• Title, Summary, Keyword: monitoring

Search Result 23,255, Processing Time 0.077 seconds

Carbon Monoxide Dispersion in an Urban Area Simulated by a CFD Model Coupled to the WRF-Chem Model (WRF-Chem 모델과 결합된 CFD 모델을 활용한 도시 지역의 일산화탄소 확산 연구)

  • Kwon, A-Rum;Park, Soo-Jin;Kang, Geon;Kim, Jae-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
    • /
    • v.36 no.5_1
    • /
    • pp.679-692
    • /
    • 2020
  • We coupled a CFD model to the WRF-Chem model (WRF-CFD model) and investigated the characteristics of flows and carbon monoxide (CO) distributions in a building-congested district. We validated the simulated results against the measured wind speeds, wind directions, and CO concentrations. The WRF-Chem model simulated the winds from southwesterly to southeasterly, overestimating the measured wind speeds. The statistical validation showed that the WRF-CFD model simulated the measured wind speeds more realistically than the WRF-Chem model. The WRF-Chem model significantly underestimated the measured CO concentrations, and the WRF-CFD model improved the CO concentration prediction. Based on the statistical validation results, the WRF-CFD model improved the performance in predicting the CO concentrations by taking complicatedly distributed buildings and mobiles sources of CO into account. At 04 KST on May 22, there was a downdraft around the AQMS, and airflow with a relatively low CO concentration was advected from the upper layer. Resultantly, the CO concentration was lower at the AQMS than the surrounding area. At 15 KST on May 22, there was an updraft around the AQMS. This resulted in a slightly higher CO concentration than the surroundings. The WRF-CFD model transported CO emitted from the mobile sources to the AQMS measurement altitude, well reproducing the measured CO concentration. At 18 KST on May 22, the WRF-CFD model simulated high CO concentrations because of high CO emission, broad updraft area, and an increase in turbulent diffusion cause by wind-shear increase near the ground.

Factors associated with the dietary quality and nutrition status using the Nutrition Quotient for adults focusing on workers in the manufacturing industry (영양지수를 이용한 제조업 근로자의 영양상태 평가 및 관련 요인 연구)

  • Yim, Ji Suk;Heo, Young Ran
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.53 no.5
    • /
    • pp.488-502
    • /
    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study examined the factors influencing Nutrition Quotient for adults (NQ-A), focusing on workers in the manufacturing industry. Methods: The participants were 738 industrial workers in Gwangju. Their dietary information was analyzed using a questionnaire of NQ-A, which consisted of 21 checklist items and the general characteristics of the subjects. The scores of NQ-A and its 4 factors (balance, moderation, diversity, and dietary behavior) were calculated according to the general characteristics of subjects. The data were analyzed using a χ2 test, t-test, correlation, and multiple regression using SPSS 21.0 program. Results: The mean NQ-A score was 45.3 for the total subjects, indicating a low grade. Non-shift workers showed significantly higher scores for balance, diversity, and moderation factors than shift workers. Forty-three (8.7%) shift workers and 123 (50.8%) non-shift workers had good NQ-A scores, whereas 453 (91.3%) shift workers and 119 (49.2%) non-shift workers required monitoring for nutrition. The significant influencing factors of NQ-A were the working pattern (p < 0.001), gender (p < 0.001), family composition (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001), and household income (p < 0.001). As a result of multiple regression analysis, there was a significant difference in the NQ-A score for moderation (F = 141.930, p < 0.001), diversity (F = 98.998, p < 0.001), balance (F = 52.329, p < 0.001), and dietary behavior (F = 12.895, p < 0.001). As a result, shift work and gender had the greatest influence on the balance (β = -0.372, p < 0.001), diversity (β = -0.316, p < 0.001), and moderation (β = -0.507, p < 0.001) factors in NQ-A. Gender had the most influence on the dietary behavior in NQ-A. Conclusion: Shift work and gender were significant factors affecting NQ-A. To manage workers' health better, it will be necessary to prepare a nutrition education program according to the type of working pattern and gender.

Breeding Status and Management System Improvement of Pseudemys concinna and Mauremys sinensis Designated as Invasive Alien Turtles in South Korea (법적지정 생태계교란생물의 사육 현황과 관리 개선 방안 - 리버쿠터와 중국줄무늬목거북을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Philjae;Yeun, Sujung;An, Hyeonju;Kim, Su Hwan;Lee, Hyohyemi
    • Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
    • /
    • v.7 no.4
    • /
    • pp.388-395
    • /
    • 2020
  • Exotic species have been imported for economic purposes, but more recently, an increasing number of animals are imported as pets. With the increasing popularity of two species of turtles, Mauremys sinensis and Pseudemys concinna, the number of pet turtle owners has gradually increased since 2014. The number of turtles increased by 180 in 2017 and 281 in 2019. However, these turtle species have been abandoned to nature, owing to their long lifespans and the changes in conditions of pet owners. The two turtle species have been designated as invasive alien species (AIS) in Korea considering their ecological risks, and the Biological Diversity Act prohibits their release. The owners of Mauremys sinensis and Pseudemys concinna are required to submit the "Application for Approval of Breeding and Grace for AIS" document. In this study, the breeding conditions for the two turtle species were investigated by analyzing the information in the submitted applications for six months (e.g., the suitability of breeding facilities, number of turtles, breeding period, type of pet adoption, and local district of pet owner). A total of 614 cases were analyzed. Because only 58% of breeders provided suitable breeding conditions, breeding information and responsible pet ownership training should be offered to prevent abandonment in natural ecosystems. In addition, continuous monitoring is necessary to prepare for potential problems caused by the lack of information in many applications and the one-off licensing policy.

Understanding the Impact of Environmental Changes on the Number of Species and Populations of Odonata after Creating a Constructed Wetland (인공습지 조성 후 환경변화가 잠자리목의 종수 및 개체수에 미치는 영향 파악)

  • Lee, Soo-Dong;Bae, Soo-Hyoung;Lee, Gwang-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
    • /
    • v.34 no.6
    • /
    • pp.515-529
    • /
    • 2020
  • Constructed wetlands undergo biological and physical changes such as an increase in the proportion of arid plants due to the natural succession process after formation. It can adversely affect not only the purification function but also the habitat of species. As such, this study aims to identify environmental factors affecting biodiversity and propose management plans based on the monitoring results of physical environmental changes and the emergence of species in seven constructed wetlands selected based on the water depth and surrounding conditions among the lands purchased by the Nakdong River basin. We examined the environmental conditions and emergence of the Odonata, which is a wetland-dependent species, to predict the trend of changes in biodiversity and abundance. The results showed that the open water area decreased as the emergent plants spread to the deep water in 2015 compared to 2012 when they were initially restored to a depth of 0.2 to 1 m. While a total of 54 dragonfly species were observed, the habitat diversity, such as vegetation, water surface, and grassland, remained similar to the initial formation of the wetlands despite the expansion of the emergent plants. On the other hand, the number of Agrionidae species, which prefer areas with fewer aquatic plants, decreased between 2012 and 2015 due to the diminished water surface. The p-values of the differences in the number of species and population between wetlands by year were 2.568e-09 and 1.162e-08, respectively, indicating the statistically significant differences. The decrease in open water surface was found to have the greatest effect on the biodiversity and habitat density of dragonflies. The time-series survey of constructed wetlands confirmed that the spread of Phragmites communis, P. japonica, Typha orientalis, etc., caused a decrease in species diversity. It suggests that environmental management to maintain the open water surface area is necessary.

A Study of Correlation Between China Iron Ore Import, Steel Export Activity and Dry Bulk Index : Focus on Capesize C5/C10/C14 and Supramax S2/S3 (중국의 철광석 수입량과 철강 수출량이 부정기선 운임지수에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Bong-Gil;Oh, Jin-Ho;Park, Keun-Sik
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
    • /
    • v.36 no.3
    • /
    • pp.115-136
    • /
    • 2020
  • This study aims to analyze the impact of China's iron ore imports and exports on the tramper freight rate of China. The import volume of iron ore in China, the export volume of steel products in China, and exogenous variables were used as independent variables. The dependent variables were BDI, BCI, C5, C10, C14, BSI, S2, and S3. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were conducted. The correlation analysis showed that China's iron ore imports were not related to the remaining BDI, BCI, BSI, C5, C10, S2, and S3, except for the C14 index. However, there was a positive correlation between the ship's space and international oil prices, and it was not related to China's Purchasing Managers Index (PMI). The export volume of steel products was negatively correlated with BDI, BCI, BSI, C5, C10, C14, S2, S3, and international oil prices, and was not related to iron ore imports, ship space, and China's PMI. In the verification of the hypothesis between China's iron ore imports and exogenous variables, China's PMI was rejected within the hypothesis. However, the hypothesis on international oil prices and ship space was adopted. In the verification of the hypothesis between China's steel export volume and exogenous variables, the hypothesis on BDI and the S3 index was adopted, and the hypothesis on BSI and S2 was rejected. In the analysis results of this study, the ship space and oil prices were adopted in all the hypothesis results. Domestic companies participating in the tramper shipping market will need to be prepared through continuous monitoring of related indicators.

Impacts of Introduced Fishes (Carassius cuvieri, Micropterus salmoides, Lepomis macrochirus) on Stream Fish Communities in South Korea (외래어류가 우리나라 하천생태계 어류 군집에 미치는 영향: 떡붕어(Carassius cuvieri), 배스(Micropterus salmoides), 블루길(Lepomis macrochirus)을 대상으로)

  • Lee, Dae-Seong;Lee, Da-Yeong;Ji, Chang Woo;Kwak, Ihn-Sil;Hwang, Soon-Jin;Lee, Hae-Jin;Park, Young-Seuk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
    • /
    • v.53 no.3
    • /
    • pp.241-254
    • /
    • 2020
  • Three introduced fish species, Japanese white crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri Temminck and Schlegel, 1846), bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacepède, 1802) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819), are dominant fishes in Korean freshwater ecosystem. In this study, we analyzed habitat environment conditions of these three species and their impacts to fish communities in streams across South Korea. Fish community data were obtained from the database of the Stream/River Ecosystem Survey and Health Assessment program maintained by the Ministry of Environment and the National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea. Our results showed that species richness and Shannon diversity of fish were higher at the presence sites of introduced fish than at the absence sites. However, when the abundance of these introduced fish species was increased, the species richness and abundance of fish were decreased. An association analysis showed that the introduced fish species had a low similarity in their appearance with some indigenous fishes such as Siniperca scherzeri and Channa argus and some endemic fishes of Korea such as Zacco koreanus, Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyae, and Acheilognathus yamatsutae. In addition, the introduced fish species had a low appearance similarity with a large number of fishes in their association networks. Finally, our results presented that these introduced fish species influenced the negative impacts to the stream fish communities, and they were potential risk factors for fish community in Korean freshwater ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary that continuous monitoring and establishment of management strategy for introduced fish species to preserve fish resource and biodiversity in the Korean streams.

Toxic effects of phenanthrene on fertilization and normal embryogenesis rates of Mesocentrotus nudus and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (둥근성게(Mesocentrotus nudus)와 말똥성게(Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus)의 수정 및 정상 배아발생률을 이용한 Phenanthrene의 독성영향)

  • Choi, Hoon;Lee, Ju-Wook;Park, Yun-Ho;Lee, Seung-Min;Choi, Yoon-Seok;Heo, Seung;Hwang, Un-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
    • /
    • v.38 no.3
    • /
    • pp.333-342
    • /
    • 2020
  • The aim of this study was to define the toxic effects of phenanthrene (PAHs) on the fertilization and normal embryogenesis rates in the two species of sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and Mesocentrotus nudus). The sperm and fertilized eggs of both sea urchin species were exposed to serial dilutions of phenanthrene for 10 min and 48 hours, respectively. The fertilization rate and normal embryogenesis rate of H. pulcherrimus and M. nudus were decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 for the fertilization rate of H. pulcherrimus and M. nudus was 17.48 mg L-1 and 16.21 mg L-1, and the EC50 for the normal embryogenesis rate was 2.99 mg L-1 and 0.36 mg L-1, respectively. Between the two species, H. pulcherrimus was more sensitive to phenanthrene exposure, and 48 h normal embryogenesis was the more sensitive endpoint. Therefore, the results of this study demonstrated that the exposure of both sea urchin species to phenanthrene caused alterations in egg fertilization and the early developmental stages.

Genetic Identification and Biochemical Characteristics of Edwardsiella Strains Isolated from Freshwater Fishes Cultured in Korea (내수면 양식 어류에서 분리된 Edwardsiella 속 균주들의 유전학적 동정 및 생화학적 특성)

  • Jang, Mun Hee;Kim, Keun-Yong;Lee, Yu Hee;Oh, Yun Kyung;Lee, Jeong-Ho;Song, Jun-Young
    • Journal of fish pathology
    • /
    • v.33 no.2
    • /
    • pp.111-118
    • /
    • 2020
  • The genus Edwardsiella belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae is a member of Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria that cause disease in diverse aquatic organisms such as fish, amphibians and reptiles as well as avians and mammals including human throughout the world. This genus had been composed of three species, E. hoshinae, E. ictaluri and E. tarda, but recent researches erected two novel species, E. anguillarum and E. piscicida that were conventionally identified as E. tarda. In this study, we isolated seven strains belonging to the genus Edwardsiella from freshwater fishes that had been reared at inland fish farms in South Korea and investigated their biochemical characteristics and molecular phylogenetic relationships. The seven strains showed typical characteristics of four Edwardsiella species, E. anguillarum, E. ictaluri, E. piscicida and E. tarda, by biochemical analyses of Gram staining, indole and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production, and API (Analytic Profile Index) 20E test. Molecular phylogenetic analyses inferred from DNA sequence data of both 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) genes were congruent with the biochemical characteristics. As a result, both biochemical and molecular phylogenetic analyses identified four strains isolated from three Anguilla species as E. anguillarum, E. piscicida and E. tarda, two strains from Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Silurus asotus as E. ictaluri, and one strain from Moroco oxycephalus as E. piscicida. In this study, we isolated and successfully identified recently newly erected species, E. anguillarum and E. piscicida in addition to historically notorious pathogenic species, E. ictaluri and E. tarda. In the future study, systematic and comprehensive monitoring of the four Edwardsiella species are required for studying differences in pathogenicity among freshwater fishes.

Analysis of Behavioral Characteristics of Broilers by Feeding, Drinking, and Resting Spaces according to Stocking Density using Image Analysis Technique (영상분석기법을 활용한 사육밀도에 따른 급이·급수 및 휴식공간별 육계의 행동특성 분석)

  • Kim, Hyunsoo;Kang, HwanKu;Kang, Boseok;Kim, ChanHo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.21 no.12
    • /
    • pp.558-569
    • /
    • 2020
  • This study examined the frequency of a broiler's stay in each area as stock density using an ICT-based image analysis technique from the perspective of precision livestock farming (PLF) according to the increase in the domestic broiler farms to understand the normal behavior patterns of broilers by age. The broiler was used in the experimental box (3.3×2.7 m) in a poultry house in Gyeonggi province. The stock densities were 9.5 birds/㎡ (n=85) and 19 birds/㎡ (n=170), respectively, and the frequency of stay by feeding, water, and rest area was monitored using a top-view camera. The image data of three-colored-specific broilers identified as the stock density were acquired by age (12, 16, 22, 27, and 29 days) for six hours. In the collected image data, the object tracking technique was used to record the cumulative movement path by connecting approximately 640,000 frames at 30 fps to quantify the frequency of stay in each area. In each stock density, it was significant in the order of the rest area, feeding, and water area (p<0.001). In 9.5 birds/㎡, it was at 57.9, 24.2, and 17.9 %, and 73.2, 16.8, and 10 % in 19 birds/㎡. The frequency of a broiler's stay could be evaluated in each area as the stock density using an ICT-based image analysis technique that minimizes stress. This method is expected to be used to provide basic material for developing an ICT-based management system through real-time monitoring.

A Comparison between the Reference Evapotranspiration Products for Croplands in Korea: Case Study of 2016-2019 (우리나라 농지의 기준증발산 격자자료 비교평가: 2016-2019년의 사례연구)

  • Kim, Seoyeon;Jeong, Yemin;Cho, Subin;Youn, Youjeong;Kim, Nari;Lee, Yangwon
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
    • /
    • v.36 no.6_1
    • /
    • pp.1465-1483
    • /
    • 2020
  • Evapotranspiration is a concept that includes the evaporation from soil and the transpiration from the plant leaf. It is an essential factor for monitoring water balance, drought, crop growth, and climate change. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) corresponds to the consumption of water from the land surface and the necessary amount of water for the land surface. Because the AET is derived from multiplying the crop coefficient by the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), an accurate calculation of the ET0 is required for the AET. To date, many efforts have been made for gridded ET0 to provide multiple products now. This study presents a comparison between the ET0 products such as FAO56-PM, LDAPS, PKNU-NMSC, and MODIS to find out which one is more suitable for the local-scale hydrological and agricultural applications in Korea, where the heterogeneity of the land surface is critical. In the experiment for the period between 2016 and 2019, the daily and 8-day products were compared with the in-situ observations by KMA. The analyses according to the station, year, month, and time-series showed that the PKNU-NMSC product with a successful optimization for Korea was superior to the others, yielding stable accuracy irrespective of space and time. Also, this paper showed the intrinsic characteristics of the FAO56-PM, LDAPS, and MODIS ET0 products that could be informative for other researchers.