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Estimate on the Crustal Thickness from Using Multi-geophysical Data Sets and Its Comparison to Heat Flow Distribution of Korean Peninsula (다양한 지구물리 자료를 통해 얻은 한반도의 지각두께 예측과 지열류량과의 비교)

  • Choi, Soon-Young;Kim, Hyung-Rae;Kim, Chang-Hwan;Park, Chan-Hong;Suh, Man-Chul
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.493-502
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    • 2011
  • We study the deep structure of Korean Peninsula by estimating Moho depth and crustal thickness from using land and oceanic topography and free-air gravity anomaly data. Based on Airy-Heiskanen isostatic hypothesis, the correlated components between the terrain gravity effects and free-air gravity anomalies by wavenumber correlation analysis(WCA) are extracted to estimate the gravity effects that will be resulted from isostatic compensation for the area. With the resulting compensated gravity estimates, Moho depth that is a subsurface between the crust and mantle is estimated by the inversion in an iterative method with the constraints of 20 seismic depth estimates by the receiver function analysis, to minimize the uncertainty of non-uniqueness. Consequently, the average of the resulting crustal thickness estimate of Korean Peninsula is 32.15 km and the standard deviation is 3.12 km. Moho depth of South Korea estimated from this study is compared with the ones from the previous studies, showing they are approximately consistent. And the aspects of Moho undulation from the respective study are in common deep along Taebaek Mountains and Sobaek Mountains and low depth in Gyeongsang Basin relatively. Also, it is discussed that the terrain decorrelated free-air gravity anomalies inferring from the intracrustal characteristics of the crust are compared to the heat flow distributions of South Korea. The low-frequency components of terrain decorrelated Free-air gravity anomalies are highly correlated with the heat flow data, especially in the area of Gyeongsang basin where high heat flow causes to decrease the density of the rocks in the lower crust resulting in lowering the Moho depth by compensation. This result confirms that the high heat sources in this area coming from the upper mantle by Kim et al. (2008).

Evaluation of Image Quality in Micro-CT System Using Constrained Total Variation (TV) Minimization (Micro-CT 시스템에서 제한된 조건의 Total Variation (TV) Minimization을 이용한 영상화질 평가)

  • Jo, Byung-Du;Choi, Jong-Hwa;Kim, Yun-Hwan;Lee, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Dae-Hong;Kim, Hee-Joung
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.252-260
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    • 2012
  • The reduction of radiation dose from x-ray is a main concern in computed tomography (CT) imaging due to the side-effect of the dose on human body. Recently, the various methods for dose reduction have been studied in CT and one of the method is a iterative reconstruction based on total variation (TV) minimization at few-views data. In this paper, we evaluated the image quality between total variation (TV) minimization algorithm and Feldkam-Davis-kress (FDK) algorithm in micro computed tomography (CT). To evaluate the effect of TV minimization algorithm, we produced a cylindrical phantom including contrast media, water, air inserts. We can acquire maximum 400 projection views per rotation of the x-ray tube and detector. 20, 50, 90, 180 projection data were chosen for evaluating the level of image restoration by TV minimization. The phantom and mouse image reconstructed with FDK algorithm at 400 projection data used as a reference image for comparing with TV minimization and FDK algorithm at few-views. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), Universal quality index (UQI) were used as a image evaluation metric. When projection data are not insufficient, our results show that the image quality of reconstructed with TV minimization is similar to reconstructed image with FDK at 400 view. In the cylindrical phantom study, the CNR of TV image was 5.86, FDK image was 5.65 and FDK-reference was 5.98 at 90-views. The CNR of TV image 0.21 higher than FDK image CNR at 90-views. UQI of TV image was 0.99 and FDK image was 0.81 at 90-views. where, the number of projection is 90, the UQI of TV image 0.18 higher than FDK image at 90-views. In the mouse study UQI of TV image was 0.91, FDK was 0.83 at 90-views. the UQI of TV image 0.08 higher than FDK image at 90-views. In cylindrical phantom image and mouse image study, TV minimization algorithm shows the best performance in artifact reduction and preserving edges at few view data. Therefore, TV minimization can potentially be expected to reduce patient dose in clinics.

The Evaluation of Attenuation Difference and SUV According to Arm Position in Whole Body PET/CT (전신 PET/CT 검사에서 팔의 위치에 따른 감약 정도와 SUV 변화 평가)

  • Kwak, In-Suk;Lee, Hyuk;Choi, Sung-Wook;Suk, Jae-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.21-25
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: For better PET imaging with accuracy the transmission scanning is inevitably required for attenuation correction. The attenuation is affected by condition of acquisition and patient position, consequently quantitative accuracy may be decreased in emission scan imaging. In this paper, the present study aims at providing the measurement for attenuation varying with the positions of the patient's arm in whole body PET/CT, further performing the comparative analysis over its SUV changes. Materials and Methods: NEMA 1994 PET phantom was filled with $^{18}F$-FDG and the concentration ratio of insert cylinder and background water fit to 4:1. Phantom images were acquired through emission scanning for 4min after conducting transmission scanning by using CT. In an attempt to acquire image at the state that the arm of the patient was positioned at the lower of ahead, image was acquired in away that two pieces of Teflon inserts were used additionally by fixing phantoms at both sides of phantom. The acquired imaged at a were reconstructed by applying the iterative reconstruction method (iteration: 2, subset: 28) as well as attenuation correction using the CT, and then VOI was drawn on each image plane so as to measure CT number and SUV and comparatively analyze axial uniformity (A.U=Standard deviation/Average SUV) of PET images. Results: It was found from the above phantom test that, when comparing two cases of whether Teflon insert was fixed or removed, the CT number of cylinder increased from -5.76 HU to 0 HU, while SUV decreased from 24.64 to 24.29 and A.U from 0.064 to 0.052. And the CT number of background water was identified to increase from -6.14 HU to -0.43 HU, whereas SUV decreased from 6.3 to 5.6 and A.U also decreased from 0.12 to 0.10. In addition, as for the patient image, CT number was verified to increase from 53.09 HU to 58.31 HU and SUV decreased from 24.96 to 21.81 when the patient's arm was positioned over the head rather than when it was lowered. Conclusion: When arms up protocol was applied, the SUV of phantom and patient image was decreased by 1.4% and 9.2% respectively. With the present study it was concluded that in case of PET/CT scanning against the whole body of a patient the position of patient's arm was not so much significant. Especially, the scanning under the condition that the arm is raised over to the head gives rise to more probability that the patient is likely to move due to long scanning time that causes the increase of uptake of $^{18}F$-FDG of brown fat at the shoulder part together with increased pain imposing to the shoulder and discomfort to a patient. As regarding consideration all of such factors, it could be rationally drawn that PET/CT scanning could be made with the arm of the subject lowered.

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A Comparative Study of Subset Construction Methods in OSEM Algorithms using Simulated Projection Data of Compton Camera (모사된 컴프턴 카메라 투사데이터의 재구성을 위한 OSEM 알고리즘의 부분집합 구성법 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Soo-Mee;Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Mi-No;Lee, Ju-Hahn;Kim, Joong-Hyun;Kim, Chan-Hyeong;Lee, Chun-Sik;Lee, Dong-Soo;Lee, Soo-Jin
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.234-240
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: In this study we propose a block-iterative method for reconstructing Compton scattered data. This study shows that the well-known expectation maximization (EM) approach along with its accelerated version based on the ordered subsets principle can be applied to the problem of image reconstruction for Compton camera. This study also compares several methods of constructing subsets for optimal performance of our algorithms. Materials and Methods: Three reconstruction algorithms were implemented; simple backprojection (SBP), EM, and ordered subset EM (OSEM). For OSEM, the projection data were grouped into subsets in a predefined order. Three different schemes for choosing nonoverlapping subsets were considered; scatter angle-based subsets, detector position-based subsets, and both scatter angle- and detector position-based subsets. EM and OSEM with 16 subsets were performed with 64 and 4 iterations, respectively. The performance of each algorithm was evaluated in terms of computation time and normalized mean-squared error. Results: Both EM and OSEM clearly outperformed SBP in all aspects of accuracy. The OSEM with 16 subsets and 4 iterations, which is equivalent to the standard EM with 64 iterations, was approximately 14 times faster in computation time than the standard EM. In OSEM, all of the three schemes for choosing subsets yielded similar results in computation time as well as normalized mean-squared error. Conclusion: Our results show that the OSEM algorithm, which have proven useful in emission tomography, can also be applied to the problem of image reconstruction for Compton camera. With properly chosen subset construction methods and moderate numbers of subsets, our OSEM algorithm significantly improves the computational efficiency while keeping the original quality of the standard EM reconstruction. The OSEM algorithm with scatter angle- and detector position-based subsets is most available.

Performance Characteristics of 3D GSO PET/CT Scanner (Philips GEMINI PET/DT) (3차원 GSO PET/CT 스캐너(Philips GEMINI PET/CT의 특성 평가)

  • Kim, Jin-Su;Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Byeong-Il;Lee, Dong-Soo;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.318-324
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: Philips GEMINI is a newly introduced whole-body GSO PET/CT scanner. In this study, performance of the scanner including spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, noise equivalent count ratio (NECR) was measured utilizing NEMA NU2-2001 standard protocol and compared with performance of LSO, BGO crystal scanner. Methods: GEMINI is composed of the Philips ALLEGRO PET and MX8000 D multi-slice CT scanners. The PET scanner has 28 detector segments which have an array of 29 by 22 GSO crystals ($4{\times}6{\times}20$ mm), covering axial FOV of 18 cm. PET data to measure spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, and NECR were acquired in 3D mode according to the NEMA NU2 protocols (coincidence window: 8 ns, energy window: $409[\sim}664$ keV). For the measurement of spatial resolution, images were reconstructed with FBP using ramp filter and an iterative reconstruction algorithm, 3D RAMLA. Data for sensitivity measurement were acquired using NEMA sensitivity phantom filled with F-18 solution and surrounded by $1{\sim}5$ aluminum sleeves after we confirmed that dead time loss did not exceed 1%. To measure NECR and scatter fraction, 1110 MBq of F-18 solution was injected into a NEMA scatter phantom with a length of 70 cm and dynamic scan with 20-min frame duration was acquired for 7 half-lives. Oblique sinograms were collapsed into transaxial slices using single slice rebinning method, and true to background (scatter+random) ratio for each slice and frame was estimated. Scatter fraction was determined by averaging the true to background ratio of last 3 frames in which the dead time loss was below 1%. Results: Transverse and axial resolutions at 1cm radius were (1) 5.3 and 6.5 mm (FBP), (2) 5.1 and 5.9 mm (3D RAMLA). Transverse radial, transverse tangential, and axial resolution at 10 cm were (1) 5.7, 5.7, and 7.0 mm (FBP), (2) 5.4, 5.4, and 6.4 mm (3D RAMLA). Attenuation free values of sensitivity were 3,620 counts/sec/MBq at the center of transaxial FOV and 4,324 counts/sec/MBq at 10 cm offset from the center. Scatter fraction was 40.6%, and peak true count rate and NECR were 88.9 kcps @ 12.9 kBq/mL and 34.3 kcps @ 8.84 kBq/mL. These characteristics are better than that of ECAT EXACT PET scanner with BGO crystal. Conclusion: The results of this field test demonstrate high resolution, sensitivity and count rate performance of the 3D PET/CT scanner with GSO crystal. The data provided here will be useful for the comparative study with other 3D PET/CT scanners using BGO or LSO crystals.