group 1; 12 mg of iron as ferrous aminoacetate, and iron-salt group 2; 100 mg iron as ferrous aminoacetate. Changes in serum iron levels were measured at 3 and 5 hours post ingestion. Absorption of iron in HIPk was higher compared to HIj, iron-salt or placebo. There was a significant inverse correlation between low serum iron levels $(<80{\mu}g/dl)$ and iron absorption from HIPk. These results demonstrated that HIPk was more bioavailable, even taken with a meal, and would have potential advantages over iron salt or HIj as an iron supplement. Our results indicate that heme-iron absorption is regulated by iron status through a heme receptor, whereas iron-salt absorption is unregulated.

Effects of Waterborne Iron on Serum Iron Concentration and Iron Binding Capacity of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

  • Jee Jung-Hoon;Kim Seong-Gil;Kang Ju-Chan
    • Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2004
  • Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was exposed to waterborne iron (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mg/L) for 50 days. The effects of iron on blood iron status and iron binding capacity were studied. The serum iron concentration was significantly higher than in the group exposed to iron (1, 5 and 10 mg/L) in comparison to the control after 30 days of exposure to iron. A significant decrease in unsaturated iron binding capacity was found between the control and the group exposed to iron (5 and 10 mg/L, respectively) at 40 and 50 days, respectively. The total iron binding capacity of serum in the fish exposed to iron concentrations (5 and 10 mg/L) showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control at 40 days after iron exposure. Serum iron saturation values increased in the flounder exposed to iron concentration (5 and 10 mg/L) at 50 days. Our data suggest that sub-lethal exposure of waterborne iron alters the blood iron concentration and iron binding capacity, and these parameters seems to be valuable factors for screening and diagnosis of iron overload syndromes in fish.

Iron Bioavailability in Iron-fortified Market Milk (철분강화 우유의 생이용성 평가)

  • 김윤지
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.705-709
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    • 1999
  • To evaluate iron bioavailability in iron fortified milk, in vitro and in vivo method were used. Low molecular weight components(ILC) from milk was isolated and iron was added, then soluble iron from ILC iron complex was determined. Each iron sources and extrinsically labelled with FeCl3 was used for measuring absorption rate of iron from ILC radiolabelled iron complexes as radioiron absorption into the blood one hour after injection into ligated duodenal loops of iron deficient rats. Iron absorption rate was in the order of ferrous lactate(25.56%)$\geq$ferric citrate(24.71%)$\geq$ferrous sulfate(19.67%) when 100ppm iron was used. In separate experiments, iron fortified milks with each iron sources were gavaged into iron deficient rats. When 25ppm iron was added to milk, the order of iron absorption was ferrous sulfate(12.52%)>ferrous lactate(8.07%)>ferric citrate(6.52%) (p<0.05). When 100ppm iron was added to milk, absorption rate was decreased compared to the treatments with added 25ppm of iron. Absorption rate of ferrous sulfate(5.34%) from milk added 100ppm iron was highly lowered, but ferric citrate(6.45%) was not significantly changed. The absorption rate of ferrous lactate(5.82%) was 70% of 25ppm iron added milk.

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Preventive Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Iron Accumulation of Rats Fed Diets Containing High Levels of iron (철분의 과잉섭취시 셀레늄 섭취수준이 철분과잉 축적에 대한 예방효과에 관한 연구)

  • 전예숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.318-325
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation of iron accumulation of rats fed diets containing high levels or iron. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley weaning rats were fed with diets containing various levels of iron(adequate : 35ppm, 2-fold : 70ppm, 4-fold : 140ppm) and selenium(adequat : 0.05ppm and high : 0.05ppm) for 12 weeks. Feed intakes of 2-fold and 4-fold iron groups were higher than that of adequate iron group. There was no difference body weight gain across iron and selenium containing diet groups. Hemoglobin level was increasd with iron increment and decreased with selenium supplementation. Iron contents in serum and tissues were increased as iron intake was increased. Liver iron content was decreased with selenium supplementation. Selenium content in liver was decreased with iron increment and increased with selenium supplementation. In the case of iron balance, iron excretion through urine and feces was significantly increased as iron intake was increased. However, apparent absorbability and retention rate of iron were not significantly affected by dietary iron or selenium.

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Innovative Approaches to Increase the Longevity of PRBs Containing Zero-Valent Iron

  • 이태윤;박재우;최은경;허보연
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.122-124
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    • 2002
  • The removal capacity of zero-valent iron for Cr(Ⅵ) was evaluated using batch kinetic tests. The rate constants for zero-valent iron dramatically increased as initial Cr(Ⅵ) concentration decreased. Generally, the reaction rates of Cr(Ⅵ) with zero-valent iron were faster than that of a biotic degradation of Cr(Ⅵ), and furthermore the reaction rates were inversely proportional to the initial Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations. After certain reaction time elapsed. no further decrease of Cr(Ⅵ) was observed, indicating a loss of iron reactivity. The loss of iron reactivity was primarily due to the passivation of iron surfaces with iron-Cr precipitates, but the reactivity of iron was recovered by adding iron-reducing bacteria. Even though the addition of bacteria itself removed Cr(Ⅵ), the combination of iron-reducing bactera and oxidized iron significantly enhanced the reaction rate for Cr(Ⅵ) removal. The results from column tests also confirmed that the innoculation of iron-reducing bacteria to the column containing completely oxidized iron partially enhanced the recovery of the iron reactivity.

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The Effect of Iron Supplementation on the Hematological Iron Status and Pb and CD Levels in Erythrocyte, Hair and Urine of Subjects With Suboptimal Iron Status (철분의 구강투여가 철분부족 아동의 혈중철분지표 및 적혈구, 소변, 머리카락의 납 과 카드뮴 수준변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 손숙미;정혜영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.1165-1173
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    • 1998
  • The effect of oral iron supplementation was assessed on blood iron levels and Pb and Cd levels in erythrocytes, hair and urine of 101 Puchon 5th grade school children with suboptimal iron status. Treatment with 25mg of elemental iron per day for 8weeks resulted in a significant increase in the intake of most nutrients in addition to iron. Iron supplementation resulted in significant improvements in hemoglobin, MU, MCH, MCHC, serum ferritin, serum iron, TIBC, and transferrin saturation of subjects(p<0.05 - p<0.01) and cocomitantly lowered Pb and Cd levels in erythrocytes, hair, and urine(p<0.01). Regression analysis showed that only iron intake contributed to significant increases in hemoglobin and serum ferritin. It seems that 25mg of iron supplementation is safe and adequate to improve iron status in school children with suboptimal iron status and it also has the benefit of alleviating Pb and Cd status. (Korean J Nutrition 31(7) : 1165-1173, 1998)

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Effects of developmental iron deficiency and post-weaning iron repletion on the levels of iron transporter proteins in rats

  • Oh, Sugyoung;Shin, Pill-kyung;Chung, Jayong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.613-618
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency in early life is associated with developmental problems, which may persist until later in life. The question of whether iron repletion after developmental iron deficiency could restore iron homeostasis is not well characterized. In the present study, we investigated the changes of iron transporters after iron depletion during the gestational-neonatal period and iron repletion during the post-weaning period. MATERIALS/METHODS: Pregnant rats were provided iron-deficient (< 6 ppm Fe) or control (36 ppm Fe) diets from gestational day 2. At weaning, pups from iron-deficient dams were fed either iron-deficient (ID group) or control (IDR group) diets for 4 week. Pups from control dams were continued to be fed with the control diet throughout the study period (CON). RESULTS: Compared to the CON, ID rats had significantly lower hemoglobin and hematocrits in the blood and significantly lower tissue iron in the liver and spleen. Hepatic hepcidin and BMP6 mRNA levels were also strongly down-regulated in the ID group. Developmental iron deficiency significantly increased iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin (FPN) in the duodenum, but decreased DMT1 in the liver. Dietary iron repletion restored the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit to a normal range, but the tissue iron levels and hepatic hepcidin mRNA levels were significantly lower than those in the CON group. Both FPN and DMT1 protein levels in the liver and in the duodenum were not different between the IDR and the CON. By contrast, DMT1 in the spleen was significantly lower in the IDR, compared to the CON. The splenic FPN was also decreased in the IDR more than in the CON, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that iron transporter proteins in the duodenum, liver and spleen are differentially regulated during developmental iron deficiency. Also, post-weaning iron repletion efficiently restores iron transporters in the duodenum and the liver but not in the spleen, which suggests that early-life iron deficiency may cause long term abnormalities in iron recycling from the spleen.

A Study on the Changes of Maternal Dietary Iron Intakes, Its Bioavailability, and Iron Status during Pregnancy (임신기간 중 모체의 식사 철 섭취상태와 생체이용률 및 철 영양상태의 변화)

  • 이정아;이종임;임현숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.142-150
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    • 2004
  • To increase both iron and enhancers for iron absorption through diets should be a basic strategy to sufficiently provide increased iron for pregnancy. Previous studies reported that iron intakes of Korean pregnant women were short and their iron status deteriorated as pregnancy progressed. However, there is little data about the bioavailability of dietary iron during pregnancy. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the changes of dietary iron intakes, its bioavailability and iron status during pregnancy longitudinally in Korean women. A total of 151 pregnant women in their first trimester of pregnancy voluntarily participated. Among them, 72 women finished the research protocol during the second trimester and 55 did it during the third trimester. Dietary intakes of total iron, both non-heme and heme iron, as well as enhancers, both MPF (meat, poulty, and fish) and vitamin C, increased significantly as pregnancy progressed. As the results, bioavailability of dietary iron and iron absorbed increased significantly as pregnancy progressed. However, the amount of iron absorbed at each trimester did not meet considerably the iron needed during pregnancy. All five indices examined in the study, Hb level, Hct, serum concentrations of ferritin and sTfR (soluble transferrin receptor), and sTfR: ferritin ratio, showed that iron status of the subjects deteriorated as pregnancy progressed. The rate of anemia of the subjects increased as pregnancy progressed although more than 80% of the subjects took iron supplements after the 20th week of pregnancy. These results imply that it is needed to provide more iron especially, heme iron and dietary enhancers to prevent the deterioration of iron status during pregnancy. Future research on bioavailability of supplemental iron should be performed to determine the iron balance precisely.

Bioavailability of Iron-fortified Whey Protein Concentrate in Iron-deficient Rats

  • Nakano, Tomoki;Goto, Tomomi;Nakaji, Tarushige;Aoki, Takayoshi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1120-1126
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    • 2007
  • An iron-fortified whey protein concentrate (Fe-WPC) was prepared by addition of ferric chloride to concentrated whey. A large part of the iron in the Fe-WPC existed as complexes with proteins such as ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin. The bioavailability of iron from Fe-WPC was evaluated using iron-deficient rats, in comparison with heme iron. Rats were separated into a control group and an iron-deficiency group. Rats in the control group were given the standard diet containing ferrous sulfate as the source of iron throughout the experimental feeding period. Rats in the iron-deficiency group were made anemic by feeding on an Fe-deficient diet without any added iron for 3 wk. After the iron-deficiency period, the iron-deficiency group was separated into an Fe-WPC group and a heme iron group fed Fe-WPC and hemin as the sole source of iron, respectively. The hemoglobin content, iron content in liver, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE) and apparent iron absorption rate were examined when iron-deficient rats were fed either Fe-WPC or hemin as the sole source of iron for 20 d. Hemoglobin content was significantly higher in the rats fed the Fe-WPC diet than in rats fed the hemin diet. HRE in rats fed the Fe-WPC diet was significantly higher than in rats fed the hemin diet. The apparent iron absorption rate in rats fed the Fe-WPC diet tended to be higher than in rats fed the hemin diet (p = 0.054). The solubility of iron in the small intestine of rats at 2.5 h after ingestion of the Fe-WPC diet was approximately twice that of rats fed the hemin diet. These results indicated that the iron bioavailability of Fe-WPC was higher than that of hemin, which seemed due, in part, to the different iron solubility in the intestine.

Dietary Iron Intake and Body Iron Status of Myocardial Infarction Patients in Chunan Area

  • Kim, Hee-Seon
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 1999
  • It has been known for some time that elevated body iron could be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The present study was conducted to determine body iron status and dietary iron intake of patients with myocardial infarction(MI). Seventy five patients from the Chunam area with their first MI history within he past 2 months were recruited. The serum iron concentration, total iron binding capacity(TIBC) and percent transferrin saturation(TS) were selected as indicators of body iron status. Twenty four hour recall was conducted by trained interviewers to asses the dietary intake. Most women (91.3%) showed waist to hip ratio(W/H) greater than 0.85 while 17.3% of men were assessed to have a tendency of abdominal obesity(W/H>0.95). The average BMI of women was 25.80 and that of men was 23.98. The average diet intake of participants was below the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for most nutrients. He average dietary iron intake was 10.03 mg/day for all subjects while women's iron intake was significantly lower than men's. However, a great proportion of participants (77%) showed a tendency to have normal iron status. About 9% of the participants were assessed as iron deficient and 14% had an iron overload. The mean serum iron concentration was 125 g/dl ranging from 13.3 to 280.6 g/dl. Iron intake from animal sources were significantly associated with body iron status (r=0.257, p=0.026) when TIBC was used as an iron status indicator. When iron status was assessed with TS, it was directly associated with iron intake from animal sources(r=0.278, p=0.05) for he subjects in the normal iron status group. He results of the present study showed that the nutrient intake of Mi patients in Chunan was not quite adequate while iron status was mostly in the normal range. Further studies are needed to investigated whether there is a possible difference in iron metabolism of the MI patients.

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