• Title, Summary, Keyword: minimum inhibitory concentration

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Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from Zanthoxylum schinifolium Against Food-Borne Pathogens (산초 정유성분의 식중독균에 대한 항균 활성)

  • Jang, Mi-Ran;Seo, Ji-Eun;Lee, Je-Hyuk;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.206-213
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the antibacterial activities of essential oil from Zanthoxylum schinifolium against four Gram-positive bacteria and six Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The antibacterial activity of the oils was determined using the agar-well diffusion assay, MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration). In particular, essential oil from Z. schinifolium showed higher antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative bacteria. Essential oil from Z. schinifolium displayed large inhibition zones especially against Bacillus cereus (31 mm). At concentrations between 0 and $20\;{\mu}g/mL$ the oils showed an antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against nine bacteria ranged from 1.25 to $5\;{\mu}g/mL$. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values against eight bacterial ranged from 2.5 to $20\;{\mu}g/mL$, except Shigella sonnei. Furthermore, our finding on the antibacterial activities of essential oils from Zanthoxylum schinifolium validated the use of this plant for medical purposes.

Growth Inhibitory Activities of Kalopanaxsaponins A and I against Human Pathogenic Fungi

  • Kim, Dong-Wook;Bang, Kyu-Ho;Rhee, Young-ha;Lee, Kyung-Tae;Park, Hee-Juhn
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.688-691
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    • 1998
  • Antifungal activities of the compounds isolated from Kalopanax pictus against representative fungi of dermatomycosis were investigated using paper disc diffusion method. It was found that kalopanaxsaponins A and I were effective in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans KCTC 1940 and Cryptococcus neoformans KCTC 7224 with minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of 25${\mu}g$/ml. It showed that antifungal activity of both compounds have strong selectivity against the fungi of dermatomycosis.

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Synergistic Effect in Combination of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) Extracts with Antibiotics against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

  • Cha, Jeong-Dan
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1263-1272
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    • 2009
  • Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge) is a traditional Korean medicine that is commonly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as edema, arthritis, hepatitis, and endangitis. The several extracts of danshen were tested for antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in clinic by broth microdilution method, the checkerboard, and time-kill methods to evaluate the synergistic effects of the combination of the extracts with antibiotics. The chloroform ($CHCl_3$) and n-hexane (HEX) extracts [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 0.0078-0.3125${\mu}g/mL$; minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), 0.019-0.625${\mu}g/mL$] were found to have strong antibacterial activity against MRSA. Additionally, when the $CHCl_3$ and HEX extracts were co-administered with ampicillin or oxacillin, a synergistic effect against MRSA was observed. Furthermore, a time-kill study evaluating the effects of the extracts against MRSA indicated that treatment with the $CHCl_3$ extract in combination with ampicillin or oxacillin produced rapid bactericidal activity. These results suggest that danshen extracts may have potently antimicrobial activity and thus, it can be a suitable phytotherapeutic agent for treating MRSA infections.

Antimicrobial Activities of White, Red, and Extruded Ginsengs with Different Extraction Conditions

  • Norajit, Krittika;Park, Mi-Ja;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.850-856
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    • 2008
  • White, red, and extruded ginsengs were studied against 8 strains of food-borne pathogens and/or food spoilage microorganisms. The ginseng powders were extracted with different extractants and screened for antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques. The results showed that the yield of extraction was higher with increase of aqueous solution content and temperature. Preliminary screening revealed that the red ginseng extracts were most active, that has been found to be highly effective against all tested microbe except Listeria monocytogenes. Moreover, Bacillus subtilis has shown highly susceptible, which the diameters of inhibition zone values of 28 extracts were between 7 and 14 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) recorded for the different crude ginseng extracts against microorganism using ranged from 6.25 to 100 mg/mL, indicated that the methanol extract of ginseng were more effective than ethanol and water extracts. The 60% methanol extract of red ginseng had the greatest effects against B. subtilis with MIC and MBC values at 6.25 mg/mL.

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol Extracts from 8 Traditional Medicinal Plants

  • Kang, Chang-Geun;Hah, Dae-Sik;Kim, Chung-Hui;Kim, Young-Hwan;Kim, Eui-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Shu
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2011
  • The methanol extract of 12 medicinal plants were evaluated for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (5 strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (10 strains) by assay for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC). The antibacterial activity was determined by an agar dilution method (according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute). All the compounds (12 extracts) of the 8 medicinal plants (leaf or root) were active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative showed a more potent action than Gram positive bacteria. The MIC concentrations were various ranged from $0.6\;{\mu}g/ml$ to $5000\;{\mu}g/ml$. The lowest MIC ($0.6\;{\mu}g/ml$) and MBC ($1.22\;{\mu}g/ml$) values were obtained with extract on 4 and 3 of the 15 microorganisms tested, respectively.

Synergistic Effect of Polygodial with Imidazole Drugs on the Antifungal Activity (천연물 Polygodial과 Imidazole계 화합물의 병용에 의한 항진균 활성의 증진)

  • 이상화;이재란;김창진
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 1999
  • The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of amphotericin B, fluconazole, miconazole, econazole, and 5-fluorocytosine against Saccharomyces cerevisiae were estimated in the presence of 1/2 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 1/2 minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of polygodial, respectively. Among them, the antifungal activities of miconazoles by polygodial was still shown against several yeast-like fungi including Candida albicans, Candida utilis, Cryptococcus neoformans, except for Candida krusei. The combination of polygodial with imidazole drugs against Saccharomyces cerevisiae was further examined using the macrobroth dilution checkerboard method. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and the fractional fungicidal concentration (FFC) index between polygodial and miconazole were 0.16 and 0.19, while the combination of polygodial with econazole exhibited the FIC index of 0.19 and the FFC of 0.25, respectively. These results suggest that polygodial and the imidazoles on the fungistatic and fungicidal action are highly synergistic.

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Selective Combination Effect of Anethole to the Antifungal Activities of Miconazole and Amphotericin B (Miconazole과 Amphotericin B의 항진균 활성에 대한 Anethole의 선택적 병용 효과)

  • 이상화;김창진
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.228-232
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    • 1999
  • The combination effect of anethole with amphotericin B, fluconazole, miconazole, or 5-fluorocytosine was investigated against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When combined with $\frac{1}{2}$ minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or $\frac{1}{2}$ minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of anethole, the antifungal activities of fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine were not changed, but the fungistatic and the fungicidal activities of miconazole were increased 64-fold, respectively. In the case of amphotericin B, the fungistatic activity was increased 2-fold, while the fungicidal activity was decreased 2-fold. The combination effect of anethole with miconazole or amphotericin B was also investigated at the various concentrations using the macrobroth dilution checkerboard method. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and the fractional fungicidal concentration (FFC) index between B exhibited the FIC index of 8.25 and the FFC of 32.06, respectively. Thus, it is analyzed that the combination of anethole with miconazole or amphotericin B on the antifungal action shows synergism and antagonism, respectively.

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p-Anisaldehyde Exerts Its Antifungal Activity Against Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum by Disrupting the Cell Wall Integrity and Membrane Permeability

  • Che, Jinxin;Chen, Xiumei;Ouyang, Qiuli;Tao, Nengguo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.878-884
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    • 2020
  • Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum are the two important postharvest pathogens in citrus, causing about 90% of the total loss of citrus fruit during storage and transportation. Natural fungicides such as essential oils have been widely used instead of chemical fungicides for preventing and controlling postharvest diseases. In this research, p-anisaldehyde exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on P. digitatum and P. italicum, with the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration values of both being 2.00 μl/ml. Additionally, p-anisaldehyde visibly inhibited both the green mold and blue mold development of citrus fruits inoculated with P. digitatum and P. italicum. The mycelia morphologies of these pathogens were greatly altered, and the membrane permeability and cell wall integrity of mycelia were severely disrupted under p-anisaldehyde treatment. These results suggest that the antifungal activity of p-anisaldehyde against P. digitatum and P. italicum can be attributed to the disruption of the cell wall integrity.

Antibacterial Action against Food-Borne Pathogens by the Volatile Flavor of Essential Oil from Chrysanthemum morifolium Flower (국화 꽃 휘발성 향기성분의 식중독균에 대한 항균 작용)

  • Jang, Mi-Ran;Seo, Ji-Eun;Lee, Je-Hyuk;Chung, Mi-Sook;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.154-161
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to investigate antibacterial activities of essential oil from C. morifolium against four Grampositive bacteria and six Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the oils was determined by agar-well diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC). Essential oil of C. morifolium had a large inhibition zones especially against Salmonella enterica(21 mm) and Bacillus cereus(19 mm). Essential oil of C. morifolium generally showed higher antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. MIC of essential oil from C. morifolium was 5 ${\mu}g/m{\ell}$ against ten food-borne pathogens. MBC values were determined to be from 5 to 20 ${\mu}g/m{\ell}$ against eight bacteria except Salmonella choleraesuis and Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, the essential oil of C. morifolium and its components have a potent antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, and is expected to be used as a novel food preservative.

Antimicrobial Activities of Organic Extracts from Fruit of Thuja orientalis L. (측백나무 열매 추출물의 항균활성)

  • Youm, Tae-Hyun;Lim, Heung-Bin
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.315-322
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activities of organic extracts obtained from the fruit of Thuja orientalis L. The native fruits in Korea were collected and extracted by 80% ethanol, and the extract was sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, and butanol. The fraction yields of n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol and water of ethanol extract were 10.15%, 10.05%, 1.45%, 45.35% and 27.55%, respectively. n-Hexane-soluble fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria, while the chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol and aqueous fractions did not show any antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) on Staphyloycoccus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Sateptococcus pneumoniae, n-hexane-soluble fraction were $100\;{\mu}g$, $500\;{\mu}g$ and $50\;{\mu}g$/disc, respectively. The antibacterial activity was not destroyed by heating at 80, 100, $120^{\circ}C$ for 30 min and was not affected by pH. In the inhibitory test against the Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Sateptococcus pneumoniae, n-hexane-soluble fraction showed potent growth inhibition at the concentration of 0.1 and $0.5\;{\mu}g/mL$ for 12~24 hours and n-hexane-soluble fraction did not show any mutagenic activity.