• Title/Summary/Keyword: memory

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Neuropsychology of Memory (기억의 신경심리학)

  • Rhee, Min-Kyu
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 1997
  • This paper reviewed models to explain memory and neuropsychological tests to assess memory. Memory was explained in cognitive and neuroanatomical perspectives, Cognitive model describes memory as structure and process. In structure model, memory is divided into three systems: sensory memory, short-term memory(working memory), and long-term memory. In process model, there are broadly three categories of memory process: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Memory process work in memory structure. There are two prominent models of the neuroanatomy of memory, derived from the work of Mishkin and Appenzeller and that of Squire and Zola-Morgan. These two models are the most useful for the clinician in part because they take into account the connections between the limbic and frontal cortical regions. The major difference between the two models concerns the role of the amygdala in memory processess. Mishkin and his colleagues believe that the amygdala plays a significant role while Squire and his colleagues do not. The most popular and widely used tests of memory ability such as WMS-R, AVLT, CVLT, HVLT. RBMT, CFT, and BVRT-R, were reviewed.

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Effects of a Memory Training Program Using Efficacy Sources on Memory Improvement in Elderly People. (노인의 효능자원을 이용한 기억훈련프로그램의 효과)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.1170-1180
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    • 2000
  • This study was a quasi-experimental study to confirm the effects of a memory training program using efficacy sources. The purpose was to develop an effective memory training program for elderly people and to identify the effects of the memory training program. This study was carried out between February 24 and July 18, 1999 and the subjects of the study were 102 elderly people who were participants at a welfare institute in Seoul. The experimental group (51) and the control group (51) were assigned by means of participation order. The control group was matched to the experimental group and was selected considering age, sex, and religion. The experimental group participated in the memory training program. The memory training program was based on the literature of Fogler & Stern (1994), Wang & Lee (1990), Lee (1991) and Lee (1993). The memory training program was given twice a week for two weeks with each program lasting two hours. Task centered memory self-efficacy was measured using the Memory Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Berry & Dennehey (1989) and Meta Memory was measured by the MIA developed by Dixon et al. (1988) Memory performance was measured by the word list developed by Cho Sung Won (1995) and the face recognition task (Face Recognition Task developed for this study). Data were analyzed by SPSS PC and the results are described below. 1. The experimental group which participated in the Memory Training Program showed higher task centered memory self-efficacy scores as compared to the control group (t=4.354, P=.0001). 2. The experimental group which participated in the Memory Training Program showed higher metamemory scores as compared to the control group (t=4.733, P=.0001). 3. The experimental group which participated in the Memory Training Program showed higher memory performance scores as compared to the control group (t=7.500, P=.0001). The memory performance involved an immediate word recall task, a delayed word recall task, a word recognition task, and the face recognition task. 4. In the experimental group, there was significant correlation between the task centered memory self-efficacy scores and the metamemory scores (r=.382, P=.006), but the correlation between the task centered memory self-efficacy scores and the memory performance scores and between the metamemory scores and the memory performance scores were not significant. The results showed that task centered memory self-efficacy, meta memory and memory performance improved following the Memory Training Program including the memory process, changes in memory with aging, and appropriate use of memory strategies. Memory Training Program is an effective nursing intervention for improving memory in elderly people and, also, in people with complaints of memory loss.

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Effect of Intensity of Unconditional Stimulus on Reconsolidation of Contextual Fear Memory

  • Kwak, Chul-Jung;Choi, Jun-Hyeok;Bakes, Joseph T.;Lee, Kyung-Min;Kaang, Bong-Kiun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.293-296
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    • 2012
  • Memory reconsolidation is ubiquitous across species and various memory tasks. It is a dynamic process in which memory is modified and/or updated. In experimental conditions, memory reconsolidation is usually characterized by the fact that the consolidated memory is disrupted by a combination of memory reactivation and inhibition of protein synthesis. However, under some experimental conditions, the reactivated memory is not disrupted by inhibition of protein synthesis. This so called "boundary condition" of reconsolidation may be related to memory strength. In Pavlovian fear conditioning, the intensity of unconditional stimulus (US) determines the strength of the fear memory. In this study, we examined the effect of the intensity of US on the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. Strong contextual fear memory, which is conditioned with strong US, is not disrupted by inhibition of protein synthesis after its reactivation; however, a weak fear memory is often disrupted. This suggests that a US of strong intensity can inhibit reconsolidation of contextual fear memory.

PMBIST for NAND Flash Memory Pattern Test (NAND Flash Memory Pattern Test를 위한 PMBIST)

  • Kim, Tae-Hwan;Chang, Hoon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.79-89
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    • 2014
  • It has been an increase in consumers who want a high-capacity and fast speed by the newly diffused mobile device(Smart phones, Ultra books, Tablet PC). As a result, the demand for Flash Memory is constantly increasing. Flash Memory is separated by a NAND-type and NOR-type. NAND-type Flash Memory speed is slow, but price is cheaper than the NOR-type Flash Memory. For this reason, NAND-type Flash Memory is widely used in the mobile market. So Fault Detection is very important for Flash Memory Test. In this paper, Proposed PMBIST for Pattern Test of NAND-type Flash Memory improved Fault detection.

Clothing Memory in the Apparel Purchase Behavior (의복 구매 행동에 영향을 미치는 의복 관련 기억)

  • 유연실;이은영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.982-992
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the clothing memory which affects apparel purchase behavior. The construction of clothing memory, the relationship between clothing memory and apparel purchase behavior, and the difference of clothing memory among persons by demographic variables are examined 746 female apparel consumers answer the questionnaire and data are analyzed by factor analysis, canonical correlation, Pearson correlation, and t-test. The result of this study are as follows; 1. There are three dimensions in the clothing memory which memory apparel purchase behavior; general memory about clothing, memory of appropriate clothing for oneself and memory of apparel purchase. 2. nothing memory affects apparel purchase behavior. General memory about clothing plays the most important role in the apparel purchase behavior especially in the amount of apparel purchase. 3. Unmarried young women with high income, high education level, and decent job have large amount of clothing memory.

The Biological Base of Learing and Memory(I):A Neuropsychological Review (학습과 기억의 생물학적 기초(I):신경심리학적 개관)

  • MunsooKim
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.7-36
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    • 1996
  • Recebt neuropsychological studies on neurobiological bases of learning and memory in humans are reviewed. At present, cognitive psychologists belive that memory is not a unitary system. But copmosed of several independent subsystems. Adoption this perspective,this paper summarized findings regarding what kinds of memory discorders result from lesions of which brain areas and which brain areas are activated by what kind of learning/memory tasks. Short-term memory seems to involve widespread areas around the boundaries among the parietal,occipital,and temporal lobes,depending on the type of the type of the tasks and the way of presentation of the stimuli. Implicit memory,a subsystem of long-term memory,is not a unitary system itself. Thus,brain areas involved in implicit memory tasks used. It is well-known that medial temporal lobe is necessary for formation(i,e.,consolidation)of explicit memory,another subsystem of long-term memory. Storage and/or retrieval of episodic and semantic memory involve temporal neocortex. Perfromtal cortex seemas to be involved in several aspects of memory such as short term memory and retrieval of espisodic and semantic memory. Finally, a popular view on the locus of long-term memory storage is described.

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Vectorization of an Explicit Finite Element Method on Memory-to-Memory Type Vector Computer (Memory-to-Memory방식 벡터컴퓨터에서의 외연적 유한요소법의 벡터화)

  • 이지호;이재석
    • Computational Structural Engineering
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.95-108
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    • 1991
  • An explicit finite element method can be executed more rapidly and effectively on vector computer than on the scalar computer because it has suitable structures for vector processing. In this paper, an efficient vectorization method of the explicit finite element program on the memory-to-memory type vector computer is proposed. First, the general vectorization method which can be applied regardless of the vector architecture is investigated, then the method which is suitable for the memory-to-memory type vector computer is proposed. To illustrate the usefulness of the proposed vectorization method, DYNA3D, the existing explicit finite element program, is migrated on HDS AS/XL V50 which is the memory-to-memory type vector computer. Performance results on actual test show a vector/scalar speedup is above 2.4.

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A Theoretical Comparison of Two Possible Shape Memory Processes in Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Metal Matrix Composite

  • Lee Jae Kon;Kim Gi Dae
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.1460-1468
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    • 2005
  • Two possible shape memory processes, austenite to detwinned martensite transformation and twinned martensite to detwinned martensite transformation of a shape memory alloy have been modeled and examined. Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method with Mori-Tanaka's mean field theory is used for modeling of the shape memory processes of TiNi shape memory alloy reinforced aluminum matrix composite. The shape memory amount of shape memory alloy, plastic strain and residual stress in the matrix are computed and compared for the two processes. It is shown that the shape memory amount shows differences in a small prestrain region, but the plastic strain and the residual stress in the matrix show differences in the whole prestrain region. The shape memory process with initially martensitic state of the shape memory alloy would be favorable to the increase in the yield stress of the composite owing to the large compressive residual stress and plastic strain in the matrix.

Recent Advance of Flexible Organic Memory Device

  • Kim, Jaeyong;Hung, Tran Quang;Kim, Choongik
    • Journal of Semiconductor Engineering
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2020
  • With the recent emergence of foldable electronic devices, interest in flexible organic memory is significantly growing. There are three types of flexible organic memory that have been researched so far: floating-gate (FG) memory, ferroelectric field-effect-transistor (FeFET) memory, and resistive memory. Herein, performance parameters and operation mechanisms of each type of memory device are introduced, along with a brief summarization of recent research progress in flexible organic memory.

Memory and Psychiatric Disorders (기억력과 정신질환)

  • Hong, Kyung Sue;Yeon, Byeong Kil
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.3-11
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    • 1997
  • Disturbances in memory are the most common problem in patients with an organic mental syndrome. Other patients with significant psychiatric disorders also often have difficulty with memory. So it is very important in the clinical practice of psychiatry to understand the biological and neurocognitive mechanisms of memory proessing, and to develop the assessment tools with which memory function can be evaluated reliably and validly. Moreover, memory researches provide an important viewpoint from which we can understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric illnesses. This article focuses on our understanding of memory functions in clinical and neurobiological aspects. The relevant material will be presented in four parts : 1) terminologies needed in defining major stages of various types of memory processing : 2) neurochemical and neuroanatomical basis of memory processing : 3) brief bed-side screening tests and more comprehensive neuropsychological tests for the evaluation of memory function : 4) the characteristics of memory dysfunction in several major psychiatric illnesses.

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