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Natural Language Processing Model for Data Visualization Interaction in Chatbot Environment (챗봇 환경에서 데이터 시각화 인터랙션을 위한 자연어처리 모델)

  • Oh, Sang Heon;Hur, Su Jin;Kim, Sung-Hee
    • KIPS Transactions on Computer and Communication Systems
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    • v.9 no.11
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    • pp.281-290
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    • 2020
  • With the spread of smartphones, services that want to use personalized data are increasing. In particular, healthcare-related services deal with a variety of data, and data visualization techniques are used to effectively show this. As data visualization techniques are used, interactions in visualization are also naturally emphasized. In the PC environment, since the interaction for data visualization is performed with a mouse, various filtering for data is provided. On the other hand, in the case of interaction in a mobile environment, the screen size is small and it is difficult to recognize whether or not the interaction is possible, so that only limited visualization provided by the app can be provided through a button touch method. In order to overcome the limitation of interaction in such a mobile environment, we intend to enable data visualization interactions through conversations with chatbots so that users can check individual data through various visualizations. To do this, it is necessary to convert the user's query into a query and retrieve the result data through the converted query in the database that is storing data periodically. There are many studies currently being done to convert natural language into queries, but research on converting user queries into queries based on visualization has not been done yet. Therefore, in this paper, we will focus on query generation in a situation where a data visualization technique has been determined in advance. Supported interactions are filtering on task x-axis values and comparison between two groups. The test scenario utilized data on the number of steps, and filtering for the x-axis period was shown as a bar graph, and a comparison between the two groups was shown as a line graph. In order to develop a natural language processing model that can receive requested information through visualization, about 15,800 training data were collected through a survey of 1,000 people. As a result of algorithm development and performance evaluation, about 89% accuracy in classification model and 99% accuracy in query generation model was obtained.

Radioprotective Effects of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor in the Jejunal Mucosa of Mouse (생쥐에서 과립구 집락형성인자(Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor)의 공장점막에 대한 방사선 보호효과)

  • Ryu, Mi-Ryeong;Chung, Su-Mi;Kay, Chul-Seung;Kim, Yeon-Shil;Yoon, Sei-Chul
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Granulocyle-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been widely used to treat neutropenia caused by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The efficacy of recombinant human hematopoietic growth factors in improving oral mucositis after chemotherapy or radiotherapy has been recently demonstrated in some clinical studies. This study was designed to determine whether G-CSF can modify the radiation injury of the intestinal mucosa in mice. Materials and Methods : One hundred and five BALB/c mice weighing 20 grams were divided into nine subgroups including G-CSF alone group $(I:10\;{\mu}g/kg\;or\;II:100\;{\mu}g/kg)$, radiation alone group (7.5 or 12 Gy on the whole body), combination group with G-CSF and radiation (G-CSF I or II plus 7.5 Gy, G-CSF I or II plus 12 Gy), and control group. Radiation was administered with a 6 MV linear accelerator (Mevatron Siemens) with a dose rate of 3 Gy/min on day 0. G-CSF was injected subcutaneously for 3 days, once a day, from day -2 to day 0. Each group was sacrificed on the day 1, day 3, and day 7. The mucosal changes of jejunum were evaluated microscopically by crypt count per circumference, villi length, and histologic damage grading. Results : In both G-CSF I and II groups, crypt counts, villi length, and histologic damage scores were not significantly different from those of the control one (p>0.05). The 7.5 Gy and 12 Gy radiation alone groups showed significantly lower crypt counts and higher histologic damage scores compared with those of control one (p<0.05). The groups exposed to 7.5 Gy radiation plus G-CSF I or II showed significantly higher crypt counts and lower histologic damage scores on the day 3, and lower histologic damage scores on the day 7 compared with those of the 7.5 Gy radiation alone one (p<0.05). The 12 Gy radiation plus G-CSF I or II group did not show significant difference in crypt counts and histologic damage scores compared with those of the 12 Gy radiation alone one (p>0,05). Most of the mice in 12 Gy radiation with or without G-CSF group showed intestinal death within 5 days. Conclusion : These results suggest that G-CSF may protect the jejunal mucosa from the acute radiation damage following within the tolerable ranges of whole body irradiation in mice.

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TUMOR INHIBITORY EFFECT OF RED GINSENG IN MICE AND RATS EXPOSED TO VARIOUS CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS

  • Yun Taik Koo;Yun Yeon Sook;Han In Won
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.87-113
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    • 1980
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of Korean ginseng extract on carcinogenesis induced by various chemical carcinogens. Red ginseng extract was used for this study and was administered orally to the experimental animals. Carcinogens that were injected in subscapsular region of ICR newborn mice within 24 hours after birth were 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzan-thracene (DMBA), urethane, N-2-fluorenylacetamide(AAF), aflatoxin $B_1$ and tobacco smoke condensate. N -methyl-N -nitroso-N'-nitroguani-dine(MNNG) was injected subcutaneously at the back of wistar rats. Experimental animals were autopsied in immediately after being sacrificed. All major organs were examined grossly and weighted. After fixation histopathological preparations were made for microscopical study. Following results were obtained. In DMBA group sacrificed at the 26th week after the treatment with DMBA, the incidence of lung adenoma was $77\%$ and the average number of the tumor was 17. However, in DMBA combined with red ginseng group, the incidence was $78\%$ and the average number of lung adenoma was 14.1. This indicates that ginseng extract had no effect on the incidence of lung adenoma but decreased the average number of lung adenoma by $17\%.$ In DMBA group sacrificed at the 48th week after the injection of DMBA, the lung adenoma incidence was $88\%.$ The average diameter of the largest lung adenoma was 3.5 cm, the incidence of diffuse pulmonary infiltration was $18\%$ and the average lung weight of male experimental mice was $528.2{\pm}469.1\;gm.$ On the other hand, in DMBA combined with red ginseng group sacrificed at the 48th week, the incidence of lung adenoma was $96\%.$ The average diameter of the largest adenoma was 2.7 cm, the incidence of diffuse pulmonary infiltration was $7\%$ and the average lung weight of male mice was $418.0{\pm}520\;gm.$ These observations show that ginseng extract did not have any inhibitory effect on the incidence of lung adenoma but decreased the average diameter of the largest lung adenoma by $23\%,$ the incidence of duffuse pulmonary infiltration by $63\%$ and the average lung weight of male experimental mice by $21\%.$ From these results we have found that the prolonged administration with ginseng extract showed no inhibitory effect on the incidence of adenoma but it had the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung adenomas induced by DMBA. In urethane group sacrificed at the 28th week after the injection of urethane, the incidence of lung adenoma was $94\%$ and the average number of lung adenoma was 8.6. In urethane combined with red ginseng group, the. incidence of lung adenoma was $73\%$ and the average number of adenoma was 6.0. These results indicate that there were $22\%$ decrease of the lung adenoma incidence and $31\%$ decrease of the average number of adenoma in urethane combined with red ginseng group. And in urethane group sacrificed at the 50th week, the incidence of lung adenoma was $98\%$ and the incidence of diffuse pulmonary infiltration was $14\%$. In urethane combined with ginseng group the incidence of lung adenoma was $85\%$ and the incidence of diffuse pulmonary infiltration was $12\%$. Therefore the ginseng administration resulted in $15\%$ decrease of the lung adenoma incidence and $14\%$ decrease of the diffuse pulmonary infiltration incidence. From these results we knew that the prolonged administration with ginseng extract inhibited the incidence and also the proliferation of the lung adenoma induced by urethane. Lung adenoma and hepatoma were induced in the experimental mice sacrificed at the 68th week but not in the experimental mice sacrificed at the 28th week after the injection of AAF. In AAF group sacrificed at the 68th week after the injection of AAF the incidence of lung adenoma was $18\%$ and the incidence of hepatoma was $27\%$. And in AAF combined with ginseng group the lung adenoma incidence was $12\%$ and the hepatoma incidence was $37\%$. So the ginseng seemed to decrease the lung adenoma incidence by AAF, but we were unable to conclude the significant inhibitory effect of the ginseng extract on the incidence of lung adenoma by AAF because the above incidence of lung adenoma were similar to that of control group which was $11\%$. And these experimental data revealed that ginseng extract didn't have any inhibitory effect on the incidence of hepatoma induced by AAF. In aflatoxin $B_1$ group sacrificed at the 56th week, the incidence of lung adenoma was $24\%$ and hepatoma was $11\%$. However in aflatoxin $B_1$ combined with ginseng group the incidence of lung adenoma was $17\%$ and hepatoma was $3\%$ These results indicate that there were $29\%$ decrease of the lung adenoma incidence and $75\%$ decrease of the hepatoma incidence in aflatoxin $B_1$ combined with ginseng group. In tobacco smoke condensate experimental group sacrificed at 67th week, no tumors were induced except just a few lung adenoma. The lung adenoma incidence both in tobacco smoke condensate group and in tobacco smoke condensate combined with ginseng group was $8\%$. And this incidence rate was similar to that of control group. These results indicate that the injection of 320 ug tobacco smoke condensate per ICR newborn mouse was unable to induce lung adenoma in our experiments. In MNNG group sacrificed at the 27th week the tumor incidence was $38.5\%$ and in MNNG combined with ginseng extract group was $37\%$. In MNNG group for investigation of the life span of tumor bearing rats the tumor incidence was $93\%$ and the average life span of tumor bearing rats was 318 days. And in MNNG combined with ginseng extract group the tumor incidence was $96\%$ and the average life span was 337 days. Tumor induced by MNNG was almost sarcoma. This indicates that there was no inhibitory effect of ginseng extract on the tumor incidence, but the extract prolonged the average life span of tumor bearing rats by approximately 19 days.

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Effects of Dioxin on the Body Weight, No. of Sperm, Motility, Testis and Organ Weight in Mice (Dioxin의 투여가 마우스의 체중, 정자수, 정자활력, 정소 및 장기중량에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 김상근;김민수;왕애국;남윤이;현병화
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.231-239
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    • 2000
  • In this study, we observed the effects of dioxin on weights of body, testes and other organs, the number and motility of sperm in the a various dose after two days' of administration in mice. Animals were treated with oral dose of dioxin 10, 20, 30, 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively. 1, After administration dioxin at doses of 10, 20, 30 and 40 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg to the mice, the changes in body weights were 30.6 $\pm$ 2.g~40.7 $\pm$ 3.9g and 30.8 $\pm$4.1g~39.5g $\pm$3.1 for 10 and 20 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg dosed group, 31.0 $\pm$ 3.5g ~ 39.0 $\pm$ 3.5g, 30.6 $\pm$ 3.4g~38.3 $\pm$ 4.0g for 30 and 40 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg dosed group. The body weight of dioxin-administered group showed lower value when compared to 30.6 $\pm$ 2.8g ~ 44.5 $\pm$ 3.1g of which is control group's. 2. After administration of dioxin at doses of 10, 20, 30 and 40 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg to the mice, the increase in the number of WBC was prominent, but the increase in the number of RBC wasn't significant, though the values of Hb, PCV, and PLT were higher than those of control group's. 3. After administration of dioxin at doses of 10. 20, 30 and 40 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg to the mice, the changes in sperm number were 112.5 $\pm$ 3.7~119.4 $\pm$4.2 $\times$ 10$^{6}$ $m\ell$, 103.9 $\pm$3.8 ~ 110.2 $\pm$ 3.6 $\times$ 10$^{6}$ $m\ell$, 97.5 $\pm$ 3.4 ~105.7 $\pm$ 4.4 $\times$ 10$^{6}$ $m\ell$, 87.2 $\pm$ 3.7~98.5 $\pm$ 3.8 $\times$ 10$^{6}$ $m\ell$, respectively. The sperm number of dioxin-administered group showed lower value than that of control group's, which was 119.0 $\pm$ 4.3 ~ 120.7 $\pm$ 4.8 $\times$ 10$^{6}$ $m\ell$. After administration of dioxin at doses of 10~40 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg to the mice, the sperm motility were 69.4$\pm$ 3.0 ~ 86.6 $\pm$4.7%. The sperm motility of dioxin-administered group showed lower value than that of control group's. 4. After administration of dioxin at doses of 10, 20, 30 and 40$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg to the mice, the organ weight of each dioxin-administered group's was decreased a little compared to that of control group's. 5. After administration of dioxin at doses of 10, 20, 30 and 40 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg to the mice, the weights of spleen, kidneys, and liver showed increase a little.

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Effect of cadmium on immune responses and enzyme activities of BALB/c mice 1. Cellular immune responses (카드뮴이 BALB/c 마우스의 면역반응 및 효소활성에 미치는 영향 1. 세포성 면역반응)

  • Yoon, Chang-yong;Kim, Tae-joong;Song, Hee-jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.543-552
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    • 1995
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the eftects of Cd administered ad libitum for 6 weeks on the cellular immune responses of Balb/c mice. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The mice fed 25, 50 and 100ppm Cd drank as much as control, but the mice fed 200ppm Cd drank significantly less water after Cd exposure than did control. Increasing rates of body weight of Cd-fed mice for 6 weeks were as this, control group 27.0%, Cd administered groups(25, 50, 100 and 200ppm) 28.54%, 28.31%, 20.49% and 18.04%, respectively. 2. Absolute spleen to body weight(mg/g) of control, 25, 50, 100 and 200ppm Cd administered groups were $4.34{\pm}0.23$, $4.20{\pm}0.54$, $4.80{\pm}0.87$, $4.25{\pm}0.32$ and $4.40{\pm}0.32$, respectively. Splenic cellularity(${\times}10^7$) of control was $24.29{\pm}5.98$ but increased to $27.72{\pm}5.48$, $32.96{\pm}8.44$, $28.32{\pm}8.76$ and $29.64{\pm}4.08$ in 25, 50, 100 and 200ppm Cd-fed groups, respectively. 3. Total $CD_4{^+}$ cells(${\times}10^7$) of control, 25, 50, 100 and 200ppm Cd-fed groups were $9.15{\pm}2.24$, $10.40{\pm}2.04$, $12.04{\pm}3.08$, $10.20{\pm}3.16$ and $10.80{\pm}1.48$, respectively and total $CD_8{^+}$ cells(${\times}10^7$) of these groups were $2.32{\pm}0.56$, $2.54{\pm}0.27$, $3.12{\pm}0.80$, $2.25{\pm}0.70$ and $2.24{\pm}0.28$, in order. On the other hand, $CD_4{^+}/CD_8{^+}$ ratios in total cells were increased significantly except for 50ppm Cd-fed group($3.88{\pm}0.01$). And that of control was $3.97{\pm}0.02$, but those of 25, 100 and 200ppm were $4.35{\pm}0.01$, $4.54{\pm}0.03$ and $4.81{\pm}0.03$. 4. Phagocytosis rates of peritoneal macrophages were increased significantly in 25 and 50ppm Cd groups($36.34{\pm}9.45$ and $37.15{\pm}9.22$, respectively), but 100 and 200ppm groups showed similar rates($18.20{\pm}3.04$ and $19.48{\pm}3.22$ respectively) to that of control($21.43{\pm}3.62$). 5. In mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, various concentraions of $CdCl_2(10^{-4}-10^{-7}M)$ were added to mitogen-stimulated culture in vitro. Splenocyte proliferation induced by LPS was decreased dose dependently, but proliferation by Con-A was increased slightly in concentrations of $10^{-7}-10^{-6}M$. 6. Significant cytotoxicity of splenocytes with $CdCl_2$ were shown at $10^{-4}M$ treated group, especially at 24 hrs. From these results, it could be concluded that Cd might modulate the immune responses by modifying a distribution of T cell subpopulations.

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Effects of Immunoactivity on Ascaris suum Infection in Mice (마우스에 있어서 멱역활성이 돼지회충의 감염에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Gu;Park, Bae-Geun;Seo, Yeong-Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.279-292
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    • 1991
  • The immune response to sheep red blood cell (sRBC) was monitored in the mice infected with Ascaris strum or Trichinella spiralis. The effects of the infection with T. spiralis or the injection with cyclophosphamide (CY) as an immunosuppression agent prior to challenge infection with the embryonated eggs of A. suum were monitored in mice by means of the level of infection with A. strum and cellular and humoral immune response to sRBC. following the oral administration of 1, 000 eggs of A. suum to mice, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and rosette-forming rate were gradually decreased and reached to the lowest levels at the 5th week and 6th week postinfection, respectively, and then returned to normal at the loth week. The hemagglutinin (HA) and hemolysin (HE) titers were gradually elevated and reached to peak at the 3rd week postinfection, and then returned to normal level. The appearance ratios of the eosinophils and mast cells were in peak at the 4th week and the 2nd week postinfection, respectively. Meanwhile the harvest ratio of A. suum larvae from the liver and lungs was 21.97% at the 1st week postinfection. Following the oral administration of 300 T. spiralis infective larvae, DTH and rosette-forming rate were gradually decreased with the lapse of time and reached the lowest values in the 30th and 21st day of postinfection, and then slightly increased and transiently decreased in the 70th and 80th day of postinfection, respectively. HA and HE titers were the lowest in the 21st and 90th day, whereas the ratios of eosinophils and mast cells were the highest on the 40th and 14th day posti nfecti on, ruts petit i vela. Following the intraperitoneal injection of CY, the body weight, the spleen weight, DTH, rosette-orming ratio, HA and HE titers, the number of WBC and the ratio of the mast cell were predominantly decreased in the 5th day, and then returned to the same value of the 1st day postinjection. The ratio of eosinophils was gradually decreased following to advance of days. At the 1st, 5th and loth days after intraperitoneal injection of CY of 400 mg/kg, a dose with 1, 000 eggs of A. suum was administered orally to mice, and harvest rate of the larvae at the 7th day postadministration was 7.07% in the 1st day, 14.94% in the 5th day, 10.1% in the loth day, 8.02% in control group. The effect of prior infection with infective larvae of T. spiralis upon immunological sequelae of a challenge infection of mice with embryonated eggs of A. suum in 30 or 70 days interval was checked. On the 37th day of prior infection with T. spiralis, that was the 7th day with A. suum postinfection, DTH and rosette-forming rate were drastically decreased, but the ratio of mast cells was highly increased and the ratio of eosinophils, HA and HE titers were fairly increased. On the other hand, the rate of larvae harvest was 9.3% in experimental group in contrast with 22.18% in control group. Meanwhile the effect of immune response to sRBC was similar to that of the former, but DTH and rosettt-forming rate were greatly decreased in the 77th day after prior infection with the 7th day after challenge infection in compariton with control. At that time, Ascaris larvae were harvested 8.3% in experimental group in comparison with 10.5% in control group.

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The Ability of Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha(TNF-${\alpha}$) Antibodies Produced in Sheep Colostrums

  • Yun, Sung-Seob
    • 한국유가공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2007
  • Inflammatory process leads to the well-known mucosal damage and therefore a further disturbance of the epithelial barrier function, resulting abnormal intestinal wall function, even further accelerating the inflammatory process[1]. Despite of the records, etiology and pathogenesis of IBD remain rather unclear. There are many studies over the past couple of years have led to great advanced in understanding the inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and their underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. From the current understanding, it is likely that chronic inflammation in IBD is due to aggressive cellular immune responses including increased serum concentrations of different cytokines. Therefore, targeted molecules can be specifically eliminated in their expression directly on the transcriptional level. Interesting therapeutic trials are expected against adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-${\alpha}$. The future development of immune therapies in IBD therefore holds great promises for better treatment modalities of IBD but will also open important new insights into a further understanding of inflammation pathophysiology. Treatment of cytokine inhibitors such as Immunex(Enbrel) and J&J/Centocor(Remicade) which are mouse-derived monoclonal antibodies have been shown in several studies to modulate the symptoms of patients, however, theses TNF inhibitors also have an adverse effect immune-related problems and also are costly and must be administered by injection. Because of the eventual development of unwanted side effects, these two products are used in only a select patient population. The present study was performed to elucidate the ability of TNF-${\alpha}$ antibodies produced in sheep colostrums to neutralize TNF-${\alpha}$ action in a cell-based bioassay and in a small animal model of intestinal inflammation. In vitro study, inhibitory effect of anti-TNF-${\alpha}$ antibody from the sheep was determined by cell bioassay. The antibody from the sheep at 1 in 10,000 dilution was able to completely inhibit TNF-${\alpha}$ activity in the cell bioassay. The antibodies from the same sheep, but different milkings, exhibited some variability in inhibition of TNF-${\alpha}$ activity, but were all greater than the control sample. In vivo study, the degree of inflammation was severe to experiment, despite of the initial pilot trial, main trial 1 was unable to figure out of any effect of antibody to reduce the impact of PAF and LPS. Main rat trial 2 resulted no significant symptoms like characteristic acute diarrhea and weight loss of colitis. This study suggested that colostrums from sheep immunized against TNF-${\alpha}$ significantly inhibited TNF-${\alpha}$ bioactivity in the cell based assay. And the higher than anticipated variability in the two animal models precluded assessment of the ability of antibody to prevent TNF-${\alpha}$ induced intestinal damage in the intact animal. Further study will require to find out an alternative animal model, which is more acceptable to test anti-TNF-${\alpha}$ IgA therapy for reducing the impact of inflammation on gut dysfunction. And subsequent pre-clinical and clinical testing also need generation of more antibody as current supplies are low.

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A Study on the Effect of Herbal-acupuncture with Asari Herba Cum Radice solution at Joksamni(ST36) on Collagen-induced arthritis (족삼리(足三里) 세신약침(細辛藥鍼)이 생쥐의 Collagen-induced arthritis에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Kyu-jeong;Kim, Young-il;Lee, Byung-ryul
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.227-241
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    • 2005
  • Objective & Methods : The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of Asari Herba Cum Radice herbal-acupuncture solution(AHCR-HAS) on arthritis of mice induced by Collagen II at Joksamni(ST36). The author performed several experimental items. First, it is the cell survival rate of mice lung fibroblasts and expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ in synovial cells. Second, it is the incidence rate of arthritis and the weight of spleen. Third, it is the levels of IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, INF-${\gamma}$, IgG, IgM and anti-collagen II in serum Fourth, it is histological analysis of the mice joint. Fifth, it is expression ratio of CD3e+ to CDl9+ cell, CD4+ to CD8+ cell, CD69+/CD3e+ cells, CD11+/CD19+ cells and CD11b+/Gr-1+ cells. Result : 1. The highest survival rate of mice lung fibroblasts were measured in the 1% AHCR-HAS, and the expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ in synovial cells were significantly decreased in the 1% AHCR-HAS. 2. In the AHCR-HA I & AHCR-HAII groups, the incidence of arthritis and the weight of spleen were significantly decreased. 3. In AHCR-HAI & AHCR-HAII groups, the levels of IL-6, INF-${\gamma}$, TNF-${\alpha}$, IgG, IgM and anti-collagen II in serum of CIA mice were significantly decreased. 4. In histology, the cartilage destruction and synovial cell proliferation were decreased in the AHCR-HA I & AHCR-HAII groups, and the collagen fiber expressions in the AHCR-HA I & AHCR-HAII groups were similar with that of the Normal group. 5. In the AHCR-HA I & AHCR-HA II groups, the expression ratio of CD3e+ to CD19+ cell and CD4+ to CD8+ cell were similarly maintained as Normal group in lymph nodes, and CD69+/CD3e+ cells and CD11a+/CD19+ cells were decreased in Iymph nodes, and CD11b+/Gr-1+ cells were decreased in synovium. Conclusion : Taking all these observations into account, AHCR-HA is considered to be effective in prophylaxis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and then more effective in prophylaxis than treatment, so put to practical use in future rheumatoid arthritis clinic.

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The Effect of Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor on Cisplatin and Radiotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis in Mice (마우스에서 Cisplatin과 방사선조사로 유발된 구내염에 대한 재조합 표피성장인자의 효과)

  • Na, Jae-Boem;Kim, Hye-Jung;Chai, Gyu-Young;Lee, Sang-Wook;Lee, Kang-Kyoo;Chang, Ki-Churl;Choi, Byung-Ock;Jang, Hong-Seok;Jeong, Bea-Keon;Kang, Ki-Mun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.242-248
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: To study the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on oral mucositis induced by cisplatin and radiotherapy in a mouse model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four ICR mice were divided into three groups-the normal control group, the no rhEGF group (treatment with cisplatin and radiation) and the rhEGF group (treatment with cisplatin, radiation and rhEGF). A model of mucositis induced by cisplatin and radiotherapy was established by injecting mice with cisplatin (10 mg/kg) on day 1 and with radiation exposure (5 Gy/day) to the head and neck on days $1{\sim}5$. rhEGF was administered subcutaneously on days -1 to 0 (1 mg/kg/day) and on days 3 to 5 (1 mg/kg/day). Evaluation included body weight, oral intake, and histology. Results: For the comparison of the change of body weight between the rhEGF group and the no rhEGF group, a statistically significant difference was observed in the rhEGF group for the 5 days after day 3 of. the experiment. The rhEGF group and no rhEGF group had reduced food intake until day 5 of the experiment, and then the mice demonstrated increased food intake after day 13 of the of experiment. When the histological examination was conducted on day 7 after treatment with cisplatin and radiation, the rhEGF group showed a focal cellular reaction in the epidermal layer of the mucosa, while the no rhEGF group did not show inflammation of the oral mucosa. Conclusion: These findings suggest that rhEGF has a potential to reduce the oral mucositis burden in mice after treatment with cisplatin and radiation. The optimal dose, number and timing of the administration of rhEGF require further investigation.

Standard Chemotherapy with Excluding Isoniazid in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis (마우스 결핵 모델에서 Isoniazid를 제외한 표준치료의 예비 연구)

  • Shim, Tae Sun;Lee, Eun Gae;Choi, Chang Min;Hong, Sang-Bum;Oh, Yeon-Mok;Lim, Chae-Man;Lee, Sang Do;Koh, Younsuck;Kim, Woo Sung;Kim, Dong Soon;Cho, Sang-Nae;Kim, Won Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.65 no.3
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    • pp.177-182
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    • 2008
  • Background: Isoniazid (INH, H) is a key drug of the standard first-line regimen for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB), yet some reports have suggested that treatment efficacy was maintained even though INH was omitted from the treatment regimen. Methods: One hundred forty C57BL/6 mice were infected with the H37Rv strain of M. tuberculosis with using a Glas-Col aerosol generation device, and this resulted in depositing about 100 bacilli in the lung. Four weeks after infection, anti-TB treatment was initiated with varying regimens for 4-8 weeks; Group 1: no treatment (control), Group 2 (4HREZ): 4 weeks of INH, rifampicin (R), pyrazinamide (Z) and ethambutol (E), Group 3: 1HREZ/3REZ, Group 4: 4REZ, Group 5: 4HREZ/4HRE, Group 6: 1HREZ/3REZ/4RE, and Group 7: 4REZ/4RE. The lungs and spleens were harvested at several time points until 28 weeks after infection, and the colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were determined. Results: The CFU counts increased steadily after infection in the control group. In the 4-week treatment groups (Group 2-4), even though the culture was negative at treatment completion, the bacilli grew again at the 12-week and 20-week time points after completion of treatment. In the 8-week treatment groups (Groups 5-7), the bacilli did not grow in the lung at 4 weeks after treatment initiation and thereafter. In the spleens of Group 7 in which INH was omitted from the treatment regimen, the culture was negative at 4-weeks after treatment initiation and thereafter. However, in Groups 5 and 6 in which INH was taken continuously or intermittently, the bacilli grew in the spleen at some time points after completion of treatment. Conclusion: TThe exclusion of INH from the standard first-line regimen did not affect the treatment outcome in a murine model of TB in the early stage of disease. Further studies using a murine model of chronic TB are necessary to clarify the role of INH in the standard first-line regimen for treating TB.