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Determination of Free Amino Acids in Isatidis Radix By HILIC-UPLC-MS/MS

  • Pan, Yilin;Li, Jin;Li, Xiang;Chen, Jianwei;Bai, Ganggang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.197-203
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    • 2014
  • A rapid, accurate and precise method for the determination of 22 amino acids in Isatidis Radix by Hydrophilic Interaction Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (HILIC-UPLC-MS/MS) was established. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Acquity UPLC BEH Amide column ($2.1mm{\times}100mm$, $1.7{\mu}m$) with gradient elution of acetonitrile (containing 0.05% formic acid and 2 mM ammonium formate) and water (containing 0.15% formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min; Waters Xevo$^{TM}$ TQ worked in multiple reaction monitoring mode. All components were separated in 17 min. All calibration curves were linear ($R^2$ > 0.991) over the tested ranges. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for these compounds were 0.21-79.55 and 0.72-294.23 ng/mL, respectively. The average recoveries were in the range of 93.75-104.16% with RSD value less than 6.56%. Therefore, this method could be an alternative assay for the determination of 22 amino acids in Isatidis Radix due to its rapidness, sensitivity, less sample and solvent consumption.

Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Montelukast in Healthy Korean Volunteers by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

  • Jo, Min-Ho;Park, Mi-Sun;Seo, Ji-Hyung;Shim, Wang-Seob;Yim, Sung-Vin;Lee, Kyung-Tae
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.289-294
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    • 2011
  • A rapid and specific high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass (LC/MS/MS) method for the analysis of montelukast in human plasma has been developed and validated. After cold acetonitrile-induced precipitation of the plasma samples, montelukast and glipizide (internal standard, IS) were eluted on a reverse-phase $C_{18}$ column by isocratic mobile phase consisted of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer (adjusted to pH 3.5 with formic acid) and acetonitrile (3:97, v/v). Acquisition was performed with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by monitoring the transitions: m/z 587.2${\rightarrow}$ 423.2 for montelukast and m/z 446.0${\rightarrow}$321.2 for IS. Ranges of concentration for calibration curves (10-1000 ng/mL) showed correlation coefficients ($r^2$) were better than 0.9948. Precision of intra- and inter-day ranged from 3.70 to 11.68% and from 3.04 to 12.95%, accuracy of intra-day and inter-day ranged from 93.34 to 102.75% and from 100.79 to 107.63%, respectively. The described method provides a fast and sensitive analytical tool for determining montelukast levels in plasma, and was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in 16 healthy human subjects after oral administration of 10mg tablet formulation of montelukast sodium under fasting conditions.

A case study of damage detection in four-bays steel structures using the HHT approach

  • Hsu, Wen-Ko;Chiou, Dung-Jiang;Chen, Cheng-Wu;Liu, Ming-Yi;Chiang, Wei-Ling;Huang, Pei-Chiung
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.595-615
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    • 2014
  • This study aims to investigate the relationship between structural damage and sensitivity indices using the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method. Two damage detection indices are proposed: the ratio of bandwidth (RB), and the ratio of effective stiffness (RES). The nonlinear four bays multiple degree of freedom models with various predominant frequencies are constructed using the SAP2000 program. Adjusted PGA earthquake data (Japan 311, Chi-Chi 921) are used as the excitations. Next the damage detection indices obtained using the HHT and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods are evaluated based on the acceleration responses of the structures to earthquakes. Simulation results indicate that, the column of the 1 st floor is the first yielding position and the RB value is changed when the RES<90% in all cases. Moreover, the RB value of the 1 st floor changes more sensitive than those from the top floor. In addition, when the structural response is nonlinear (i.e., RES<100%), the RB and the RES curves indicate the incremental change in the HHT spectra. However, the same phenomenon can be found from FFT spectra only when the stiffness reduction is large enough. Therefore, the RB estimated from the smoothed HHT spectra is an effective and sensitive index for detecting structural damage.

Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Vancomycin in Human Plasma and Urine Using LC-MS/MS (LC - MS/MS를 이용한 혈장과 뇨중에서 Vancomycin의 빠른정량분석)

  • Kim, Hohyun;Roh, Hyeongjin;Han, Sang-Beom
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.410-416
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    • 2002
  • In this study, a new quantitative analytical method has been developed for the rapid determination of vancomycin in human plasma and urine using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC - MS/MS). Chromatography was carried out on a $C_{18}$ XTerra MS column ($2.1{\times}30mm$) with a particle size of $3.5{\mu}m$. The mobile phase was 0.25% formic acid in 10% acetonitrile and the flow rate was $250{\mu}L/min$. Vancomycin and caffeine (internal standard) were detected by MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Vancomycin gives a predominant doubly protonated precursor molecule ($[M+2H]^{2+}$) at m/z 725.0 and a corresponding product ion of m/z 100.0. Detection of vancomycin was good, accurate and precise, with a limit of detection of 1 nM in plasma. The calibration curves for vancomycin in human plasma was linear in a concentration range of $0.01{\mu}M$ - $100{\mu}M$ for plasma. This method has been successfully applied to determine the concentration of vancomycin in human plasma and urine from pharmacokinetic study and relative studies.

Simultaneous Determination of Five Porphyrins in Human Urine and Plasma Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

  • Hur, Yeoun;Tae, Sookil;Koh, Yun-Joo;Hong, Sung-Hyun;Yoon, Young Ho;Jang, Haejong;Kim, Sooji;Kim, Kyeong Ho;Kang, Seung Woo;Lee, Youngshin;Han, Sang Beom
    • Mass Spectrometry Letters
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 2014
  • A specific and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of porphyrins (coproporphyrin, pentacarboxylporphyrin, hexacarboxylporphyrin, heptacarboxylporphyrin, and uroporphyrin) in human plasma and urine. Acidified plasma samples and urine samples were prepared by using liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and protein precipitation with acetonitrile, respectively. The separation was achieved onto a Synergi Fusion RP column ($150mm{\times}2.0mm$, $4{\mu}m$) with a gradient elution of mobile phase A (0.1% formic acid in 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate, v/v) and mobile phase B (20% methanol in acetonitrile, v/v) at a flow rate of $450{\mu}L$/min. Porphyrins and the internal standard (IS), coproporphyrin I-$^{15}N_4$, were detected by a tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source operating in positive ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of the protonated precursor ions and the related product ions were optimized to increase selectivity and sensitivity. The proposed method was validated by assessing selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, recovery, and stability. The calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.1-100 nmol/L and the LOQs were estimated as 0.1 nmol/L for all porphyrins. Results obtained from the validation study of porphyrins showed good accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to clinical studies on the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis of 203 Korean children.

Development of an UPLC-DAD Method for Simultaneous Analysis of Eight Marker Compounds of Bulhwangeumjeonggi-san (UPLC-DAD를 이용한 불환금정기산의 다성분 동시분석법 개발)

  • Lee, Kyung-hee;Lamichhane, Ramakanta;Kumar, Sharma Dipak;Raj, Pandeya Prakash;Kim, Se-Gun;Jung, Hyun-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.366-373
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    • 2016
  • Bulhwangeumjeonggisan (BHGJGS) is a traditional herbal formulation generally used in the treatment of cold and gastritis. BHGJGS consists of eight herbal plants; Atractylodis Rhizoma, Magnoliae Cortex, Citri Pericarpium, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Agastachis Herba, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma and Zizyphi Fructus. Complete standardization of this formulation has not been done yet. So, a simple and accurate method was developed and validated using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) with Diode Array Detector (DAD) for the standardization of BHGJGS. UPLC conditions were optimized using a c18 RP-Amide column with mobile phase; 0.1% phosphate buffer and acetonitrile, detection wavelength; 210 and 325 nm. The linearities of calibration curves were acceptable ($R^2$>0.9994), and the limit of detection and quantification were within the ranges of 0.011-0.091 and $0.034-0.277{\mu}g/ml$ respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra- and inter-day precisions were under 3.61%. The RSD of repeatability was under 0.68 %. The results of recovery test were 94.4-107.9%, and the RSD were under 4.6%. The developed method was used to find the contents of standard constituents in BHGJGS mix extract powder, and two commercial formulation (A and B). The data show that the developed method was specific, sensitive, accurate, and precise for analysis of BHGJGS components.

Method Development for the Profiling Analysis of Urine Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) for the Screening of Fabry Disease by Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS를 이용한 소변 중 Globotriaosylceramide(Gb3)의 정량 및 임상 응용; 패브리병(Fabry) 진단)

  • Yoon, Hye-Ran;Cho, Kyung-Hee;Kang, Seung-Woo;Kwon, Young-Joo;Jeong, Choon-Sik;Lee, Yong-Soo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.96-102
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    • 2007
  • Measurement of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3, ceramide trihexoside) in urine has clinical importance for monitoring after enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease patients. The disease is an X-linked lipid storage disorder that results from a deficiency of the enzyme ${\alpha}$-galactosidase A (${\alpha}$-Gal A). The lack of ${\alpha}$-Gal A causes an intracellular accumulation of glycosphingolipids, mainly Gb3. A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive analytical method for Gb3 in urine was developed without labor-extensive pre-treatment by electrospray ionization MS/MS (ESI-MS/MS). Only simple 5-fold dilution of urine is necessary for the extraction and isolation of Gb3 in urine. Gb3 in diluted urine was dissolved in dioxane containing C17:0 Gb3 as an internal standard. After centrifugation it was directly injected and analyzed through guard column by in combination with multiple reaction monitoring mode of ESI-MS/MS. Eight isoforms of Gb3 were completely resolved from urine matrix. C24:0 Gb3 occupied 50% of total Gb3 as a major component in urine. Linear relationship for Gb3 isoforms was found in the range of 0.005${\sim}$5.0 ${\mu}$g/ml. The limit of detection (S/N=5) was 0.005 ${\mu}$g/ml and limit of quantification was 0.05 ${\mu}$g/ml for C24:0 Gb3 with acceptable precision and accuracy. Correlation coefficient of calibration curves for 8 Gb3 isoforms ranged from 0.9598 to 0.9975. This method could be useful for rapid and sensitive 1st line Fabry disease screening, monitoring and/or diagnostic tool for Fabry disease.

Bioequivalence Study of Toriem® Tablet to Motilium-M® Tablet (Domperidone Maleate 12.72 mg) Evaluated by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

  • Ryu, Ju-Hee;Choi, Sang-Jun;Lee, Myung-Jae;Lee, Jin-Sung;Kang, Jong-Min;Tak, Sung-Kwon;Seo, Ji-Hyung;Lee, Kyung-Tae
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2009
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two domperidone maleate tablets, Motilium-$M^{(R)}$ Tablet (Janssen Korea Ltd., reference product) and $Toriem^{(R)}$ Tablet (Daewon Pharm. Co., Ltd., test product). Domperidone was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using tert-butyl methyl ether and separated in less than 3 min on $C_{18}$ reverse-phase column using an isocratic elution. A tandem mass spectrometer, as detector, was used for quantitative analysis in positive mode by a multiple reaction monitoring mode to monitor the m/z $426.1{\rightarrow}119.1$ and the m/z $837.4{\rightarrow}158.2$ transitions for domperidone and the internal standard (roxithromycin), respectively. Calibration curves, from $0.05{\sim}50$ ng/mL of domperidone, showed correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9941. Intra day and inter day precision (C.V. %) for quality control were ranged from 10.04 to 16.09% and from 10.87 to 18.69%, respectively. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of domperidone was 0.05 ng/mL. The method described is precise and sensitive and has been successfully applied to the study of bioequivalence of domperidone in 24 healthy Korean volunteers. Twenty-four healthy male Korean volunteers received a single dose of each medicine ($2{\times}12.72\;mg$ domperidone maleate) in a $2{\times}2$ crossover study. There was a one-week washout period between the doses. Plasma concentrations of domperidone were monitored for over a period of 24 hr after the administration. $AUC_{0-t}$ (the area under the plasma concentration-time curve) was calculated by the linear trapezoidal rule. $C_{max}$ (maximum plasma drug concentration) and $T_{max}$ (time to reach $C_{max}$) were compiled from the plasma concentration-time data. The 90% confidence intervals for the log transformed data were within acceptable range of log 0.8 to log 1.25 (e.g., $log\;0.92{\sim}log\;1.05$ for $AUC_{0-t}$, $log\;0.81{\sim}log\;1.05$ for $C_{max}$). The major parameters, $AUC_{0-t}$ and $C_{max}$ met the criteria of KFDA for bioequivalence indicating that $Toriem^{(R)}$ tablet is bioequivalent to Motilium-$M^{(R)}$ tablet.

Determination of plasma C16-C24 globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) isoforms by tandem mass spectrometry for diagnosis of Fabry disease (패브리병(Fabry) 진단을 위한 혈장 중 Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3)의 탠덤매스 분석법 개발과 임상 응용)

  • Yoon, Hye-Ran;Cho, Kyung-Hee;Yoo, Han-Wook;Choi, Jin-Ho;Lee, Dong-Hwan;Zhang, Kate;Keutzer, Joan
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive analytical method for Gb3 in plasma was developed without labor-ex tensive pre-treatment by electrospray ionization MS/ MS (ESI-MS/MS). Measurement of globotriaosy lceramide (Gb3, ceramide trihex oside) in plasma has clinical importance for monitoring after enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease patients. The disease is an X-linked lipid storage disorder that results from a deficiency of the enzyme ${\alpha}$-galactosidase A (${\alpha}$-Gal A). The lack of ${\alpha}$-Gal A causes an intracellular accumulation of glycosphingolipids, mainly Gb3. Methods : Only simple 50-fold dilution of plasma is necessary for the extraction and isolation of Gb3 in plasma. Gb3 in diluted plasma was dissolved in dioxane containing C17:0 Gb3 as an internal standard. After centrifugation it was directly injected and analyzed through guard column by in combination with multiple reaction monitoring mode of ESI-MS/MS. Results : Eight isoforms of Gb3 were completely resolved from plasma matrix. C16:0 Gb3 occupied 50% of total Gb3 as a major component in plasma. Linear relationship for Gb3 isoforms w as found in the range of 0.001-1.0 ${\mu}g$/mL. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 0.001 ${\mu}g$/mL and limit of quantification was 0.01 ${\mu}g$/mL for C16:0 Gb3 with acceptable precision and accuracy. Correlation coefficient of calibration curves for 8 Gb3 isoforms ranged from 0.9678 to 0.9982. Conclusion : This quantitative method developed could be useful for rapid and sensitive 1st line Fabry disease screening, monitoring and/or diagnostic tool for Fabry disease.

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