• Title, Summary, Keyword: log analysis item

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Establishment of Quantitative Analysis Method for Genetically Modified Maize Using a Reference Plasmid and Novel Primers

  • Moon, Gi-Seong;Shin, Weon-Sun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.274-279
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    • 2012
  • For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from $2{\times}10^1{\sim}10^5$ copies of pGMmaize and the $R^2$ values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods.

Shelf-life of Prepacked Kimbab and Sandwiches Marketed in Convenience Stores at Refrigerated Condition (편의점에서 판매되는 김밥 및 샌드위치의 냉장조건에서의 유통기한)

  • Koo, Min-Seon;Kim, Yoon-Sook;Shin, Dong-Bin;Oh, Se-Wook;Chun, Hyang-Sook
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.323-331
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    • 2007
  • This study was designed to estimate self-life of Kimbab and sandwiches marketed in convenience store. While the 12 different type of Kimbab (n=6) and sandwiches (n=6) were kept at $10^{\circ}C$ for 72 hours, quality changes including volatile basic nitrogen, aerobic plate count, pathogens detection and sensorial property was monitored, and effective quality indicators were selected. Volatile basic nitrogen, indicator for protein deterioration was slightly increased during storage periods in all samples. E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were not detected from any of samples. Change of aerobic plate count of Kimbab and sandwiches were increased moderately but increased dramatically after 48 hours of storage. Overall acceptability were maintained over 5, purchasing power limit, for 40 hours in 4 general Kimbab, 48 hours in 2 samgak Kimbab and 42 hours in 2 sandwiches. Shelf-life of each item was calculated from regression equation between reference limit from effective quality indicators, aerobic plate count and sensory property, and storage period. Estimated shelf-lives of general Kimbab were $15{\sim}33$ hours, samgak Kimbab were 32 hours and sandwiches were $27{\sim}30$ hours at $10^{\circ}C$ refrigerated condition.

Minor Physical Anomalies in Patients with Schizophrenia (정신분열병 환자에서 신체미세기형에 관한 연구)

  • Joo, Eun-Jeong;Jeong, Seong Hoon;Maeng, So Jin;Yoon, Se Chang;Kim, Jong Hoon;Kim, Chul Eung;Shin, Youngmin;Kim, Yong Sik
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.140-151
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    • 2002
  • Object and Method:Minor physical anomalies(MPAs) are frequently seen in patients with schizophrenia. MPAs are considered to arise from the anomalous development of ectoderm-originated tissues in the developing fetus. Since the central nervous system originates from ectoderm, MPAs can be regarded as externally observable and objective indicators of the aberrant development which might have taken place in the central nervous system. To investigate whether MPAs are more frequent in schizophrenic patients, the frequencies of MPAs were compared between schizophrenic patients and normal controls. Total 245 schizophrenic patients diagnosed with DSM-IV(male : 158, female : 87), and 418 normal control subjects(male : 216, female : 202) were included in this study. The MPAs were measured using the modified Waldrop scale with fifteen items in six bodily regions; head, eye, ear, mouth, hand, and foot. Result:The total scores of Waldrop scale were $4.40{\pm}1.93$($mean{\pm}standard$ deviation) in patients and $3.43{\pm}1.68$ in controls for females, and for males, $4.58{\pm}1.75$ in patients and $4.28{\pm}1.59$ in controls. For females, the excess of MPAs in schizophrenic patients was statistically significant(t-test : p<0.001). For males, schizophrenic patients also showed more MPAs than normal controls, but this tendency did not reach statistical significance (t-test : p=0.094). When the modified Waldrop total scores excluding head circumference were compared, the total scores in schizophrenic patients were significantly higher for both male and female subjects(t-test : male p<0.001, female p=0.001). The individual anomaly items included in Waldrop scale were also investigated. The items of epicanthus, hypertelorism, malformed ears, syndactylia were significantly more frequent in schizophrenic patients. In contrast, the items of adherent ear lobes, asymmetric ears, furrowed tongue, curved fifth finger, single palmar crease and big gap between toes did not show any differences in frequency between schizophrenic patients and normal controls. Since a lot of statistical analyses showed different results between male and female subjects, it seems to be necessary to consider gender as an important controlling variable for the analysis, however only the item of head circumference showed statistically significant gender-related difference according to log-linear analysis. Conclusion:With a relatively large sample size, the frequencies of MPAs enlisted in Waldrop scale were compared between schizophrenic patients and normal controls in this study. MPAs were more frequently seen in schizophrenic patients and, especially, several specific items in the Waldrop scale showed prominent excess in schizophrenic patients. Although definite conclusions cannot be drawn due to the inherent limitation of the study using Waldrop scale, these results seem to support the possibility that aberrant neurodevelopmental process might be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in some of the patients.

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