• Title/Summary/Keyword: mental practice

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Mechanism and Application Methodology of Mental Practice (정신 연습의 기전과 적용 방법)

  • Kim Jong-soon;Lee Keun-heui;Bae Sung-soo
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.75-84
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to review of mechanism and application methodology about mental practice. The mental practice is symbolic rehearsal of physical activity in the absence of any gross muscular movements. Human have the ability to generate mental correlates of perceptual and motor events without any triggering external stimulus, a function known as imagery, Practice produces both internal and external sensory consequences which are thought to be essential for learning to occur, It is for this reason that mental practice, rehearsal of skill in imagination rather than by overt physical activity, has intrigued theorists, especially those interested in cognitive process. Several studies in sport psychology have shown that mental practice can be effective in optimizing the execution of movements in athletes and help novice learner in the incremental acquisition of new skilled behaviors. There are many theories of mental practice for explaining the positive effect In skill learning and performance. Most tenable theories are symbolic learning theory, psyconeuromuscular theory, Paivio's theory, regional cerebral blood flow theory, motivation theory, modeling theory, mental and muscle movement nodes theory, insight theory, selective attention theory, and attention-arousal set theory etc.. The factors for influencing to effects of mental practice are application form, application period, time for length of the mental practice, number of repetition, existence of physical practice.

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Effectiveness of Mental Practice on EMG Activity of the Quadriceps during Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit Tasks in a Hemiplegic Patient (상상연습이 일어서기와 앉기 과제를 수행하는 동안 편마비 환자의 대퇴사두근 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Seop;Kim, Suhn-Yeop;Oh, Duck-Won
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.43-54
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    • 2008
  • Background : We aimed to determine the effect of a mental practice on the electromyography (EMG) activity of the quadriceps femoris muscle of the affected side in a hemiplegic patient during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks. Methods : We recruited a male patient who had suffered from right hemiplegia. A single-subject experimental A-B-A design was used. The reliability of visual analysis, which was primarily employed in this study design, was supported by using the "2- standard-deviation band" method. The target motions consisted of two activities: sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit. The EMG measurements of the quadriceps femoris muscles of the affected and unaffected sides were made in 8 sessions in the baseline (A), mental-practice (B), and follow-up (A) phases. During the mental practice phase, the 10-min mental practice was performed, and the mental practice was withdrawn in the follow-up phase in order to identify the carry-over effects of the treatment. Data was calculated as the percentage of the ratio of the quadriceps EMG activity values of the affected side on unaffected side. Result : The percentage EMG-activity ratio showed a greater increase in the mental-practice phase than in the baseline, and it was maintained during the follow-up phase. Most of the data points in the mental-practice and follow-up phases were positioned above the "2-standard-deviation band." Conclusion : These findings suggest that mental practice can be used to improve the physical function of hemiplegic patients.

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The Effects of Mental Practice about Leg Exercise Muscle Activities of the Rectus Femoris

  • Kim, Tae-Hoon;Kim, Kyung-Hun;Kim, Ju-O
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of mental practice about leg exercise muscle activities of the rectus femoris. Method: 20 subjects were participated in this study. The values before the experiment were measured and those after the mental performance from the first experiment to the fifth experiment were measured. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure the muscle activity of rectus femoris. Result: The muscle activity of the both rectus femoris after mental practice increased steadily and showed significant differences. Conclusion: In the present study, it was found that the muscle activity of both legs was increased during the mental practice. It can be seen that there was a difference before and after mental practice, and muscle activity of rectus femoris was increased.

Clinical Feasibility of Mental Practice for Gait Ability Improvement of Parkinson Disease Patients: ABA Single Subject Design

  • Song, Hyun Seung;Kim, Jin Young
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.398-402
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was carried out in order to verify actual applicability of mental practice in the clinical field by applying it to Parkinson disease patients. Methods: : The number of subjects was three and they were aged between 65 and 69. One year or longer period has passed since they were diagnosed with Parkinson disease. The baseline A consisted of three sessions. After the baseline period, the researcher applied mental practice to the subjects once per day, for 20 minutes per each time, for 10 sessions. The no-intervention withdrawal phase was composed of three sessions. Outcome measures 10 meter walking test(10MWT), timed up and go (TUG) test, 8-figure walk test (8FWT). Results: All results indicated that 10 MWT, TUG, F8WT was improved when compared mental practice(B) to pre base line(A). base line(A) after mental practice intervention(B) was also sustained. Conclusion: As a result of the mental practice, we can know that it helps straight gait, dynamic balance, curved gait to improve.

The Effect of Cross Education using Serial Reaction Time (연속반응시간과제를 이용한 교차훈련의 효과)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Park, So-Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: We investigated the effects of physical practice, mental practice, and cross education using serial reaction time (SRT). We recruited 21 right-handed healthy males and females who gave consent and had no clinical history for their upper limbs. Methods: The subjects were divided into three groups; actual practice (n=7), mental practice (n=7), and controls (n=7), who performed actual training, mental training, or no intervention respectively for three weeks. Super lab 4.0 displayed four symbols on the monitor and subjects pushed on the matching button, with reaction time assessed pre- and post-intervention. Results: Reaction time was significantly lower after actual or mental practice (p<0.05). Actual practice also decreased left hand reaction time. Conclusion: Actual practice and mental practice can improve motor learning, but mental practice is not sufficient for cross education.

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Effects of Mental Practice on the Muscle Strengthening of the Hemiplegic Patients (상상연습이 편마비 환자의 근력증가에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Eun-Young;Chung, Bo-In
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mental practice on biceps brachii muscle strengthening in 3 poststroke hemiplegia patients along with multiple baseline design across subjects. The mental practice adopted for this experiment involved imagery training to practice elbow flexion, which last 12 to 16 sessions with 30 minutes each session. Maximal muscle activities was measured pre- and post-mental practice to evaluate the strength of biceps brachii. The strength of biceps brachii was measured by surface-EMG. The results were: In the subject 1, 73.92 mV (pre-) and 127.56 mV (post-); in the subject 2, 147.60 mV (pre-) and 202.85 mV (post-); and in the subject 3, 20.75 mV (pre-) and 27.92 mV (post-). The results indicate that a simple mental practice is a useful method to strengthen biceps brachii muscle in hemiplegic patients.

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The Effect of Mental Practice on Motor Task Performance Accuracy (정신훈련이 운동과제 수행시 정확도에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Kyung-Sook;Jung, You-Jin;Cheon, Myung-Soon;Current, Marion E.
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.40-45
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mental practice in increasing accuracy of performance during motor task. Forty healthy students aged 17 years were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group(n=20) performed mental practice; the control group(n=20) performed nothing. The task was dotting. No significant change was seen between pre and post test subtest results following mental practice sessions(p>0.05). The experimental group's accuracy improved a little but this was not valuable statistically(p>0.05). We could not prove that mental practice was effective in increasing accuracy of motor task performance.

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Effects of Ankle Exercise combined with Mental Practice on Postural Alignment (상상연습을 병행한 발목 운동이 자세정렬에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Heosong;Kang, Hyojeong;Heo, Jaewon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Integrative Medicine
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2018
  • Purpose : Various studies effects of mental practice. However, there is a lack of research on the effects of practice on postural alignment. Therefore this study to the effect of ankle exercise combined with mental practice on postural alignment of legs. Method : Subjects were randomly assigned to mental practice group (experimental group n=15) and general exercise group (control group n=15). Postural alignment was the hip, knee, and ankle joints. When viewed from the side, an arbitrary point in front of the malleolus makes a straight line with the plumb line. Exercise was performed a week for weeks. Exercise programs included muscle strengthening, relaxation, and proprioception exercise. The experimental group mental practice. Result : Both groups showed significant differences in postural alignment ankle joint, knee joint, and hip joint. In particular, the experimental group showed a larger change than the control group. However, significant difference in postural alignment change only the knee joint (p<0.05), and there was no significant difference the hip joint (experimental group=$0.77{\pm}0.81$, control group=$0.87{\pm}1.13$) and ankle joint (experimental group=$0.52{\pm}0.63$, control group=$0.48{\pm}0.41$). Conclusion : This study suggests that mental practice is effective as an exercise method postural alignment. Mental practice also expected to be musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, additional studies should be conducted to verify the effect of mental practice on the alignment of various parts.

Effects of Mental Practice on Function and Muscle Activation of Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients

  • Park, Ju-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2016
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of mental practice on function and muscle activation of upper extremity (UE) in stroke patients. METHODS: The mental practice was conducted on 12 subjects for 10 minutes and the related existing work treatment for 20 minutes. The evaluation for the function of UE proceeded with Fugl-Meyer assessment of motor function (FMA) and muscle activity analysis instrument. Furthermore we analyzed patients' reaching activity by two stages, reaching phase and returning to original position phase. RESULTS: According to the research results, the subjects' upper limb function improved in all of the measured items and the total scores after the mental practice (p<.05). In muscle activity, CCR value was used to efficiently analyze the patients' reaching activity in the two stages of reaching stage and returning to the original position phase. While the elbow movement only had a bit of positive change (1.1%) in the reaching stage, both the shoulder (-12.3%) and elbow (-18.2%) movements had a positive change in the returning to original position phase. CONCLUSION: This research confirmed that the mental practice is effective for the enhancement of UE function for stroke patients. The result of this research can contribute to the progress of mental practice in clinical environment.

The Effect of Cross-Education in Nondominant Arm with Normal Adult (정상인의 비우성 상지를 이용한 교차훈련의 효과)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Lee, Mi-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: We investigated the effects of physical practice, mental practice, and cross education using serial reaction time (SRT) in the non-dominant left arm of right-handed individuals. Methods: Subjects were divided into three groups; physical practice (n=8), mental practice (n=8) and controls (n=8). They did, respectively, physical training or mental training, or had no intervention for three weeks. Super lab 4.0 displayed four symbols on the monitor and subjects were asked to push the matching button. Reaction time was assessed pre- and post-intervention. Results: Reaction time was significantly lower after physical practice (p<0.05), but mental practice did not significantly lower reaction time? in the left hand. Also, reaction time was not significantly lower after physical practice or mental practice in the right hand. Conclusion: Physical practice can improve motor learning, but mental practice is not sufficient. Also, neither physical practice nor mental practice is sufficient for cross education from the nondominant to the dominant arm.